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Sit-to-Stand in People with Stroke: Effect of Lower Limb Constraint-Induced Movement Strategies
Charla Krystine Gray,Elsie Culham
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/683681
Abstract: Background. Weight-bearing asymmetry and impaired balance may contribute to the increased fall risk in people with stroke when rising to stand from sitting. Objective. This study investigated the effect of constraint-induced movement (CIM) strategies on weight-bearing symmetry and balance during sit-to-stand in people with stroke. Methods. A nonrandom convenience sample of fifteen people with stroke performed the sit-to-stand task using three CIM strategies including a solid or compliant (foam) block strategy, with the unaffected limb placed on the block, and an asymmetrical foot position strategy, with the unaffected limb placed ahead of the affected limb. Duration of the task, affected limb weight-bearing, and centre of pressure and centre of mass displacement were measured in the frontal and sagittal plane. Results. Affected limb weight-bearing was increased and frontal plane centre of pressure and centre of mass moved toward the affected limb compared to baseline with all CIM strategies. Centre of mass displacement in the sagittal plane was greater with the compliant block and asymmetrical foot strategies. Conclusions. The CIM strategies demonstrated greater loading of the affected limb and movement of the centre of pressure and centre of mass toward the affected limb. The compliant block and asymmetrical foot conditions may challenge sagittal plane balance during sit-to-stand in people with stroke. 1. Introduction People with stroke have a higher risk of falling compared with their age matched peers [1–4] with many falls occurring during transition movements including rising to stand from sitting [1, 5, 6]. STS in people with stroke is characterized by greater loading on the unaffected limb [6–10] and larger frontal plane centre of pressure (COP) displacement compared with age matched healthy adults [8, 10, 11]. Previous authors have equated larger total COP displacement with balance impairment [8, 10, 11]. Weight-bearing asymmetry and impaired balance may contribute to the increased fall risk in people with stroke [8]. Consequently, improved weight-bearing symmetry and balance during STS are goals of rehabilitation in this population. Constraint-induced movement (CIM) therapy is a treatment strategy designed to increase affected limb weight-bearing during STS in people with stroke. Three CIM strategies for the lower limb include placement of the unaffected limb ahead of the affected limb [7, 9, 12–16] and placement of the unaffected limb on a solid [14] or compliant (foam) [7] block during STS practice. The CIM strategies are designed to increase
Análise biomecanica das articula??es do quadril e joelho durante a marcha em participantes idosos
Kirkwood, Renata Noce;Gomes, Henrique de Alencar;Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira;Culham, Elsie;Costigan, Patrick;
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-78522007000500007
Abstract: the objective of this study was to quantify the range of motion, force momentum, power and the mechanical work performed by hip and knee joints during gait in a group of subjects aged between 55 and 75 years. as a common activity of daily life, walking is often prescribed as a therapeutic exercise in elderly adults' rehabilitation. kinematic and kinetic analyses during gait were obtained from optical tracking, force plate, standardized x-ray imaging and anthropometric data. the total effort generated by the hip joint during gait was greater than the one of the knee joint. the hip joint generated a total effort of 0.40j/kg, with 22% on the frontal plane, 76% on sagittal plane, and 2% on transverse plane. the total effort generated at the knee joint during gait was 0,30j/kg, with 7% occurring on frontal plane, 90% on sagittal plane, and 3% on transverse plane. the biomechanical analysis of the joints during different activities would help clinicians to identify and understand important variables required for improving the performance and deficits of elderly individuals.
A phyloclimatic study of Cyclamen
Chris Yesson, Alastair Culham
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-6-72
Abstract: We demonstrate phylogenetic structure for some climatic characteristics, and show that most Cyclamen have distinct climatic niches, with the exception of several wide-ranging, geographically expansive, species. We reconstruct climate preferences for hypothetical ancestral Cyclamen. The ancestral Cyclamen lineage has a preference for the seasonal Mediterranean climate characteristic of dry summers and wet winters.Future bioclimatic niches, based on BIOCLIM and Maxent models, are examined with reference to a future climate scenario for the 2050s. Over the next 50 years we predict a northward shift in the area of climatic suitability, with many areas of current distribution becoming climatically unsuitable. The area of climatic suitability for every Cyclamen species is predicted to decrease. For many species, there may be no areas with a suitable climate regardless of dispersal ability, these species are considered to be at high risk of extinction. This risk is examined from a phylogenetic perspective.Examining bioclimatic niches from a phylogenetic perspective permits novel interpretations of these models. In particular, reconstruction of ancestral niches can provide testable hypothesis about the historical development of lineages. In the future we can expect a northwards shift in climatic suitability for the genus Cyclamen. If this proves to be the case then dispersal is the best chance of survival, which seems highly unlikely for ant-dispersed Cyclamen. Human-assisted establishment of Cyclamen species well outside their native ranges offers hope and could provide the only means of dispersal to potentially suitable future environments. Even without human intervention the phylogenetic perspective demonstrates that major lineages could survive climate change even if many species are lost.The prospect of global climate change has directed interest towards investigating the impact of the environment on floral and faunal distribution, speciation and extinction [1,2]. One
Movimientos sociales emergentes y nuevas maneras de educar
Rockwell, Elsie;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302012000300003
Abstract: the aim of this article is to argue that recent social movements force us to take into account not only profound social inequalities, but also the social and cultural diversity produced by recent changes in the economy, as well as a by alternative ways of life and learning. since the historical making of the working class, a recurrent theme has been the hope to transform society through the education of a "new man". never the less, recent global capitalist economies have generated an ever more fragmented and dispossessed working class. in response, new social subjects have come into being, often taking up and transforming existing cultural resources and practices to strengthen social movements. i conclude that the acknowledgement of these social movements and formative processes have transformed enlightenment thought in education, and new ways of thinking about and acting within educational processes.
La lectura como práctica cultural: conceptos para el estudio de los libros escolares
Rockwell, Elsie;
Educa??o e Pesquisa , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-97022001000100002
Abstract: this article presents a perspective on the study of classroom reading practices based on the work of french social historian roger chartier. this scholar conceives the reading as a cultural practice that draws on shared artifacts, behaviors, attitudes and meanings. a basic tenet of his research is that "the acts of reading that give texts their plural and mobile meanings take place at the point of encounter between specific manners of reading and the reading protocols contained in the object that is read" (chartier 1993:80). his analysis centers on the material aspects of the book, and on reading practices, as well as on the text itself. this approach is illustrated with an analysis of a lesson in a mexican rural school. the teacher read a story from the textbook, closely following the implicit protocol. however, both the textbook layout and actual ways of reading influenced the outcome of the lesson. the article discusses the changing relationships to the written language that students construct through schooling. the history of literacy places a significant inflection between the intensive reading of single texts and the appearance extensive reading of multiple and changing texts, among them schoolbooks. however, chartier argues that the process of appropriation always transforms cultural practices and meanings in given contexts. attention to the everyday manners of reading in classrooms may reveal multiple appropriations of textbooks that lead to diverse relationships-some more inclusive, others rather exclusive.
Resistencia en el aula: entre el fracaso y la indignación
Rockwell, Elsie;
Educa??o em Revista , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-46982006000200002
Abstract: in this paper, i approach a conceptual dilemma involved in understanding student resistance in classrooms. i summarize some of the classic positions on resistance (willis, giroux), and recall the distinction between behaviors that contribute to "school failure" and those that express "moral indignation". i discuss classroom studies that attempt to explain moments of discontinuity in the flow of verbal interaction as evidence of student resistance. i then turn to the implications of the theories of basil bernstein and jürgen habermas to explain these processes. i suggest that not all expressions of resistance in the classroom should be seen as signs of incompetence, cultural difference, or self-condemning behavior. drawing on habermas' theory of communication, it is possible to understand many student's responses as a legitimate, albeit indirect, invocation of the validity claims of truth, correctness and sincerity.
The West, the Others and the Construction of a New Public Space
Elsie Rockwell
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 1998,
Abstract: Although the encounters among distinct groups may give rise to complex cultural situations, the contents of these are not always exclusively cultural. An example of this is the dialogue in Chiapas between the EZLN (“Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional”)and the delegation from the Mexican government that was, precisely, the same group that had proposed dialogues with “culturalistic” interpretations and solutions, without offering real respect for the differing indigenous elements in Chiapas. In this case, it was the representatives of the indigenous tribes themselves who proposed an open and modern political discussion that transcended the boundaries of the old one, the one in which arrogance, local boss dominance, impunity, murder, corruption, and the use of force, among others, prevail. The dialogue in Chiapas showed, indeed, that the West is not the proprietor of rationality.
FASA-Renault.Un caso de internacionalización de la producción automovilística
Elsie Charron
Política y Sociedad , 1990, DOI: -
Abstract: Sin resumen
Los usos magisteriales de la lengua escrita
Elsie Rockwell
Nueva antropología , 1992,
On Leaves of Prayer
  Elsie Choy
Journal of Library and Information Science , 1991,
Abstract: 頁次:39-44
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