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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 298135 matches for " Elsbeth J. Richardson "
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Autophagy Induction Is a Tor- and Tp53-Independent Cell Survival Response in a Zebrafish Model of Disrupted Ribosome Biogenesis
Yeliz Boglev,Andrew P. Badrock,Andrew J. Trotter,Qian Du,Elsbeth J. Richardson,Adam C. Parslow,Sebastian J. Markmiller,Nathan E. Hall,Tanya A. de Jong-Curtain,Annie Y. Ng,Heather Verkade,Elke A. Ober,Holly A. Field,Donghun Shin,Chong H. Shin,Katherine M. Hannan,Ross D. Hannan,Richard B. Pearson,Seok-Hyung Kim,Kevin C. Ess,Graham J. Lieschke,Didier Y. R. Stainier,Joan K. Heath
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003279
Abstract: Ribosome biogenesis underpins cell growth and division. Disruptions in ribosome biogenesis and translation initiation are deleterious to development and underlie a spectrum of diseases known collectively as ribosomopathies. Here, we describe a novel zebrafish mutant, titania (ttis450), which harbours a recessive lethal mutation in pwp2h, a gene encoding a protein component of the small subunit processome. The biochemical impacts of this lesion are decreased production of mature 18S rRNA molecules, activation of Tp53, and impaired ribosome biogenesis. In ttis450, the growth of the endodermal organs, eyes, brain, and craniofacial structures is severely arrested and autophagy is up-regulated, allowing intestinal epithelial cells to evade cell death. Inhibiting autophagy in ttis450 larvae markedly reduces their lifespan. Somewhat surprisingly, autophagy induction in ttis450 larvae is independent of the state of the Tor pathway and proceeds unabated in Tp53-mutant larvae. These data demonstrate that autophagy is a survival mechanism invoked in response to ribosomal stress. This response may be of relevance to therapeutic strategies aimed at killing cancer cells by targeting ribosome biogenesis. In certain contexts, these treatments may promote autophagy and contribute to cancer cells evading cell death.
What happens after the cutting of the umbilical cord? Breastfeeding as a central symbol of the early mother-child relationship and its social implications in Germany
Elsbeth Kneuper
Anthropology of Food , 2008,
Abstract: Les nouvelles techniques biomédicales ont un impact profond, voire révolutionnaire, sur nos conceptions de la parenté, de la famille ou de nos rapports sociaux de sexe, constat qui a re u une attention croissante de la part des sciences sociales au cours de la dernière décennie. Les progrès technologiques dans le domaine de la technique et de l’analyse médicales, par exemple, ont une influence directe sur ce qu’on peut globalement appeler le discours sur l’allaitement , et indirecte sur la représentation du r le de la femme dans une société particulière. Dans cet article, nous cherchons à montrer que ce discours traduit plut t des effets conservateurs de la pratique et de la théorie actuelles dans le domaine biomédical et que la nourriture, la science et la technologie contribuent ensemble à restaurer ou renforcer les conceptions traditionnellement per ues au sein de la société allemande. The fact that new biomedical technologies have a profound and sometimes revolutionary impact on our concepts of kinship, family or gender roles has attracted increasing attention from social scientists over the past decade. Technological advances in medical techniques and analysis, for instance, have had a direct influence on what could broadly be called the “breastfeeding discourse” and an indirect effect on the notion of the woman’s role in a given society. The present article will show that what this discourse actually reflects are the conservative effects of today’s biomedical practice and theory and that food, science and technology combine together to restore or reinforce traditionally held representations in German society.
Coprophilous fungi from Brazil
Richardson, Michael J.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132001000300010
Abstract: thirty-two species of coprophilous fungi were recorded from seven dung samples collected from the state of matto grosso do sul, brazil, and incubated in moist chambers. descriptions of some of the more interesting fungi are given, and aspects of their biodiversity and ecology are discussed.
Coprophilous fungi from Brazil
Richardson Michael J.
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2001,
Abstract: Thirty-two species of coprophilous fungi were recorded from seven dung samples collected from the state of Matto Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and incubated in moist chambers. Descriptions of some of the more interesting fungi are given, and aspects of their biodiversity and ecology are discussed.
Cryptospores and miospores, their distribution patterns in the Lower Old Red Sandstone of the Anglo-Welsh Basin, and the habitat of their parent plants
Richardson J B
Bulletin of Geosciences , 2007, DOI: 10.3140/bull.geosci.2007.04.355
Abstract: Palynomorphs are abundant in some fine-grained rocks of the Lower Old Red Sandstone (Lower O.R.S.) of the Anglo-Welsh Basin. In this study the distribution and relative abundance of sporomorphs (cryptospores and miospores) have been examined from samples collected from the uppermost Raglan Marl and St. Maughan’s formations from Ammons Hill and Ross on Wye [Ross-Tewkesbury Spur Motorway (M. 50) Herefordshire in the south and from uppermost Red Downton Formation (Ledbury Formation) and Ditton Formation from the Clee Hills (Shropshire) in the north (a distance of over 100 km)]. The stratigraphical interval examined equates largely to the lower and middle parts of the Lochkovian Stage except in the Clee Hills where the uppermost part of the stage may be present. The Lower O.R.S. sequence in the Anglo-Welsh Basin shows progressive offlap with the migration of medial and proximal facies (fluvial environments) to overlie the distal facies (marine-influenced environments) in the south. Dispersed palynomorphs have been examined from sections from the distal margins of the floodplain in the south [Ammons Hill and Ross-Tewkesbury Spur Motorway (M. 50) Herefordshire Sections] to more proximal areas of the floodplain in the north (Clee Hills). The relative abundance of major groups of cryptospores and miospores varies stratigraphically in the M. 50 and Clee Hill Sections reflecting the southern migration of facies belts and, although influenced by water transport, sporomorph distribution data may be used with caution to interpret potential habitats of their parent plants. In some cases cryptospores were dominant in sporomorph assemblages from distal sediments, deposited in a marine-influenced coastal plain, and their parent plants may therefore have been halophytic. In contrast, in the more proximal (upstream) sediments, except for those from the higher parts of the Brown Clee Hill sequence, cryptospores with granulate to apiculate sculpture and miospores, especially those with apiculate sculpture, are dominant.
Exact Solution of Two-Species Ballistic Annihilation with General Pair-Reaction Probability
M. J. E. Richardson
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1007/BF02765544
Abstract: The reaction process $A+B->C$ is modelled for ballistic reactants on an infinite line with particle velocities $v_A=c$ and $v_B=-c$ and initially segregated conditions, i.e. all A particles to the left and all B particles to the right of the origin. Previous, models of ballistic annihilation have particles that always react on contact, i.e. pair-reaction probability $p=1$. The evolution of such systems are wholly determined by the initial distribution of particles and therefore do not have a stochastic dynamics. However, in this paper the generalisation is made to $p<1$, allowing particles to pass through each other without necessarily reacting. In this way, the A and B particle domains overlap to form a fluctuating, finite-sized reaction zone where the product C is created. Fluctuations are also included in the currents of A and B particles entering the overlap region, thereby inducing a stochastic motion of the reaction zone as a whole. These two types of fluctuations, in the reactions and particle currents, are characterised by the `intrinsic reaction rate', seen in a single system, and the `extrinsic reaction rate', seen in an average over many systems. The intrinsic and extrinsic behaviours are examined and compared to the case of isotropically diffusing reactants.
H.A. Poeze, Verguisd en vergeten. Tan Malaka, de linkse beweging en de Indonesische revolutie, 1945-1949, deel I-III
Elsbeth Locher-Scholten
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2009,
Andromeda and the Milky Way: Twin sisters, distant relations, or strangers in the night?
McConnachie A.,Richardson J.,Mackey D.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20121901003
Abstract: I summarize some recent key results from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), in particular showing how recent discoveries in and around M31 compare to the known structure of the Milky Way and its satellite population.
Health, Climate Change and Energy Vulnerability: A Retrospective Assessment of Strategic Health Authority Policy and Practice in England
J. Richardson,F. Kagawa,A. Nichols
Environmental Health Insights , 2008,
Abstract: Background: A number of policy documents suggest that health services should be taking climate change and sustainability seriously and recommendations have been made to mitigate and adapt to the challenges health care providers will face. Actions include, for example, moving towards locally sourced food supplies, reducing waste, energy consumption and travel, and including sustainability in policies and strategies. A Strategic Health Authority (SHA) is part of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. They are responsible for developing strategies for the local health services and ensuring high-quality performance. They manage the NHS locally and are a key link between the U.K. Department of Health and the NHS. They also ensure that national priorities are integrated into local plans. Thus they are in a key position to influence policies and practices to mitigate and adapt to the impact of climate change and promote sustainability.Aim: The aim of this study was to review publicly available documents produced by Strategic Health Authorities (SHA) to assess the extent to which current activity and planning locally takes into consideration climate change and energy vulnerability.Methods: A retrospective thematic content analysis of publicly available materials was undertaken by two researchers over a six month period in 2008. These materials were obtained from the websites of the 10 SHAs in England. Materials included annual reports, plans, policies and strategy documents.Results: Of the 10 SHAs searched, 4 were found to have an absence of content related to climate change and sustainability. Of the remaining 6 SHAs that did include content related to climate change and energy vulnerability on their websites consistent themes were seen to emerge. These included commitment to a regional sustainability framework in collaboration with other agencies in the pursuit and promotion of sustainable development.Results indicate that many SHAs in England have yet to embrace sustainability, or to integrate preparations for climate change and energy vulnerability within their organisational strategies. Evidence also suggests that SHAs that have recognised the importance of sustainability within their documentation and policies have yet to fully demonstrate this in practice through the implementation of these policies.Conclusions: Further research is required to investigate means by which SHAs (U.K.) and agencies responsible for health service policy in other countries may be enabled to include a greater consideration of sustainability and climate change within thei
Differential Nutrient Limitation of Soil Microbial Biomass and Metabolic Quotients (qCO2): Is There a Biological Stoichiometry of Soil Microbes?
Wyatt H. Hartman, Curtis J. Richardson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057127
Abstract: Background Variation in microbial metabolism poses one of the greatest current uncertainties in models of global carbon cycling, and is particularly poorly understood in soils. Biological Stoichiometry theory describes biochemical mechanisms linking metabolic rates with variation in the elemental composition of cells and organisms, and has been widely observed in animals, plants, and plankton. However, this theory has not been widely tested in microbes, which are considered to have fixed ratios of major elements in soils. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine whether Biological Stoichiometry underlies patterns of soil microbial metabolism, we compiled published data on microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) pools in soils spanning the global range of climate, vegetation, and land use types. We compared element ratios in microbial biomass pools to the metabolic quotient qCO2 (respiration per unit biomass), where soil C mineralization was simultaneously measured in controlled incubations. Although microbial C, N, and P stoichiometry appeared to follow somewhat constrained allometric relationships at the global scale, we found significant variation in the C:N:P ratios of soil microbes across land use and habitat types, and size-dependent scaling of microbial C:N and C:P (but not N:P) ratios. Microbial stoichiometry and metabolic quotients were also weakly correlated as suggested by Biological Stoichiometry theory. Importantly, we found that while soil microbial biomass appeared constrained by soil N availability, microbial metabolic rates (qCO2) were most strongly associated with inorganic P availability. Conclusions/Significance Our findings appear consistent with the model of cellular metabolism described by Biological Stoichiometry theory, where biomass is limited by N needed to build proteins, but rates of protein synthesis are limited by the high P demands of ribosomes. Incorporation of these physiological processes may improve models of carbon cycling and understanding of the effects of nutrient availability on soil C turnover across terrestrial and wetland habitats.
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