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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 284 matches for " Elnaz Naderi "
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Clinical Feature of Intrahepatic B-Lymphocytes in Chronic Hepatitis B
Ashraf Mohamadkhani,Elnaz Naderi,Masoud Sotoudeh,Aezam Katoonizadeh,Ghodratollah Montazeri,Hossein Poustchi
International Journal of Inflammation , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/896864
Abstract: Humoral immunity constitutes major defense mechanism against viral infections. However, the association of hepatic injury and B-cells population in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers has not been studied well. In this study, fifty seven hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and HBeAg negative patients were studied to determine the expression of CD20, a cell surface marker expressed on B-cells, in liver biopsy sections using immunohistochemistry. The patients’ clinical data at the time of liver biopsy were acquired from their medical records. There was a significant association between log HBV DNA and both ALT ( , ) and histologic activity index (HAI) total score ( , ), respectively. The CD20 was expressed in all 57 liver biopsy samples with a submembranous and membranous staining pattern and its expression was significantly associated with HAI total score ( , ) and stage of fibrosis ( , ). The susceptible B lymphocytes to hepatitis B virus might be implicated in the development of immune mediated inflammation of HBV-induced hepatic injury. The present data also support that the liver is potentially one of the secondary lymphoid organs. 1. Introduction Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus (HBV) infection is the principal cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. The pathogenesis of HBV-related chronic liver disease is not well understood. However, it is clear that the immune mechanisms associated with the antiviral response are responsible for CHB outcome [2–4]. The existence of lymphocytes in the human liver is representing a pathological situation [5]. This concept stems from the observation that, in chronic hepatitis B, T-cells can potentially participate both in the immune clearance of HBV-infected cells and in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury [6]. Furthermore the numbers of B lymphocytes and plasma cells are significantly higher in patients with liver cirrhosis than of those with inactive chronic hepatitis [7, 8]. Enormous intrahepatic B-cells with massive production of IgM and IgG and infiltrating plasma cells into the hepatic lobules have also been shown in HBV-associated chronic active hepatitis [9]. B-cells contribute to immune responses through the secretion of effector cytokines and it has been suggested that naive and memory B-cell subsets preferentially produce different effector cytokines [10, 11]. Na?ve B-cells undergo maturation by somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin variable region of the B-cell receptor (BCR) genes following contact with a specific protein accessible on dendritic cells. Then the
The Possible Role of TLR2 in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Precore Mutation
Malihe Moradzadeh,Sirous Tayebi,Hossein Poustchi,Kourosh Sayehmiri,Parisa Shahnazari,Elnaz Naderi,Ghodratollah Montazeri,Ashraf Mohamadkhani
Advances in Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/780319
Abstract: Recognition mechanisms of innate immune response help to improve immunotherapeutic strategies in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is an important component of innate immunity. In this study, the frequency of precore mutations of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and serum TLR2 were evaluated in CHB patients. Fifty-one patients with chronic hepatitis B, negative for HBeAg and detectable HBV DNA, were examined for the presence of mutations in pre-core region of HBV genome by direct sequencing. Serum TLR2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Interactions of truncated HBeAg and TLR2 proteins were evaluated with molecular docking software. The G1896A pre-core mutation were detected in 29 (57%) which was significantly associated with higher concentration of serum TLR2 in comparison with patients without this mutation (4.8 2.9 versus 3.4 2.2?ng/mL, ). There was also a significant correlation between serum ALT and TLR-2 ( ; ). Docking results illustrated residues within the N-terminus of truncated HBeAg and TLR2, which might facilitate the interaction of these proteins. These findings showed the dominance of G1896A pre-core mutation of HBV variants in this community which was correlated with serum TLR2. Moreover TLR2 is critical for induction of inflammatory cytokines and therefore ALT elevation. 1. Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. The transmission of HBV from infected mothers to neonates causes persistent infection [2]. Chronic infection of HBV is a global health problem. However, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV are different among the geographical areas [3]. The majority of chronic hepatitis B patients lose HBe antigen (HBeAg) and develop anti-HBe antibody, which is generally associated with a decrease in serum HBV DNA levels and a gradual accumulation of precore or core promoter mutations [4]. HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B is the predominant type of CHB in Mediterranean inhabitants [3]. Two types of precore and core promoter HBV mutations that reduce HBeAg formation are more frequent in regions where patients are predominantly infected with HBV genotype D [4, 5]. Infection with wild-type strains of HBV often induces mild symptoms and responds well to interferon alpha therapy, but patients infected with precore mutant variants may show clinical evidence of elevated or fluctuating ALT and HBV DNA [6]. The reason that precore negative mutants become predominant in some patients during
Detection of TP53 R249 Mutation in Iranian Patients with Pancreatic Cancer
Ashraf Mohamadkhani,Elnaz Naderi,Maryam Sharafkhah,Hamid Reza Fazli,Malihe Moradzadeh,Akram Pourshams
Journal of Oncology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/738915
Abstract: The TP53 gene encodes tumor protein p53 which play a major role in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. The important role of codon 249 of TP53 for binding of p53 to its sequence-specific consensus site in DNA has been revealed by crystallography’s studies, and mutation at this codon was detected in the plasma of some human cancers. The TP53 Mut assessor software within the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) TP53 Database was performed to evaluate every possible mutation at codon 249. DNA was extracted from the plasma of 133 pancreatic cancer patients and 85 noncancer-bearing individuals. Exon 7 in TP53 was amplified, and mutation at R249 was identified by the endonuclease cleavage of HaeIII. The group of patients showed a frequency of 11% (22 of 133 samples) R249 mutation compared to 3.5% (3 of 85 samples) in the group of control which was significant ( ). This mutation demonstrated statistically significant association with pancreatic cancer risk in unadjusted odds ratio (OR: 3.74, 95% CI: 1.1–13.2; ); however when adjusted for confounding factors, it was marginally significant because of lower control samples. These findings demonstrate that mutation at R249 of TP53 can be considered for increasing risk of pancreatic cancer that needs more research. 1. Introduction Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common cancer of the pancreas, is the fifth commonest cause of cancer-related mortality among industrialized countries [1]. There is not much data regarding incidence and mortality of pancreatic cancer in Middle East. However the cancer of pancreas is not in the top 10 of cancer-related deaths in Iran [2]. The aggressive nature of the PDAC is related to poor prognosis; therefore, most of the patients at the time of diagnosis are harboring unsuitable cancer that is extremely resistant to chemotherapy [3]. The incidence rate of pancreatic cancer has been stabilizing over the past two decades in many developed countries; however, this continues to increase in countries where the rate of pancreatic cancer was relatively low four decades ago, such as Japan [4]. In Iran, pancreatic cancer is diagnosed in advanced stage with no identified risk factors. Pancreatic cancer is primarily an environmental disease and attributed mostly to cigarette smoking [5]; however the pathogenesis of this cancer also involves various genetic alterations particularly genes that controlled the cell cycle [6, 7]. The TP53 (tumor protein p53) as a main tumor suppressor gene is mutated in most of the tumors [8, 9]. The p53 protein inhibits cancer formation
Evolutions and Future Directions of Surgical Robotics: A Review  [PDF]
Siamak Najarian, Elnaz Afshari
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.32017
Abstract: Although the robotics firstly appeared as an entertainment form, its capabilities have continuously advanced from the world’s first industrial robot to the surgical robotic systems which are today capable of performing many surgical maneuvers unaided. However, these surgical robots are not autonomous systems; they are designed to complete a surgeon’s abilities and converting surgeon’s movements into incredibly steady and accurate robotic movements that finally manipulate surgical instruments to assist delicate operations. This novel type of surgery is carried out in the form of minimally invasive surgical procedure and has offered valuable alternatives to enhance traditional open surgery approach. Although the surgical robotic systems began as external robots, technological progresses are directing the surgical robotic systems to endoluminal robots which consist of doing surgical maneuvers by navigating of robot through lumens of human body. Here, we will briefly review different applications of robotic systems in various fields of medicine. Then, we will discuss minimally invasive surgical systems and their role in progressing of minimally invasive surgery as a modern surgery method. By thoroughly investigating a considerable amount of published materials about the minimally invasive surgical technologies, we will study the recent research activities and commercially available samples of surgical robotic systems.
A New Method for Optimal Placement of TCSC Based on Sensitivity Analysis for Congestion Management  [PDF]
Abouzar Samimi, Peyman Naderi
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.31002
Abstract: In this paper a new method has been proposed to determine optimal location and best setting of Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC). Seeking the best place is performed using the sensitivity analysis and optimum setting of TCSC is managed using the genetic algorithm. The configuration of a typical TCSC from a steady-state perspective is the fixed capacitor with a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR). The effect of TCSC on the network can be modeled as a controllable reactance inserted in the related transmission line. This paper employs the DIgSILENT simulator and the DPL as a programming tool of the DIgSILENT to show the validity of the proposed method. The effectiveness of sug-gested approach has been tested on IEEE 14-bus system.
The issue of Time lapse in lawsuit Islamic Republic of Iran
Ghobad Naderi,Qaeme Naderi
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: We know that between Workers and Employers claims are subject to the law Work, 1992 approved by the expediency council, according to Article 157 of the law above mentioned shall be investigated and resolved and specific and clarified administrative authorities called "delegations identify and resolve differences" as provided in the foregoing Articles, are assigned to handle such claims. But the question may be raised in this regards, Inclusion or exclusion time lapse is relative to is the above claims. Of this research can be very important in different directions and dimensions. In this research, first define the passage of time lapse and nature of the legal its and judicial and administrative enforcement of time lapse better investigated to improve the services we have. Then look at the importance of time lapse in the rules and regulations of Iran the legal system we have.
Commitment and Responsibilities of Medic in Ray Errors and Errors Beauty
Ghobad Naderi,Qaeme Naderi
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Obligations the physician in medical treatment discussion is very extensive, that we just here, discuss it in two cases. In this study, first of ray error are discussed. Irradiation from medical devices which is to discover and treat diseases and here's the physician responsibility in this case we examine. And in the second topic of discussed is beauty surgeries and responsibility and obligation of the physician we examines the in the effect of the error. So the physician commitment ie in principle attention and diligence in the way of healing the patients But should diagnosed the type and scope of this attention.
Simulation and Design of a Low Crosstalk Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Crossover Waveguide  [PDF]
Elnaz Pilehvar, Hassan Kaatuzian, Mohammad Danaie
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.32B049
Abstract:

In this paper, an optical waveguide junction is introduced to reduce crosstalk based on a hexagonal structure of photonic crystals for TE modes. The wavelength is 1330 nm which is an important wavelength for optical fiber data transmission. Simulation results show that the proposed design exhibits a reduction of -50 dB in crosstalk. It translates to a considerable isolation improvement between two crossover waveguides. FDTD method is used to obtain the transmission coefficient.

Teaching Grammar for Active Use: An Exploration of Three Instructional Techniques
Sasan Baleghizadeh,Elnaz Oladrostam
LiBRI : Linguistic and Literary Broad Research and Innovation , 2011,
Abstract: The present paper reports on a study that was carried out to compare the effectiveness of three instructional techniques, namely dialogues, focused tasks, and games on teaching grammar. The participants were 48 pre-intermediate EFL students that formed three experimental groups. A posttest consisting of 20 productive items was administered at the end of the treatment period which lasted for four sessions. The results revealed no statistically significant difference between the three groups. This suggests that the three instructional techniques had relatively the same effect on the accurate grammatical production of the learners. Keywords: dialogue, focused task, game, grammar, role-play.
Artificial Intelligence and Robotic From the Past to Present
Elnaz Asgarifar,Bashir Golchin
International Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical and Computer Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This paper overviews the basic principles and recent advances in the Artificial Intelligent robotics and the utilization of robots in nowadays life and the various compass. The aim of the paper is to introduce the basic concepts of artificial intelligent techniques and present a survey about robots. In first section we have a survey on the concept of artificial intelligence and intelligence life; also we introduce two important factors in artificial intelligence. In the next section, we have overview on the basic elements of artificial intelligence. Then, another important section in this paper is intelligent robots and the behavior based robotics. The use of robots in nowadays life is in the various domains. We introduce one of them that are rehabilitation robots.
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