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Shifting orientation in Sufism: its development and doctrine adjustment in history
Elmansyah al-Haramain
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies , 2011,
Abstract: One of Islamic cultures that is constantly able to evolve and adapt to the various condition is Sufism. In the process of development, Sufism has always been a solution to various issues in society , and it is also aimed at achieving closed relation to the Lord. Shifting orientation of Sufism has occurred in any kind of its theology , politics, philosophy , and organization. The present studies of Sufism development lead to medical issues. Some experts call it Sufi Healing. It is interesting to discuss it since the shifting orientation brings something positive to the development of Sufism. However , there are many things that need to be reviewed, namely the provision of the proposition for any behavioral recovery which seemed a merely justification. This article is presented by using a historical and a phenomenological approach that emphasizes on the existence of its phenomenon. Through this article, it is expected to obtain an understanding of Sufism and its various efforts in developing the doctrine of al-ihsan in Islam in he context of digital era.
Induction of Labor with PGE2 after One Previous Cesarean Section: 18 Years Experience in a University Hospital  [PDF]
Nourah Al Qahtani, Sameera Al Borshaid, Hissa Al Enezi
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.21008
Abstract: Objective: To review the outcome of prostaglandin induction of labor in term pregnant women with previous one ce-sarean section compared to those without previous Cesarean section. Design: 18 years retrospective review of hospital records and case note review of index cases. Setting: University hospital. Population: Three hundred and twenty two women who had their labor induced with prostaglandin E2. One hundred and sixty one women had one previous Ce-sarean section. Methods: This study was conducted at King Fahad University Hospital, University of Dammam. It is a tertiary referral center with approximately 2300 births per year. We searched the hospital's records of deliveries from January 1992 to December 2009 and reviewed all indications and outcomes of prostaglandin induction of labor in women with one previous Cesarean section. The control group was composed of women who had their labor induced with prostaglandin but without previous Cesarean section. Main outcome measures: Labor outcome and uterine rup-ture Results: Three hundred and twenty two women were included. All received prostaglandin E2 for induction of labor. One hundred and sixty one women had one previous Cesarean section (study group) and the rest had no previous Ce-sarean section (control group). There was no difference in the rate of vaginal delivery between study and control group, 68.3% and 79.5% (p value 0.3), respectively. The rate of uterine rupture was 30 times higher in study group (2.5% Vs 0.033%). Conclusion: In women with one previous Cesarean section, induction of labor with prostaglandin leads to comparable rate of vaginal delivery similar to those without prior Cesarean section but with relatively high risk of uter-ine rupture.
Assessment of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants in the Ambient Air in Al Mirfa City, United Arab Emirates  [PDF]
Entisar Al Katheeri, Fadi Al Jallad, Muthanna Al Omar
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37077
Abstract: From 2007-2009, National Energy and Water Research Center (NEWRC) on behalf of Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) conducted a long term baseline study of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and particulate matter <10 μm in diameter (PM10) using ambient air quality station located in the vicinity of Al Mirfa power plant in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE).The objective of this study was to establish baseline levels and study the behavior of airborne pollutants from natural as well as anthropogenic origins with temporal variations. The study reveals that the average hourly values for NO2, SO2, and 8 hour average of CO were within the acceptable levels of 400, 300 and 30,000 μg/m3 respectively, whereas the levels of O3 as 8 hour average (<200 μg/Nm3) and PM10 (<150 μg/Nm3) occasionally exceeded the FEA permissible limits during the study period. Seasonal variation based on three years data reveals that the highest concentration of NO2 and SO2 were during winter and for CO and O3 during summer months. Results indicate that the levels of SO2 and CO were significantly controlled and improved while the fuel combustion of Al Mirfa power plant had increased from 2007 to 2009. Dust has significantly impact on the air quality by elevated levels of PM10 exceed in several instances associated with regional sand- storm during the monitoring period.
Syed Ghulam Shabbir (1923-2002) and His Syndrome  [PDF]
Khalid Al Aboud, Daifullah Al Aboud
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.12007
Abstract: Professor Syed Ghulam Shabbir (1923-2002), is one of the Pakistani well-known dermatologists. In 1986, Shabbir and his colleagues described a novel autosomal recessive syndrome, which they called laryngoonychocutaneous syndrome. They reported this condition, in 22 patients in 12 families living in Lahore, Pakistan. This syndrome is characterized by cutaneous erosions, nail dystrophy and exuberant vascular granulation tissue in certain epithelia, especially conjunctiva and larynx. This report sheds light on Shabbir and the syndrome that bears his name.
Geomatics for Rehabilitation of Mining Area in Mahis, Jordan  [PDF]
Rami Al-Ruzouq, Samih Al Rawashdeh
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2014.62014
Abstract:

Mining activities often cause dramatic changes in landscapes, particularly in the dump sites and its surrounding environment. Land rehabilitation is the process of renovating damaged land to some extent of its original shape and aims to minimize and mitigate the environmental effects to allow new land uses. The success of different rehabilitation strategy and newly suggested urban and architecture modeling depends on the landscape characterization (topography of the study area and its derivatives such as slope and aspects, geological and geomorphologic nature of the study area). The aim of this study is to demonstrate the utility of different methodologies based on geomatics techniques (Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) and three dimensional Geographic Information System (GIS)) for highlighting landscape characterization which is needed for rehabilitation of Mahis area. Photogrammetric adjustment procedures were used to create digital elevation model and Orth-Photo model for the study area using aerial images. Remote sensing data were used for land classification to provide vital information for rehabilitation planning. GPS field observations were used to build spatial network for the study area based on ground control point collections. Finally, realistic representation of the study area with three dimensional GIS was prepared for the study area considering ease and flexible updating of the geo-spatial database.

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Mashael Al Saud
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.29099
Abstract: Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November 2009, when flooded water and sediments (torrents) invaded the urban areas and resulted decease of many people and destroyed the infrastructure and civilized zones. The lack of mitigation implements exacerbated the problem. This study implies an assessment of flood hazard risk in Jeddah region. It aims to identify the zones subjected to flood and then inducing the influencing factors at different levels of effect. For this purpose space techniques were utilized, with a focus on IKONOS satellite images, which are characterized by high resolution in identifying terrain features. In addition Geographic Information System (GIS) was also used to support space techniques. Thus, damaged areas and the mechanism of flooding process were recognized. This helps avoiding further urban expansion in areas under flood risk and will aid decision maker to put new strategies for hazard management.
Low Temperature Gas Sensing Coatings Made Through Wet Chemical Deposition of Niobium Doped Titanium Oxide Colloid  [PDF]
Naji Al Dahoudi
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.24034
Abstract: Niobium doped titanium oxide (TiO2) colloid was synthesized to fabricate a hydrogen gas sensor layer on oxidized silicon wafer substrate. The layers were obtained using spin coating technique and then heated in air at 500°C for 30 min. The doping of TiO2 led to a significant enhancement of the sensitivity of the layer especially at low operating temperature. The effect of doping was found effective of operating the sensor at relatively low temperature (150°C). The layers show a very smooth nanostructure with average roughness of less than 0.5 nm. The behavior of the sensing characteristics of such layers was discussed related to their chemical compositions, morphology and their crystalline structure. The morphological and structural characteristics of the layers were studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM).
The Fundamental Principle of Conservation of Physical Money: Its Violation and the GlobalFinancial System Collapse  [PDF]
Murad Al-Shibli
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.31013
Abstract: Over the last two years the world has witnessed a financial tsunami that rocked the global financial systems. This paper presents the fundamental principle of conservation of physical money of the global financial system that guarantees its equilibrium and stability. Similar to the principle of conservation of mass-energy systems and based on the commodity money concept, then the physical money cannot be created from nullity nor can be destroyed. As a result, violation of such a system will lead to a deficit in the financial system which cannot be paid off. Additionally, violation of gold standard and the breakage of the Bretton Woods system are the reason behind the current world financial crisis. Paying non-zero interest on money loans will violate this principle as well. The international banking system is volatile and over-valued since it is based on the fractional banking technique that banks do not actually need to have the money to back up the deposits their clients have made into their accounts. Instead, the banks are required only to keep a small fraction of such deposits on hand. The world Today’s reserves wealth of Gold, Silver and Copper is estimated by 8.63 Trillion US$ compared to 4.3 Trillion US$ in Currencies. Moreover The Bank of International Settlements (BIS) in Switzerland has recently reported that global outstanding derivatives have reached 1.14 quadrillion dollars: $548 Trillion in listed credit derivatives plus $596 trillion in notional OTC derivatives. Furthermore, by 2007 credit default swap total value has dramatically increased to an estimated $45 trillion to $62 trillion. Subprime mortgage crisis, credit crisis and banking closure all have resulted from the violation of conservation money. Taking into the account that the World's GDPs for all nations is approximately $50 trillion and all of the asset value of the world is only $190 Trillion, it can be seen easily that the over-valued $1140 trillion financial derivatives will lead in the near future to the collapse of the international financial system similar to Iceland, Greece, Ireland crises and potentially in Spain, Portugal, and Italy.
Analysis of Monthly, Seasonal and Annual Air Temperature Variability and Trends in Taiz City - Republic of Yemen  [PDF]
Mahyoub H. Al Buhairi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.14046
Abstract: Climate change is one of the most important issues of today’s World. Climate scientists have concluded that the earth’s surface air temperature warmed by 0.6 ± 0.2℃ during the 20th century, accompanied by changes in the hydrologic cycle. Of all the climate elements, temperature plays a major role in detecting climate change brought about by urbanization and industrialization. This study focuses on the variability and trends of the mean annual, seasonal and monthly surface air temperature in Taiz city, Republic of Yemen, during the period 1979-2006. The results of the analysis of the whole period reveal a statistically significant increasing trend in practically all the months and seasons. A tendency has also been observed towards warmer years, with significantly warmer summer and spring periods and slightly warmer autumn and winter, an increase of 1.79℃ and 1.18℃ has been observed in the mean summer and mean winter temperature, respectively. Positive trends of about 1.5℃ in the annual mean temperature were found for the whole period. The air temperature time series are analyzed, so that the variability and trends can be described.
On the Contribution of Student Experience Survey Regarding Quality Management in Higher Education: An Institutional Study in Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Abdullah Al Rubaish
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2010.34052
Abstract: We appraise comparatively and analytical data under Student Experience Survey (SES) to discuss the possible generalizability of related College level differentials in Saudi Arabia. For this, data collected from students of two academic programs namely Bachelor of Dental Surgery, College of Dentistry; and B.Sc. Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were considered. These data relate to experience of students halfway of respective academic program. The percentage of participation in SES by students was 100% and 94% respectively. Students of neither the programs reported high quality perception about any of the 20 items considered under SES. With a target of satisfaction by at least 50% students, students from College of Nursing expressed better satisfaction than those from the College of Dentistry. Same is true in case of aiming to achieve satisfaction by at least 75% students. However, to gain satisfaction by at least 80% students, each of the 20 items in both colleges need focus of college as well as university administrators towards required improvements. In summary, suitable to its varying environment, each program/college in a university requires specific improvement planning.
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