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Flaws, Fallacies and Facts: Reviewing the Early History of the Lipid and Diet/Heart Hypotheses  [PDF]
J. Elliott
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.519201
Abstract: The lipid hypothesis of coronary heart disease proposes that a high total cholesterol level has a causative role in coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically in the development of atherosclerosis. It forms the basis for formulating target levels of serum cholesterol and hence the widespread use of statins for lowering cholesterol. An extension of the lipid hypothesis is the diet/heart hypothesis of coronary heart disease. This theory combines two ideas—that saturated fat raises cholesterol levels, and that a reduced saturated fat intake will lower cholesterol levels, thereby inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis and manifestations of CHD. Those who make diet recommendations or prescribe medication to reduce cholesterol may be unaware of the underpinning science. The original research behind these recommendations has given us “healthy heart” guidelines and preventive measures we assume to be true. While the lipid and diet/heart hypotheses are often presented as fact, they remain inadequately proven theories that have little agreement from experts. Historical perspectives can help us understand the basis of current-day beliefs. In the lipid hypothesis case, research from the 1950s and 60s was instrumental in its formation. This early work should not be considered irrelevant, outdated or obsolete because current recommendations from national heart associations in many countries continue to be shaped by these studies. This paper examines evidence used to formulate the lipid hypothesis and, subsequently, the diet/ heart hypothesis. By critically evaluating steps in the formation of the theory, inconsistencies, mistakes and alternate explanations become apparent and cast doubt on its validity.
Cancer Immunothearapy More than Vaccines “Psychoneuro-Immunooncology: Cancer, the Host, and the Surgeon”  [PDF]
Robert Lange Elliott
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.23055
Abstract: Cancer immunology is extremely complex with numerous interactions between the tumor and the host. It is time for those that treat cancer, especially surgeons, to learn more about these complex interactions. We need to know more about host immunity and immunosuppressive mechanisms which are not directly related to the disease, but caused by stress and therapy of the disease. The diagnosis of cancer initiates stress that can be very detrimental to the host immune system. Most cancer physicians (surgical, medical, and radiation oncologist) do not appreciate the impact on host cell mediated immunity (CMI) caused by cancer therapy, and definitely do not know how devastating, psychic stress is on host immunity. This communication is an attempt to bring awareness to this problem.
The Effect of Federal Government Size on Long-Term Economic Growth in the United States, 1791-2009  [PDF]
Federico Guerrero, Elliott Parker
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.38120
Abstract: We consider whether there is statistical evidence for a causal relationship between federal government expenditures and growth in real GDP in the United States, using available data going back to 1791. After studying the time-series properties of these variables for stationarity and cointegration, we investigate Granger causality in detail in the context of a Vector Error Correction Model. While we find causal evidence that faster GDP growth leads to faster growth in government spending, we find no evidence supporting the common assertion that a larger government sector leads to slower economic growth.
An Alternative Funding Model for Agribusiness Research in Canada  [PDF]
Adam Dale, Elliott Currie
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.69093
Abstract: Canadian governments have moved towards a matching funding model for agricultural research. Agricultural organizations can take advantage of this if Canadian Controlled Private Corporations are established to fund research through matching grants, tax credits and investments. A low risk options strategy is presented which uses index options and is a diagonal put spread where an in-the-money put is bought which expires in 1 to 2 years and out-of-the-money puts are sold which expire monthly. In summary, “A small Canadian Controlled Private Corporation can, for a $100,000 up front initial investment, generate at least $100,000 annually in research funding, in perpetuity”.
Bryophyte mass to stem length ratio: A potential metric for eco-physiological response to land use  [PDF]
Jason A. Hubbart, Elliott Kellner
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2013.31001
Abstract:

Methods of analysis are needed that quantitatively characterize the response of organisms to anthropogenic disturbance. Herein a method is presented that characterizes bryophyte morphological variability in response to timber harvest treatments (clearcut and partial cut). Samples (n = 6196) of the semi-aquatic bryophyte Brachythecium frigidum were collected from clearcut, partial cut and full forest stream reaches between August 2003 and October 2005 and analyzed to obtain mass to stem length ratios (M:SL). Results show that relative to a full forest (i.e. full canopy cover condition), average M:SL ratios were reduced approximately 18% in the partial cut and 37% in the clearcut, indicating a decrease in biomass per unit stem length with increasing harvest intensities. Increased light intensities and higher air temperatures resulting from decreased canopy cover in the harvest treatments corresponded to lower M:SL ratios (0.31 and 0.24 for the partial cut and clearcut, respectively). Results quantify the morphological response of B. frigidum to habitat perturbation, thereby validating the method as a useful assessment of anthropogenic disturbance in post-timber harvest environments. Additional work should be conducted to test the method in other physiographic regions and to isolate bryophyte response to alterations of distinct environmental variables.

The Effect of Wealth Inequality on Higher Education Outcomes: A Critical Review  [PDF]
Emily Rauscher, William Elliott III
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.44029
Abstract: American society reflects considerable class immobility, much of which may be explained by the wide gaps in college completion rates between economically advantaged and disadvantaged groups of students. First, we discuss the factors that lead to unequal college completion rates and introduce assets as an explanation often ignored by stratification scholars. We then discuss how a legacy of wealth inequality has led to wealthy students having an advantage at the financial aid bargaining table over low-income and minority students. We conclude by discussing how asset-building policies such as children’s savings accounts offer a potential policy strategy to alter the distributional consequences of the current financial aid system and help level the playing field.
Social-scientific criticism: Perspective, process and payoff. Evil eye accusation at Galatia as illustration of the method
JH Elliott
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2011,
Abstract: This article explores a presentation of the method, emergence and contribution of socialscientific criticism (SSC) as an inter-disciplinary operation of New Testament exegesis. A description of ancient evil eye belief and practice and its appearance in Paul’s letter to the Galatians illustrates how the method contributes to a more accurate translation of the biblical text, a clarification of its logic and a fuller understanding of the social dynamics involving Paul and his opponents.
Beyond Academia
Tom Elliott
Ecology and Society , 2002,
Abstract:
Book Review of Nicola Whitton’s (2010) Learning with digital games: A practical guide to engaging students in higher education.
Darren Elliott
Digital Culture & Education , 2011,
Abstract:
Preventive scanning: providing peace of mind or looking for trouble?
Tracey Elliott
Amsterdam Law Forum , 2011,
Abstract: A recently development in private and NHS medicine has been the use of preventive scanning upon asymptomatic patients. Focusing upon the NHS National Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Screening Programme, and upon the use of scanning technology by private companies offering direct-to-consumer body imaging, this article considers practical, ethical and legal implications in relation to the use of scanning in these contexts. It is suggested that ethical and legal issues arise particularly in relation to the potential for scanning technology to cause physical or psychological harm to individuals in certain circumstances, and in relation to the provision of adequate information to patients about the potential risks of treatment.
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