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Information scanning – keeping in touch with best practice in breastfeeding
Ellen McIntyre
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-1-15
Abstract: There is so much we still need to know about how best to enable mothers to successfully breastfeed. In addition, we are all time-poor in an ever increasing information-rich environment. This paper describes some of the methods practitioners (those directly involved with helping mothers) can use to scan the environment for up-to-date information about best practice in breastfeeding. By keeping in touch – with other practitioners and International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLC), with researchers, with decision makers, and with research findings – practitioners can ensure they help mothers most effectively.Attend relevant conferences, seminars and workshops in your area but also once in a while go to a conference in another state or region or even overseas. While there is an added cost, it is worthwhile broadening your horizons beyond your local area. While at conferences, make the most of the opportunity and network with other delegates. To keep informed about conferences, join your local professional lactation organization and the International Lactation Consultants Association (ILCA) [1]. Check their websites as well as the International Board of Lactation Consultants Examiners (IBLCE) website regularly to keep up to date with issues pertinent to this profession [2]. Their links are also worth viewing. You might also organize to visit other IBCLCs at their workplaces.Lactnet, an email list of health professionals and others interested in discussing issues of breastfeeding contains a wealth of information [3]. Although it can be very time consuming to read the emails submitted by those among the 3300 plus subscribers, it does have an archival facility to assist with searching specific topics.As mentioned above, attend conferences but also make the effort to talk to the researchers who are presenting their work. If you have read some of their work, send them an email (most papers list author contact details) if you wish to know more or wish to share you
What research impacts do Australian primary health care researchers expect and achieve?
Richard L Reed, Elizabeth C Kalucy, Eleanor Jackson-Bowers, Ellen McIntyre
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-9-40
Abstract: The project used an online survey adapted from the Buxton and Hanney Payback Framework to collect information about the impacts that CIs expected and achieved from primary health care research projects funded by Australian national competitive grants.Chief Investigators (CIs) provided information about seventeen completed projects. While no CI expected their project to have an impact in every domain of the framework used in the survey, 76% achieved at least half the impacts they expected. Sixteen projects had published and/or presented their work, 10 projects included 11 doctorate awards in their research capacity domain. All CIs expected their research to lead to further research opportunities with 11 achieving this. Ten CIs achieved their expectation of providing information for policy making but only four reported their research had influenced policy making. However 11 CIs achieved their expectation of providing information for organizational decision making and eight reported their research had influenced organizational decision making.CIs reported that nationally funded primary health care research projects made an impact on knowledge production, staff development and further research, areas within the realm of influence of the research team and within the scope of awareness of the CIs. Some also made an impact on policy and organizational decision-making, and on localized clinical practice and service delivery. CIs reported few broader economic benefits from their research. Routine use of an instrument of this type would facilitate primary health care research funders' determination of the payback for funding of research in this sector.How research is developed, conducted, disseminated and assessed is changing. Knowledge translation is high on government agendas and investment in research is expected to yield returns in the form of an improved health system delivering better health outcomes. This expectation raises the level of interest in assessing research i
The feasibility of determining the impact of primary health care research projects using the Payback Framework
Elizabeth C Kalucy, Eleanor Jackson-Bowers, Ellen McIntyre, Richard Reed
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-7-11
Abstract: The project conducted telephone interviews based on the Payback Framework with leaders of the research teams and nominated users of their research, used bibliometric methods for assessing impact through publication outputs and obtained documentary evidence of impact where possible. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of the data collection methods and the applicability of the Payback Framework, and any other issues which arose around the assessment of impact of primary health care research.The thirteen interviews were resource intensive to organise conduct and analyse but provided better information about impact than bibliometric analysis or documentary analysis. Bibliometric analysis of the papers published from the four projects was hampered by the inclusion of only one of the journals in major citation indexes. Document analysis provided more evidence of dissemination than of impact.The payback framework and logic model were a sound basis for assessing impact. Chief investigators and nominated users of research provided substantial information relevant to the impact categories closest to their spheres of influence and awareness, but less about the impact their research had on the wider health sector, population health or economic benefits. An additional category of impact emerged from the interviews, that of strengthening research networks which could enhance the impact of later work. The framework provided rich information about the pathways to impact, better understanding of which may enhance impact.It is feasible to use the Buxton and Hanney Payback framework and logic model to determine the proximal impacts of primary health care research. Though resource intensive, telephone interviews of chief investigators and nominated users provided rich information.Research funding in Australia has been under increased pressure to be accountable in terms of benefits to the wider community, with goals such as "Well informed primary health care practice and pol
Passing the Buck, or Thinking about Experience? Conditions for Professional Development among Teachers in a Norwegian Middle School  [PDF]
Ellen Ramvi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.52014
Abstract: This paper uses psychoanalytic ideas to explore obstacles and conditions for learning from experience among teachers. In specific, this is about consequences of failure in relationships. A particular situation that happened during an ethnographic study in a middle school in Norway is used to get as close as possible to a teacher’s feelings and perceptions of a frustrating situation. The situation is followed up to understand how the individual teacher tried to deal with the problem and how her colleagues and the school management tried to support and help her. Interpreting the situation to involve violation of all dimensions of the teacher’s subjectivity (personal, professional and cultural), the problem seems to be too complex to deal with in the school organization. It seems as if teachers and leadership unconsciously avoid unbearable feelings, with the consequence that violation of the teachers is not recognised, and thus not possible to learn from. Problems were repeated rather than understood.
Globalism, Human Rights and the Problem of Individualism
Richard McIntyre
Human Rights & Human Welfare , 2003,
Are Workers Rights Human Rights and Would It Matter If They Were?
Richard McIntyre
Human Rights & Human Welfare , 2006,
The World Court’s ongoing contribution to international water law: The Pulp Mills Case between Argentina and Uruguay
Owen McIntyre
Water Alternatives , 2011,
Abstract: The judgment of the International Court of Justice in the Pulp Mills (Argentina v. Uruguay) case makes a very important contribution to international law relating to shared international water resources and to international environmental law more generally. It does much to clarify the relationship between procedural and substantive rules of international environmental law. The Court linked interstate notification of new projects to the satisfaction of the customary due diligence obligation to prevent significant transboundary harm. It found that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an essential requirement of customary international law in respect of activities having potential transboundary effects. The real significance of the judgment is that it held that the duty to notify, and the related duty to conduct an EIA taking account of transboundary impacts, exist in customary international law and thus apply to all states, not just those that have concluded international agreements containing such obligations. The Court confirmed that for shared international water resources, the principle of equitable and reasonable utilisation, universally accepted as the cardinal rule of international water law, is virtually synonymous with the concept of sustainable development, and suggests that considerations of environmental protection are absolutely integral to the equitable balancing of interests involved. The judgment makes it clear that the principle of equitable utilisation ought to be understood as a process, rather than a normatively determinative rule. This ought to help to address widespread confusion about the nature of the key rules and principles of international water resources law and its role in the resolution of water resources disputes and in environmental diplomacy more generally.
E-mentoring as a Critical E-learning Approach: The Impact of Social Presence on E-mentoring  [PDF]
Ellen A. Ensher
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53B1001
Abstract: One important form of e-learning is e-mentoring. Virtual mentoring can occur within the context of formal organiza- tional programs or develop spontaneously between individuals online. While e-mentoring is burgeoning as a practice, theoretical research related to this important phenomenon has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that social presence theory presents a useful conceptual framework for understanding mentors’ willingness to participate in e-mentoring relationship and on their satisfaction. In sum, mentoring relationships that offer a blended approach with both high and low social presence forms of computer-mediated-communication (CMC) will be more satisfying to men- tors than those with low social presence CMC forms only. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Compact-calibres of regular and monotonically normal spaces
David W. Mcintyre
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171202011365
Abstract: A topological space has calibre ω1 (resp., calibre (ω1,ω)) if every point-countable (resp., point-finite) collection of nonempty open sets is countable. It has compact-calibre ω1 (resp., compact-calibre (ω1,ω)) if, for every family of uncountably many nonempty open sets, there is some compact set which meets uncountably many (resp., infinitely many) of them. It has CCC (resp., DCCC) if every disjoint (resp., discrete) collection of nonempty open sets is countable. The relative strengths of these six conditions are determined for Moore spaces, regular first countable spaces, linearly-ordered spaces, and arbitrary regular spaces. It is shown that the relative strengths for spaces with point-countable bases are the same as those for Moore spaces, and the relative strengths for linearly-ordered spaces are the same as those for arbitrary monotonically normal spaces.
Inequities in under-five child malnutrition in South Africa
Eyob Zere, Diane McIntyre
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-2-7
Abstract: Data on 3765 under-five children were derived from the Living Standards and Development Survey. Household income, proxied by per capita household expenditure, was used as the main indicator of socio-economic status. Socio-economic inequality in malnutrition (stunting, underweight and wasting) was measured using the illness concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for different population groups, areas of residence (rural, urban and metropolitan) and for each province.Stunting was found to be the most prevalent form of malnutrition in South Africa. Consistent with expectation, the rate of stunting is observed to be the highest in the Eastern Cape and the Northern Province – provinces with the highest concentration of poverty. There are considerable pro-rich inequalities in the distribution of stunting and underweight. However, wasting does not manifest gradients related to socio-economic position. Among White children, no inequities are observed in all three forms of malnutrition. The highest pro-rich inequalities in stunting and underweight are found among Coloured children and metropolitan areas. There is a tendency for high pro-rich concentration indices in those provinces with relatively lower rates of stunting and underweight (Gauteng and the Western Cape).There are significant differences in under-five child malnutrition (stunting and underweight) that favour the richest of society. These are unnecessary, avoidable and unjust. It is demonstrated that addressing such socio-economic gradients in ill-health, which perpetuate inequalities in the future adult population requires a sound evidence base. Reliance on global averages alone can be misleading. Thus there is a need for evaluating policies not only in terms of improvements in averages, but also improvements in distribution. Furthermore, addressing problems of stunting and underweight, which are found to be responsive to improvements in household income stat
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