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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14532 matches for " Elizabeth Williams "
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Selenium: from health to the biological food chain
Elizabeth Williams,Melinda Harrison
Journal of Biotech Research , 2010,
Abstract: Selenium is an essential trace element which plays a role in the anti-oxidant activity in the cell. Selenium homeostasis needs to be strictly regulated as it can be harmful in excess or limiting amounts. Selenium has been studied extensively in its incorporation into seleneocysteine and subsequently seleneoproteins have been found in species ranging from algae to humans. Here within, a detailed review follows of selenium uptake within the human body and pathogenic implications. Also selenium toxicity will be examined in other organisms as well as its importance in biowebs and its role in the food chain. Lastly, the pathways of selenium in the cells will be discussed as well as future directions.
Industry in Motion: Using Smart Phones to Explore the Spatial Network of the Garment Industry in New York City
Sarah Williams, Elizabeth Currid-Halkett
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086165
Abstract: Industrial agglomerations have long been thought to offer economic and social benefits to firms and people that are only captured by location within their specified geographies. Using the case study of New York City’s garment industry along with data acquired from cell phones and social media, this study set out to understand the discrete activities underpinning the economic dynamics of an industrial agglomeration. Over a two week period, data was collected by employing the geo-locative capabilities of Foursquare, a social media application, to record every movement of fashion workers employed at fashion design firms located both inside and outside the geographical boundaries of New York City’s Garment District. This unique method of studying worker activity exposed the day-to-day dynamics of an industrial district with a precision thus far undocumented in literature. Our work suggests that having access to the cluster provides almost the same agglomeration economies as residing within its borders.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 Directly Interacts with Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase to Regulate Lymphangiogenesis
Sanja Coso, Yiping Zeng, Kenneth Opeskin, Elizabeth D. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039558
Abstract: Background Dysfunctional lymphatic vessel formation has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions including cancer metastasis, lymphedema, and impaired wound healing. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family is a major regulator of lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) function and lymphangiogenesis. Indeed, dissemination of malignant cells into the regional lymph nodes, a common occurrence in many cancers, is stimulated by VEGF family members. This effect is generally considered to be mediated via VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. However, the role of specific receptors and their downstream signaling pathways is not well understood. Methods and Results Here we delineate the VEGF-C/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 signaling pathway in LECs and show that VEGF-C induces activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk. Furthermore, activation of PI3K/Akt by VEGF-C/VEGFR-3 resulted in phosphorylation of P70S6K, eNOS, PLCγ1, and Erk1/2. Importantly, a direct interaction between PI3K and VEGFR-3 in LECs was demonstrated both in vitro and in clinical cancer specimens. This interaction was strongly associated with the presence of lymph node metastases in primary small cell carcinoma of the lung in clinical specimens. Blocking PI3K activity abolished VEGF-C-stimulated LEC tube formation and migration. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that specific VEGFR-3 signaling pathways are activated in LECs by VEGF-C. The importance of PI3K in VEGF-C/VEGFR-3-mediated lymphangiogenesis provides a potential therapeutic target for the inhibition of lymphatic metastasis.
The devil is in the detail - a multifactorial intervention to reduce blood pressure in co-existing diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a single blind, randomized controlled trial
Allison F Williams, Elizabeth Manias, Rowan G Walker
BMC Family Practice , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-11-3
Abstract: We developed a multifactorial intervention consisting of Self Blood Pressure Monitoring (SBPM), medication review, a twenty-minute interactive Digital Versatile Disc (DVD), and follow-up support telephone calls to help consumers improve their blood pressure control and take their medications as prescribed. The intervention is novel in that it has been developed from analysis of consumer and health professional views, and includes consumer video exemplars in the DVD. The primary outcome measure was a drop of 3-6 mmHg systolic blood pressure at three months after completion of the intervention. Secondary outcome measures included: assessment of medication adherence, medication self-efficacy and general wellbeing. Consumers' adherence to their prescribed medications was measured by manual pill count, self-report of medication adherence, and surrogate biochemical markers of disease control.The management of complex health problems is an increasing component of health care practice, and requires interventions that improve patient outcomes. We describe the preparatory work and baseline data of a single blind, randomized controlled trial involving consumers requiring cross-specialty care with a follow-up period extending to 12 months post-baseline.The trial was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN12607000044426).The prevalence of chronic diseases continues to increase, necessitating sustained self-management of medications by consumers in the community and long term monitoring by health professionals. Diabetes and chronic kidney disease are two such rapidly escalating global health problems [1], and diabetes is now the most common cause of chronic kidney disease [2]. Irrespective of the cause of chronic kidney disease, the co-existence of diabetes and chronic kidney disease presents a significant health, social and economic burden and negatively influences health status beyond the sum of the effects of each disease: mortality is hi
Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome
Elizabeth A Williams, XuiLi Nai, Bernard M Corfe
BMC Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-11-9
Abstract: 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population.The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes.The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder. It is characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits, in the absence of any structural abnormality or organic lesion. This disorder affects approximately 10% of the world's population [1] In the developed world, IBS is the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder and is found predominantly in women[2].There are three recognised variants of IBS: diarrhoea-predominant (Type D), constipation-predominant (Type C), and an alternating pattern (Type A). The Rome Criteria define a frequency of symptoms including abdominal pain and change in stool frequency, stool consistency or relief of pain upon defecation, bloating, flatulence, passage of mucus, straining, urgency or incomplete evacuation, which allow diagnosis.Subjects with IBS have lower quality of life, are more likely to use health service resources, and have higher work absenteeism than healthy controls [3]. The cause of IBS remains unknown, although many different etiology theories have been postulated including disrupted gut microbiota function, immunolo
Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis
Patricia B Williams, Elizabeth Crandall, John D Sheppard
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S13479
Abstract: zelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis Review (4142) Total Article Views Authors: Patricia B Williams, Elizabeth Crandall, John D Sheppard Published Date September 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 993 - 1001 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S13479 Patricia B Williams1,2, Elizabeth Crandall2, John D Sheppard1,2 1Thomas R Lee Center for Ocular Pharmacology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, A, USA Abstract: Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular -symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern.
Azelastine hydrochloride, a dual-acting anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution, for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis
Patricia B Williams,Elizabeth Crandall,John D Sheppard
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: Patricia B Williams1,2, Elizabeth Crandall2, John D Sheppard1,21Thomas R Lee Center for Ocular Pharmacology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, A, USAAbstract: Over 50% of patients who seek treatment for allergies present with ocular -symptoms. Our current ability to control ocular allergic symptoms is greater than ever before. Newer dual-acting topical eyedrops attack multiple facets of the allergic cascade. Azelastine has antihistaminic effects providing immediate relief, mast cell stabilization providing early-phase intervention, and inhibition of expression and activation of anti-inflammatory mediators which characterize the late phase of the immune reaction. The ophthalmic eyedrop formulation is approved for treatment of allergic conjunctivitis in adults and children aged over 3 years. In clinical trials comparing azelastine with other dual-acting eyedrops, such as levocabastine and olopatadine, azelastine was reported to be slightly less efficacious and to sting briefly upon administration. Even so, many patients experienced the full benefit of symptom relief, and preferred azelastine. As a broad-spectrum drug, azelastine offers many desirable properties for management of ocular allergies. Because it can often produce maximal effect with just twice-daily dosing, azelastine is a particularly good choice for the allergic population in whom minimizing exposure to topical products and preservatives is a key concern.Keywords: allergic conjunctivitis, dual acting anti-inflammatory, H1 receptor antagonism, mast cell stabilization, inflammatory mediator inhibition
Structural characterisation of polycrystalline colloidal monolayers in the presence of aspherical impurities
Andrew T. Gray,Elizabeth Mould,C. Patrick Royall,Ian Williams
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/19/194108
Abstract: Impurities in crystalline materials introduce disorder into an otherwise ordered structure due to the formation of lattice defects and grain boundaries. The properties of the resulting polycrystal can differ remarkably from those of the ideal single crystal. Here we investigate a quasi-two-dimensional system of colloidal spheres containing a small fraction of aspherical impurities and characterise the resulting polycrystalline monolayer. We find that, in the vicinity of an impurity, the underlying hexagonal lattice is deformed due to a preference for 5-fold co-ordinated particles adjacent to impurities. This results in a reduction in local hexagonal ordering around an impurity. Increasing the concentration of impurities leads to an increase in the number of these defects and consequently a reduction in system-wide hexagonal ordering and a corresponding increase in entropy as measured from the distribution of Voronoi cell areas. Furthermore, through both considering orientational correlations and directly identifying crystalline domains we observe a decrease in the average polycrystalline grain size on increasing the concentration of impurities. Our data show that, for the concentrations considered, local structural modifications due to the presence of impurities are independent of their concentration, while structure on longer lengthscales (i.e. the size of polycrystalline grains) is determined by the impurity concentration.
Indoor Air Quality in Central Appalachia Homes Impacted by Wood and Coal Use  [PDF]
Laura M. Paulin, D’Ann Williams, Charles Oberweiser, Gregory B. Diette, Patrick N. Breysse, Meredith M. McCormack, Elizabeth C. Matsui, Roger Peng, Tricia A. Metts, Nadia N. Hansel
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.41007
Abstract:

Though the high prevalence of biomass fuel use in the developing world is widely known, the use of burning biomass for cooking and heating in the developed world is under-recognized. Combustion materials including coal and wood are also used for heating in some areas of the United States. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting indoor environmental monitoring in rural Appalachia. We sought to explore the type of biomass being used for home heating and its impact upon indoor air quality in non-heating and heating seasons. Residential indoor air monitoring for particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was conducted in Lee County, Virginia. Homes had evidence of poor indoor air quality with high concentrations of indoor PM and a large burden of cigarette smoking. Further characterization of indoor combustion material use in this region to determine the health impacts associated with such exposures is warranted.

Macronutrient Intake Influences the Effect of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D Status on Metabolic Syndrome Outcomes in African American Girls
Anna L. Newton,Lynae J. Hanks,Ambika P. Ashraf,Elizabeth Williams,Michelle Davis,Krista Casazza
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/581432
Abstract: The objectives were to determine the effect of macronutrient modification on vitamin D status and if change in 25-hydroxy-vitamin D concentration influences components of metabolic syndrome in obese African American girls. Methods. Five-week intervention using reduced CHO (43% carbohydrate; 27% fat: SPEC) versus standard CHO (55% carbohydrate; 40% fat: STAN) eucaloric diet. Subjects were 28 obese African American females, aged 9–14 years. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and meal test were performed at baseline and five weeks. Results. Approximately 30% of girls had metabolic syndrome. Serum 25OHD increased in both groups at five weeks [STAN: 20.3 ± 1.1 to 22.4 ± 1.1 (<0.05) versus SPEC: 16.1±1.0 to 16.8±1.0 (=0.05)]. The STAN group, increased 25OHD concentration over five weeks (<0.05), which was positively related to triglycerides (<0.001) and inversely associated with total cholesterol (<0.001) and LDL (<0.001). The SPEC group, had increase in 25OHD (=0.05), which was positively related to fasting insulin (<0.001) and insulin sensitivity while inversely associated with fasting glucose (<0.05). The contribution of vitamin D status to metabolic syndrome parameters differs according to macronutrient intake. Improvement in 25OHD may improve fasting glucose, insulin sensitivity, and LDL; however, macronutrient intake warrants consideration.
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