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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8657 matches for " Elizabeth Osterndorff-Kahanek "
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Gene Expression in Brain and Liver Produced by Three Different Regimens of Alcohol Consumption in Mice: Comparison with Immune Activation
Elizabeth Osterndorff-Kahanek, Igor Ponomarev, Yuri A. Blednov, R. Adron Harris
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059870
Abstract: Chronically available alcohol escalates drinking in mice and a single injection of the immune activator lipopolysaccharide can mimic this effect and result in a persistent increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol drinking and lipopolysaccharide injections will produce some similar molecular changes that play a role in regulation of alcohol intake. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of chronic alcohol consumption or lipopolysaccharide insult by gene expression profiling in prefrontal cortex and liver of C57BL/6J mice. We identified similar patterns of transcriptional changes among four groups of animals, three consuming alcohol (vs water) in different consumption tests and one injected with lipopolysaccharide (vs. vehicle). The three tests of alcohol consumption are the continuous chronic two bottle choice (Chronic), two bottle choice available every other day (Chronic Intermittent) and limited access to one bottle of ethanol (Drinking in the Dark). Gene expression changes were more numerous and marked in liver than in prefrontal cortex for the alcohol treatments and similar in the two tissues for lipopolysaccharide. Many of the changes were unique to each treatment, but there was significant overlap in prefrontal cortex for Chronic-Chronic Intermittent and for Chronic Intermittent-lipopolysaccharide and in liver all pairs showed overlap. In silico cell-type analysis indicated that lipopolysaccharide had strongest effects on brain microglia and liver Kupffer cells. Pathway analysis detected a prefrontal cortex-based dopamine-related (PPP1R1B, DRD1, DRD2, FOSB, PDNY) network that was highly over-represented in the Chronic Intermittent group, with several genes from the network being also regulated in the Chronic and lipopolysaccharide (but not Drinking in the Dark) groups. Liver showed a CYP and GST centered metabolic network shared in part by all four treatments. We demonstrate common consequences of chronic alcohol consumption and immune activation in both liver and brain and show distinct genomic consequences of different types of alcohol consumption.
GABAA Receptors Containing ρ1 Subunits Contribute to In Vivo Effects of Ethanol in Mice
Yuri A. Blednov, Jillian M. Benavidez, Mendy Black, Courtney R. Leiter, Elizabeth Osterndorff-Kahanek, David Johnson, Cecilia M. Borghese, Jane R. Hanrahan, Graham A. R. Johnston, Mary Chebib, R. Adron Harris
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085525
Abstract: GABAA receptors consisting of ρ1, ρ2, or ρ3 subunits in homo- or hetero-pentamers have been studied mainly in retina but are detected in many brain regions. Receptors formed from ρ1 are inhibited by low ethanol concentrations, and family-based association analyses have linked ρ subunit genes with alcohol dependence. We determined if genetic deletion of ρ1 in mice altered in vivo ethanol effects. Null mutant male mice showed reduced ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice test with no differences in preference for saccharin or quinine. Null mutant mice of both sexes demonstrated longer duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR), and males were more sensitive to ethanol-induced motor sedation. In contrast, ρ1 null mice showed faster recovery from acute motor incoordination produced by ethanol. Null mutant females were less sensitive to ethanol-induced development of conditioned taste aversion. Measurement of mRNA levels in cerebellum showed that deletion of ρ1 did not change expression of ρ2, α2, or α6 GABAA receptor subunits. (S)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ1” antagonist), when administered to wild type mice, mimicked the changes that ethanol induced in ρ1 null mice (LORR and rotarod tests), but the ρ1 antagonist did not produce these effects in ρ1 null mice. In contrast, (R)-4-amino-cyclopent-1-enyl butylphosphinic acid (“ρ2” antagonist) did not change ethanol actions in wild type but produced effects in mice lacking ρ1 that were opposite of the effects of deleting (or inhibiting) ρ1. These results suggest that ρ1 has a predominant role in two in vivo effects of ethanol, and a role for ρ2 may be revealed when ρ1 is deleted. We also found that ethanol produces similar inhibition of function of recombinant ρ1 and ρ2 receptors. These data indicate that ethanol action on GABAA receptors containing ρ1/ρ2 subunits may be important for specific effects of ethanol in vivo.
Family Structure and Psychological Health in Young Adults  [PDF]
Tony Cassidy, Elizabeth Wright, Elizabeth Noon
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.510129

This study explored the effect of the gendered structure of siblings in intact and non-intact families, on family relations, social support, perceived control, and psychological distress in a sample of 708 young adults (294 males and 414 females) aged between 18 - 21 years. Of the sample 96 were singletons, 208 had both a brother and sister, 206 had a brother and no sister, and 198 had a sister and no brother. While the results show that both the gender of the participants and the gender of the sibling seem to impact on distress and its mediators; the more important factor is the gender of siblings. In essence the presence of a female sibling is associated with more perceived support, control and optimism, and with lower pessimism and psychological distress. The presence of a female is also associated with better family relations overall and it is suggested that the main mechanism for this positive impact of female siblings is through the lowered conflict and increased expressiveness and cohesion experienced in female versus male dominated sibling groups.

Design of Sharp 2D Multiplier-Less Circularly Symmetric FIR Filter Using Harmony Search Algorithm and Frequency Transformation  [PDF]
Manju Manuel, Elizabeth Elias
Journal of Signal and Information Processing (JSIP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2012.33044
Abstract: In this paper, we present a novel and efficient method for the design of a sharp, two dimensional (2D) wideband, circularly symmetric, FIR filter. First of all, a sharp one dimensional (1D) infinite precision FIR filter is designed using the Frequency Response Masking (FRM) technique. This filter is converted into a multiplier-less filter by representing it in the Canonic Signed Digit (CSD) space. The design of the FRM filter in the CSD space calls for the use of a discrete optimization technique. To this end, a new optimization approach is proposed using a modified Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA). HSA is modified in such a way that, in every exploitation and exploration phase, the candidate solutions turns out to be integers. The 1D FRM multiplier-less filter, is in turn transformed to the 2D equivalent using the recently proposed multiplier-less transformations namely, T1 and T2. These transformations are successful in generating circular contours even for wideband filters. Since multipliers are the most power consuming elements in a 2D filter, the multiplier-less realization calls for reduced power consumption as well as computation time. Significant reduction in the computational complexity and computation time are the highlights of our proposed design technique. Besides, the proposed discrete optimization using modified HSA can be used to solve optimization problems in other engineering disciplines, where the search space consists of integers.
Ramifications Associated with Child Abuse  [PDF]
Hannah Mills, Elizabeth McCarroll
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.24036
Abstract: The incidence of child abuse has become quite prevalent and may be referred to as a global phenomenon (Pala, Unalacak, & Unluoglu, 2011). In terms of a global phenomenon, it may be significant to assess negative ramifications that are in existence for children’s overall social, emotional, and cognitive maturation (DeOliveira, Bailey, Moran, & Pederson, 2004). Specifically, preschool children who are abused within their home environments are less likely to detect variations in emotional expressions as compared to preschoolers who have not been abused (Pollak, Cicchetti, Hornung, & Reed, 2000). In regards to the domain of cognitive development, children who are reared in abusive home environments are likely to display overactive behaviors and exhibit less concentration (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). In relation, children reared in abusive environments are less likely to perform at high levels in regards to their math and reading abilities (Crozer & Barth, 2005). Thus, the act of child abuse may also be better well understood by assessing parenting styles and how they play a role with affecting the type of behaviors they elicit towards their children (Baumrind, 1994). For instance, specific traits or factors related to individuals’ parenting abilities, such as stress, depression, domestic violence, incarceration, and psychological difficulties may be more likely to abuse their children as opposed to parents who do not obtain these traits or factors (Nair, Schular, Black, Kettinger, & Harrington, 2003). Implications in regards to the prevalence of child abuse may be quite significant, especially considering psychological ramifications that may surface due to the act of children’s exposure to abuse (Johnson et al., 2002). For instance, children may be more likely to suppress, or internalize their emotions due to the exposure to child abuse and they may be more likely to externalize, or exhibit certain behaviors in an outward fashion towards others due to the immersion within environments comprised of child abuse (Schatz, Smith, Borkowski, Whitman, & Keogh, 2008). Furthermore, professionals who obtain the knowledge about child abuse may better serve families and children who have experienced abuse within their lives.
Popularity, likeability, and risk-taking in middle adolescence  [PDF]
Stephanie Hawke, Elizabeth Rieger
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.56A3007

This study investigated the roles of adolescent popularity and likeability in eight domains of risk-taking in Australian grade 9 students (53% girls). The eight domains included previously examined areas of aggressive behaviours, alcohol use, and sexual intercourse, and areas where there is scarce information, including antisocial activities, unprotected intercourse, body image-related risk-taking, unsafe road practices, and stranger-related risk-taking. The results indicated a clear association between popularity and higher risk-taking in five of the eight domains. This is contrasted with likeability, which was not directly related to risk-taking aside from one two-way interaction with gender for sexual intercourse. The findings demonstrate the importance of including a broader range of risk-taking activities when considering popularity, particularly stranger-related risk-taking.

Extremes of Severe Storm Environments under a Changing Climate  [PDF]
Elizabeth Mannshardt, Eric Gilleland
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2013.23A005

One of the more critical issues in a changing climate is the behavior of extreme weather events, such as severe tornadic storms as seen recently in Moore and El Reno, Oklahoma. It is generally thought that such events would increase under a changing climate. How to evaluate this extreme behavior is a topic currently under much debate and investigation. One approach is to look at the behavior of large scale indicators of severe weather. The use of the generalized extreme value distribution for annual maxima is explored for a combination product of convective available potential energy and wind shear. Results from this initial study show successful modeling and high quantile prediction using extreme value methods. Predicted large scale values are consistent across different extreme value modeling frameworks, and a general increase over time in predicted values is indicated. A case study utilizing this methodology considers the large scale atmospheric indicators for the region of Moore, Oklahoma for Class EF5 tornadoes on May 3, 1999 and more recently on May 20, 2013, and for the class EF5 storm in El Reno, Oklahoma on May 31, 2013.

What Does “Noise Pollution” Mean?  [PDF]
Alice Elizabeth González
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.54037

Noise features different characteristics that make it different from every other “classic” pollutant. Noise is invisible; it does not smell; it disappears when the source is turned off and leaves no traces in the environment. In addition, when people perceive something wrong about their hearing capacity, it is often long time after the beginning of noise exposure. This fact contributes to strengthening the misconception that noise is not harmful to human health or, at least, efforts and funds aim preferably at controling and decreasing the emission of other pollutants. Adding to this, most people tend to consider that noise is the price to pay for accessing to the amenities of the Technological Era and it is indivisible and inevitably linked to them. Last but not least, noise pollution could adversely affect ecosystems and ecological services. Then, how is it possible to convince the decision makers that noise pollution is one of the major current environmental problems? The aim of this paper is to discuss step by step the applicability of noise of a “pollution” definition, as a way to ease the understanding that lowering environmental noise levels should be prioritized: because it will lead to a healthier and better society.

Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Will Not Reduce in Low Resource Countries without the Anaesthetists’ Involvement  [PDF]
Elizabeth Ogboli-Nwasor
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.45037

Background: Maternal and foetal mortality is unacceptably high in most resource-limited countries and the practice of obstetric anaesthesia has an important influence on outcome for both mother and baby. The much needed close co-operation and collaboration between obstetricians and obstetric anaesthetist providers is crucial for the safety and comfort of parturients, particularly in low-resource environments. The current global maternal mortality is approximately 400 per 100,000 deliveries, with a range of 7 - 740 deaths per 100,000, demonstrating the inequality between the rich and poor countries. Many of the deaths could have been prevented by better essential obstetrics services including safe anaesthesia and surgery, provided such services are made available in a timely manner. Conclusion: Maternal mortality in low resource countries has its basis complex social, economic and political factors, underpinned by a lack of resources. Many of these factors are difficult and slow to resolve and are not specific to maternal health. Comprehensive essential obstetric care services at the district hospital level (first referral level) should include all the above plus safe surgery, safe anaesthesia, and blood transfusion. Government, donor agencies and all stakeholders must recognize the crucial role of anaesthesia in providing emergency obstetric care in hospitals. Advocacy by all concerned will help direct the scarce resources to the appropriate areas of need which includes provision of adequate facilities and manpower for safe anaesthesia.

Rhododendron Uses and Distribution of this Knowledge within Ethnic Groups in Northwest Yunnan Province, China  [PDF]
Elizabeth Georgian, Eve Emshwiller
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.41018
Abstract: This research investigated the interplay between nature and culture by focusing on knowledge about the genus Rhododendron in seven ethnic minorities (Bai, Dulong, Lisu, Naxi, Nu, Tibetan, and Yi) and the majority (Han) in Yunnan Province, China. Ethnobotanical uses of rhododendron were determined by interviewing 252 individuals. Using these data, we investigated patterns of knowledge distribution within each ethnic group and the majority to gain an understanding of who holds specific types of ethnobotanical knowledge. We conducted additional interviews with a subset of the interviewees to discuss their perception of knowledge loss and possible solutions. We find that every ethnic minority and the Han had uses for Rhododendron and that this knowledge is distributed unevenly within each ethnic group. Rhododendron knowledge is distributed by age, gender, or distance from tourist areas for use categories such as knowledge of songs, handicrafts, religious uses, and tourism. Additionally, 67.5% of 84 interviewees believe that ethnobotanical knowledge is being lost.
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