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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 407966 matches for " Elizabeth M. Yako "
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Maintenance of the selected infant feeding methods amongst postnatal mothers at risk of HIV in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Elizabeth M. Yako,Noreen P.B. Nzama
Health SA Gesondheid , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hsag.v18i1.585
Abstract: The focus of this study was to explore and describe influences on decision making related to infant feeding methods in the context of HIV and AIDS. Study objectives were: (1) to explore and describe the influences on decision making related to infant feeding methods selected by the mother during the antenatal period and (2) to describe the reasons related to a change in infant feeding method in the postnatal period. This cross-sectional study used the quantitative approach and a descriptive design. A convenience sample of 60 mothers in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission programme participated in this study. Data were collected six weeks post-delivery and analysed using SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. The mean age of the mothers was 26.5 years, range 19 to 41 years (SD 5.3). At six weeks 73%(n= 44) of the mothers maintained the infant feeding method selected antenatally and 27%(n= 16) had changed methods. Using a Chi-square test, the difference between groups was significant (x2[df 1] = 19, p < 0.000). Every HIV-positive mother (100%, n= 28) continued with the method selected antenatally, compared with 50%(n = 16) of all HIV-negative mothers (n = 32). The reasons for deciding to change methods included going back to school or work; illness of babies; painful breasts; and advice from significant others. Most mothers maintained the feeding methods selected antenatally. HIV-positive mothers were more likely to adhere to the initial decisions made antenatally than HIV-negative mothers.
Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs about Dementia in an Urban Xhosa-Speaking Community in South Africa  [PDF]
V. Khonje, C. Milligan, Y. Yako, M. Mabelane, K. E. Borochowitz, C. A. de Jager
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2015.42004
Abstract: Background: Dementia, a debilitating condition, requires particular attention in Southern Africa where there is a dearth of prevalence data. Population ageing and other risk factors are driving an increasing incidence of dementia. However, limited knowledge and understanding may impact the attitudes and practices towards persons with dementia. Aim: To investigate the relationship between the knowledge of dementia, its effect on the attitudes and practices toward people with dementia in an urban community setting. To determine the perceived availability of services for those with dementia, the awareness of elder abuse and care-giver burden. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Khayelitsha. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used with assistance from isiXhosa speaking translators. A sample of 100 individuals was surveyed door-to-door from both the informal and formal housing settlements, using cluster random sampling methods. Results: There was deficient knowledge about dementia, with an average accuracy of 53.44% on the knowledge test. Only 10% reported knowing what dementia was. Participants had generally tolerant views about people with dementia. No significant relationship was found between knowledge and attitudes about dementia. There was a significant difference between people who would share their house with a family member with dementia or send them to nursing homes (p = 0.03). 64% of participants knew what elder abuse was. 19% knew of an elder who had been abused; amongst the most common forms reported were being locked alone in their house and being deprived of food. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge about dementia was limited with no relationship to attitudes of high tolerance towards people with dementia. Elder abuse was well recognized, but poorly reported. Appropriate health promotion strategies and education should be conducted and further research should be done into dementia in South Africa.
Managing Conflict in a Time Critical Environment—A Neglected Non-Technical Skill Submission for Special Edition—Team Management  [PDF]
Elizabeth M. Norris
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.62013
Abstract: The aim of this study was to the explore the nature of conflict and increase the understanding of the role of conflict as a non-technical skill, drawing on literature from organizational behaviour, leadership, patient safety and medical simulation. The review highlights the different conflict types in time critical settings, both emotional and constructive. It proposes that it may be possible to use this knowledge to enable team leaders and team members to be aware of “emotional” or “dysfunctional” conflict, and appreciate when it is about to escalate and consider strategies that could be useful in such a setting to defuse it. “Emotional conflict” is often exacerbated by stress and/or previous learned feelings of failure or helplessness. If individuals learn to recognise conflict does not have to be destructive and learn techniques such as reappraising a situation, active listening and good respectful communication with team members, the emotional climate in teams could be improved and useful discussion regarding patient care would ensue. Finally the study hopes to show how teams could make use of “constructive” conflict to improve team function, team member confidence and a flattening of hierarchies within the team.
Optimal Waist-to-Height Ratio Values for Cardiometabolic Risk Screening in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of South African Urban and Rural School Boys and Girls
Tandi E. Matsha, Andre-Pascal Kengne, Yandiswa Y. Yako, Gloudina M. Hon, Mogamat S. Hassan, Rajiv T. Erasmus
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071133
Abstract: Background The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. Methods Metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10–16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden’s index and the closest-top-left (CTL) point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. Results The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5), but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4) and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7) based on the Youden’s index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden’s index0.505 (31.6, 87.1) and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9). Conclusion The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.
Supracervical Lymph Node Biopsy under Local Anesthesia: A Cautionary Tale!  [PDF]
Steven D. Boggs, Elizabeth A. M. Frost
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.53009
Abstract: A middle aged woman was scheduled for supracervical lymph node biopsy under local anesthesia. A scheduling conflict caused a significant operating room delay and she became very nervous. A surgical resident asked for anesthetic assistance in calming the patient. Assured that the case was under local anesthesia only, the anesthesiologist gave the patient soda to drink. In the operating room, the lady could not tolerate the procedure but as she now was at risk for aspiration, the anesthesiologist suggested the case be terminated and rescheduled. The surgeon disagreed and continued but was confronted with substantial bleeding. Emergency induction of general anesthesia was required. Postoperatively bleeding continued requiring re-exploration and intensive care unit admission. The patient developed a compressive left brachial plexopathy. The anatomy of the area indicated that general anesthesia was the preferred technique. The importance of team work and communication is underscored. Complications are more frequent when perioperative changes are made.
Forgiving Significant Interpersonal Offenses: The Role of Victim/Offender Racial Similarity  [PDF]
Courtney Cornick, Jessica M. Schultz, Benjamin Tallman, Elizabeth M. Altmaier
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.29141
Abstract: The influence of victim/offender racial similarity on victim forgiveness was investigated in a study of interpersonal transgressions. It was hypothesized that racial similarity between victim and offender would influence forgiveness only for transgressions that were less distressing for the victim. Participants were 104 adults (45 Black and 59 White) who provided a narrative description of a significant interpersonal transgression they had experienced and completed measures of transgression-related distress and forgiveness. Forgiveness was measured as positive (benevolence) and negative (revenge, avoidance) motivations toward the offender. For negative motive- tions, revenge and avoidance, there was no effect of racial similarity: more severe distress was associated with less forgiveness for all victim/offender pairings. However, the results revealed a significant interaction of victim/offender racial similarity and distress for positive motivations: Black victims reported increased benevolence towards Black offenders after more distressing transgressions. Victims in other racial combinations reported reduced benevolence for more distressing transgressions. In group favoring of Black offenders by Black victims may be an unexplored aspect of forgiveness. Little research has addressed the potential influence of context on interpersonal forgiveness, and this study suggests that these influences may play an important role.
The Threat of Instability: Neurodegeneration Predicted by Protein Destabilization and Aggregation Propensity
Elizabeth M. Meiering
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060193
The role of organizational research in implementing evidence-based practice: QUERI Series
Elizabeth M Yano
Implementation Science , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-3-29
Abstract: Using the six-step QUERI process as a foundation, we present an organizational research framework designed to improve and accelerate the implementation of evidence-based practice into routine care. Specific QUERI-related organizational research applications are reviewed, with discussion of the measures and methods used to apply them. We describe these applications in the context of a continuum of organizational research activities to be conducted before, during and after implementation.Since QUERI's inception, various approaches to organizational research have been employed to foster progress through QUERI's six-step process. We report on how explicit integration of the evaluation of organizational factors into QUERI planning has informed the design of more effective care delivery system interventions and enabled their improved "fit" to individual VA facilities or practices. We examine the value and challenges in conducting organizational research, and briefly describe the contributions of organizational theory and environmental context to the research framework.Understanding the organizational context of delivering evidence-based practice is a critical adjunct to efforts to systematically improve quality. Given the size and diversity of VA practices, coupled with unique organizational data sources, QUERI is well-positioned to make valuable contributions to the field of implementation science. More explicit accommodation of organizational inquiry into implementation research agendas has helped QUERI researchers to better frame and extend their work as they move toward regional and national spread activities.Health care organizations exert significant influence on the quality of care through an array of factors that directly or indirectly serve as the context in which clinicians practice and patients experience care [1]. A greater understanding of this context can be important in closing the gap between research and practice. Each health care setting into which innov
Kehr M.,Elizabeth;
Agricultura Técnica , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072002000400002
Abstract: the susceptibility to chilling damage (dpe) with sweet peppers (capsicum annuum l.) was evaluated in the tolerant cultivar el paso, and in the susceptible cultivar ?king arthur?. the effect of different post-harvest treatments on the reduction of chilling injury was evaluated. transplanting was carried out in december 2000, at the julio ortúzar p. experimental station located close to santiago, of the pontificia universidad católica de chile, with a density of 31 250 plants ha-1, 0.4 m on the row and 0.8 m between rows, with furrow irrigation. the fertilization dose was calculated according to soil analysis, and pest and disease control according to a previously defined application timetable. the experiments were carried out at the post-harvest laboratory of the crop department. the results verified the degree of susceptibility of cultivars, with 18.6% damaged in king arthur fruit and 7.7% damaged in el paso. the immersion in hot water at 60oc for one minute diminished chilling damage by 58%, and plastic film coverage by 91%, with 15 days storage at 0oc and 90% relative humidity, maintaining good product appearance for 3 day extended storage period at 20oc and 50% relative humidity. the chemical products calcium chloride, methylcyclopropene (mcp) and methyl jasmonate did not have an effect on reducing chilling damage
El estudio de la clase común: el asentamiento de Xaltocan durante el Posclásico en la cuenca de México
Brumfiel, Elizabeth M.;
Cuicuilco , 2009,
Abstract: bill sanders was devoted to the study of commoners, the mass of the population who with their labor sustained the opulent lifestyle of the ruling elites. through regional survey, bill sanders and his students traced the history of commoners from the remains of their agricultural landscapes and their settlement patterns. this paper seeks to answer two questions regarding the status of commoners in the postclassic basin of mexico. first, did commoners benefit from aztec rule? did the political unification of the central mexican symbiotic region permit the exchange of products across ecological zones, foster specialization and produce a higher standard of living for commoners despite the tribute payments demanded by the aztecs? second, did commoners contribute ideas as well as labor to the social development of postclassic mesoamerica? if, as sanders claimed, "innovations and variations are constantly arising" that permit societies to adapt more effectively to their environments, were commoners a source of innovation or was innovation the product of urban-based administrators, priests and craftsmen? household archaeology at postclassic xaltocan in the northern basin of mexico enables us to address these questions.
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