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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8745 matches for " Elizabeth Frew "
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Capturing the Data: Nutrition Risk Screening of Adults in Hospital
Elizabeth Frew,Robyn Cant,Jennifer Sequeira
Nutrients , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/nu2040438
Abstract: This study aims to explore limitations with the Malnutrition Screening Tool in identifying malnutrition risk, in a cohort of 3,033 adult Australian medical and surgical hospital inpatients. Seventy-two percent of patients were screened; illness and medical care limited access to others. Malnutrition risk (16.5%; n = 501) was found in all age groups with a trend to higher risk in medical wards; 10% (n = 300) of patients with communication barriers were excluded. Systematic screening increased dietitians’ referrals by 39%. Further research is required to enable screening of all patients, including those with communication issues with an easy to use valid tool.
Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System vs. Usual Medical Treatment for Menorrhagia: An Economic Evaluation Alongside a Randomised Controlled Trial
Sabina Sanghera, Tracy Elizabeth Roberts, Pelham Barton, Emma Frew, Jane Daniels, Lee Middleton, Laura Gennard, Joe Kai, Janesh Kumar Gupta
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091891
Abstract: Objective To undertake an economic evaluation alongside the largest randomised controlled trial comparing Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (‘LNG-IUS’) and usual medical treatment for women with menorrhagia in primary care; and compare the cost-effectiveness findings using two alternative measures of quality of life. Methods 571 women with menorrhagia from 63 UK centres were randomised between February 2005 and July 2009. Women were randomised to having a LNG-IUS fitted, or usual medical treatment, after discussing with their general practitioner their contraceptive needs or desire to avoid hormonal treatment. The treatment was specified prior to randomisation. For the economic evaluation we developed a state transition (Markov) model with a 24 month follow-up. The model structure was informed by the trial women's pathway and clinical experts. The economic evaluation adopted a UK National Health Service perspective and was based on an outcome of incremental cost per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) estimated using both EQ-5D and SF-6D. Results Using EQ-5D, LNG-IUS was the most cost-effective treatment for menorrhagia. LNG-IUS costs £100 more than usual medical treatment but generated 0.07 more QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for LNG-IUS compared to usual medical treatment was £1600 per additional QALY. Using SF-6D, usual medical treatment was the most cost-effective treatment. Usual medical treatment was both less costly (£100) and generated 0.002 more QALYs. Conclusion Impact on quality of life is the primary indicator of treatment success in menorrhagia. However, the most cost-effective treatment differs depending on the quality of life measure used to estimate the QALY. Under UK guidelines LNG-IUS would be the recommended treatment for menorrhagia. This study demonstrates that the appropriate valuation of outcomes in menorrhagia is crucial.
Radiotherapy for management of skin cancers in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva: A case report and review of the literature
Frew John,Kelly Charles
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2008,
Abstract: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare condition of ectopic calcification leading to increasing disability throughout life, with most patients being wheelchair bound by the age of 30. Ectopic calcification can be triggered by trauma and it is therefore important to minimize biopsies and operative procedures in affected individuals. We report a 46-year-old FOP patient who was successfully treated with radiotherapy for a basal cell carcinoma. There are no previous reports in the literature on the management of skin malignancies in these patients and very limited literature on outcome following external beam radiotherapy.
A Revised Historical Light Curve of Eta Carinae and the Timing of Close Periastron Encounters
Nathan Smith,David J. Frew
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18993.x
Abstract: The historical light curve of the 19th century "Great Eruption" of etaCar provides a striking record of violent instabilies encountered by the most massive stars. We report and analyze newly uncovered historical estimates of the visual brightness of etaCar during its eruption, and we correct some mistakes in the original record. The revised light curve looks substantially different from previous accounts: it shows two brief eruptions in 1838 and 1843 that resemble modern supernova impostors, while the final brightening in December 1844 marks the time when etaCar reached its peak brightness. We consider the timing of brightening events as they pertain to the putative binary system in etaCar: (1) The brief 1838 and 1843 events peaked within weeks of periastron if the pre-1845 orbital period is shorter than at present due to the mass loss of the eruption. Each event lasted only 100 days. (2) The main brightening at the end of 1844 has no conceivable association with periastron, beginning more than 1.5yr afterward. It lasted 10yr, with no obvious influence of periastron encounters during that time. (3) The 1890 eruption began to brighten at periastron, but took over 1yr to reach maximum and remained there for almost 10yr. A second periastron passage midway through the 1890 eruption had no effect. While evidence for a link between periastron encounters and the two brief precursor events is compelling, the differences between the three cases above make it difficult to explain all three phenomena with the same mechanism.
Planetary Nebulae: Observational Properties, Mimics, and Diagnostics
David J. Frew,Quentin A. Parker
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1071/AS09040
Abstract: The total number of true, likely and possible planetary nebulae (PN) now known in the Milky Way is nearly 3000, double the number known a decade ago. The new discoveries are a legacy of the recent availability of wide field, narrowband imaging surveys, primarily in the light of H-alpha. In this paper, we summarise the various PN discovery techniques, and give an overview of the many types of objects which mimic PN and which appear as contaminants in both Galactic and extragalactic samples. Much improved discrimination of classical PN from their mimics is now possible based on the wide variety of high-quality multiwavelength data sets that are now available. We offer improved taxonomic and observational definitions for the PN phenomenon based on evaluation of these better diagnostic capabilities. However, we note that evidence is increasing that the PN phenomenon is heterogeneous, and PN are likely to be formed from multiple evolutionary scenarios. In particular, the relationships between some collimated symbiotic outflows and bipolar PN remain uncertain.
Are planetary nebulae derived from multiple evolutionary scenarios?
D. J. Frew,Q. A. Parker
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921312010940
Abstract: Our understanding of planetary nebulae has been significantly enhanced as a result of several recent large surveys (Parker et al., these proceedings). These new discoveries suggest that the `PN phenomenon' is in fact more heterogeneous than previously envisaged. Even after the careful elimination of mimics from Galactic PN catalogues, there remains a surprising diversity in the population of PNe and especially their central stars. Indeed, several evolutionary scenarios are implicated in the formation of objects presently catalogued as PNe. We provide a summary of these evolutionary pathways and give examples of each. Eventually, a full census of local PNe can be used to confront both stellar evolution theory and population synthesis models.
A view of the solar neighbourhood: the local population of planetary nebulae and their mimics
David J. Frew,Quentin A. Parker
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We have, for the first time, compiled a nearly complete census of planetary nebulae (PNe) centred on the Sun. Our goal is the generation of an unbiased volume-limited sample, in order to answer some long-standing statistical questions regarding the overall population of Galactic disk PNe and their central stars. Much improved discrimination of classical PNe from their mimics is now possible based on the wide variety of high-quality multiwavelength data sets that are now available. However, we note that evidence is increasing that PNe are heterogeneous, and probably derived from multiple evolutionary scenarios. We give some preliminary data on the relative frequencies of different types of PNe in the local Galactic disk.
An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae
Duane W. Hamacher,David J. Frew
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta ({\eta}) Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated the event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of {\eta} Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date.
Planetary Nebula Surveys: Past, Present and Future
Quentin A. Parker,David J. Frew
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: In this review we cover the detection, identification and astrophysical importance of planetary nebulae (PN). The legacy of the historic Perek & Kohoutek and Acker et al. catalogues is briefly covered before highlighting the more recent but significant progress in PN discoveries in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. We place particular emphasis on the major MASH and the IPHAS catalogues, which, over the last decade alone, have essentially doubled Galactic and LMC PN numbers. We then discuss the increasing role and importance that multi-wavelength data is playing in both the detection of candidate PN and the elimination of PN mimics that have seriously biased previous PN compilations. The prospects for future surveys and current efforts and prospects for PN detections in external galaxies are briefly discussed due to their value both as cosmic distance indicators and as kinematical probes of galaxies and dark matter properties.
Prevalence of Trachoma at Sub-District Level in Ethiopia: Determining When to Stop Mass Azithromycin Distribution
Jonathan D. King ,Tesfaye Teferi,Elizabeth A. Cromwell,Mulat Zerihun,Jeremiah M. Ngondi,Mesele Damte,Frew Ayalew,Zerihun Tadesse,Teshome Gebre,Ayelign Mulualem,Alemu Karie,Berhanu Melak,Mitku Adugna,Demelash Gessesse,Abebe Worku,Tekola Endashaw,Fisseha Admassu Ayele,Nicole E. Stoller,Mary Rose A. King,Aryc W. Mosher,Tesfaye Gebregzabher,Geremew Haileysus,Peter Odermatt,Jürg Utzinger,Paul M. Emerson
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002732
Abstract: Background To eliminate blinding trachoma, the World Health Organization emphasizes implementing the SAFE strategy, which includes annual mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin to the whole population of endemic districts. Prevalence surveys to assess impact at the district level are recommended after at least 3 years of intervention. The decision to stop MDA is based on a prevalence of trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) among children aged 1–9 years below 5% at the sub-district level, as determined by an additional round of surveys limited within districts where TF prevalence is below 10%. We conducted impact surveys powered to estimate prevalence simultaneously at the sub-district and district in two zones of Amhara, Ethiopia to determine whether MDA could be stopped. Methodology Seventy-two separate population-based, sub-district surveys were conducted in 25 districts. In each survey all residents from 10 randomly selected clusters were screened for clinical signs of trachoma. Data were weighted according to selection probabilities and adjusted for correlation due to clustering. Principal Findings Overall, 89,735 residents were registered from 21,327 households of whom 72,452 people (80.7%) were examined. The prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years was below 5% in six sub-districts and two districts. Sub-district level prevalence of TF in children aged 1–9 years ranged from 0.9–76.9% and district-level from 0.9–67.0%. In only one district was the prevalence of trichiasis below 0.1%. Conclusions/Significance The experience from these zones in Ethiopia demonstrates that impact assessments designed to give a prevalence estimate of TF at sub-district level are possible, although the scale of the work was challenging. Given the assessed district-level prevalence of TF, sub-district-level surveys would have been warranted in only five districts. Interpretation was not as simple as stopping MDA in sub-districts below 5% given programmatic challenges of exempting sub-districts from a highly regarded program and the proximity of hyper-endemic sub-districts.
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