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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2728 matches for " Elisabeth Couvé "
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Two Coregulated Efflux Transporters Modulate Intracellular Heme and Protoporphyrin IX Availability in Streptococcus agalactiae
Annabelle Fernandez ,Delphine Lechardeur,Aurélie Derré-Bobillot,Elisabeth Couvé,Philippe Gaudu,Alexandra Gruss
PLOS Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000860
Abstract: Streptococcus agalactiae is a major neonatal pathogen whose infectious route involves septicemia. This pathogen does not synthesize heme, but scavenges it from blood to activate a respiration metabolism, which increases bacterial cell density and is required for full virulence. Factors that regulate heme pools in S. agalactiae are unknown. Here we report that one main strategy of heme and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) homeostasis in S. agalactiae is based on a regulated system of efflux using two newly characterized operons, gbs1753 gbs1752 (called pefA pefB), and gbs1402 gbs1401 gbs1400 (called pefR pefC pefD), where pef stands for ‘porphyrin-regulated efflux’. In vitro and in vivo data show that PefR, a MarR-superfamily protein, is a repressor of both operons. Heme or PPIX both alleviate PefR-mediated repression. We show that bacteria inactivated for both Pef efflux systems display accrued sensitivity to these porphyrins, and give evidence that they accumulate intracellularly. The ΔpefR mutant, in which both pef operons are up-regulated, is defective for heme-dependent respiration, and attenuated for virulence. We conclude that this new efflux regulon controls intracellular heme and PPIX availability in S. agalactiae, and is needed for its capacity to undergo respiration metabolism, and to infect the host.
In Vivo Transcriptional Profiling of Listeria monocytogenes and Mutagenesis Identify New Virulence Factors Involved in Infection
Ana Camejo,Carmen Buchrieser,Elisabeth Couvé,Filipe Carvalho,Olga Reis,Pierre Ferreira,Sandra Sousa,Pascale Cossart,Didier Cabanes
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000449
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a human intracellular pathogen able to colonize host tissues after ingestion of contaminated food, causing severe invasive infections. In order to gain a better understanding of the nature of host–pathogen interactions, we studied the L. monocytogenes genome expression during mouse infection. In the spleen of infected mice, ≈20% of the Listeria genome is differentially expressed, essentially through gene activation, as compared to exponential growth in rich broth medium. Data presented here show that, during infection, Listeria is in an active multiplication phase, as revealed by the high expression of genes involved in replication, cell division and multiplication. In vivo bacterial growth requires increased expression of genes involved in adaptation of the bacterial metabolism and stress responses, in particular to oxidative stress. Listeria interaction with its host induces cell wall metabolism and surface expression of virulence factors. During infection, L. monocytogenes also activates subversion mechanisms of host defenses, including resistance to cationic peptides, peptidoglycan modifications and release of muramyl peptides. We show that the in vivo differential expression of the Listeria genome is coordinated by a complex regulatory network, with a central role for the PrfA-SigB interplay. In particular, L. monocytogenes up regulates in vivo the two major virulence regulators, PrfA and VirR, and their downstream effectors. Mutagenesis of in vivo induced genes allowed the identification of novel L. monocytogenes virulence factors, including an LPXTG surface protein, suggesting a role for S-layer glycoproteins and for cadmium efflux system in Listeria virulence.
Battle against Aging and Folds: Benefit and Risks of the Semi-Permanent Fillers Polylactic Acid and Calcium Hydroxylapatite  [PDF]
Elisabeth Hanf, Ursula Gresser
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2014.32021
Abstract:

Background: Semi-permanent fillers are among the most favorable fillers on the market. Through their unique mode of action and its associated lasting aesthetic effect, they take an exceptional position. Objective: To compare the two semi-permanent fillers Poly-L-Lactic Acid (PLLA) and calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) in reference to the aesthetic result, patient satisfaction and side effects. Methods: Studies on side effects, patient satisfaction and aesthetic results after augmentation with semi-permanent fillers were analyzed. Results: Semi-permanent fillers seem excellently suited for the augmentation of very deep wrinkles particularly in the lower half of the face. In general, high patient satisfaction can be determined with both fillers. Here, the effect from the polylactic acid can be verified for up to two years while no effect could be verified already after one year in a majority of the patients augmented with CaHA. Short-term side effects such as bleedings or erythema in the region of the augmented area have been observed in both fillers during augmentation. The incidence of nodules and granulomas seems significantly higher in augmentations with PLLA compared to CaHA. Rare side effects such as an embolization of a blood vessel caused by the implant have been described for both fillers in case reports. Conclusion: Semi-permanent fillers are superbly suited for wrinkle augmentation. Which filler is the preferred one in what case depends strongly on the individual needs of the patient and the therapist’s experience.

An Assessment of Pension Insurance on the Socio-Economic Life of the Retired Population in Buea-Cameroon  [PDF]
Abia Elisabeth Achancho
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.44028
Abstract: This work aimed at evaluating the impact of pension insurance on the socio-economic life of the retired population in Buea-Cameroon. The objectives of the study were to appraise the policies and procedures used to obtain old age pension and old age allowance, and to assess the impact of old age pension and old age allowance on the socio-economic life of the retired population in Cameroon, precisely the Buea municipality. To achieve these objectives, the researcher came out with methods of data collection which included questionnaires that were administered to respondents in Buea and interviews. The said data were analysed with the help of simple regression and it was discovered from the analyses that an increase in old age pension and old age allowance will better off the socio-economic life of the retired population. Moreover, this relationship also portrays that, a fall in old age pension and old age allowance will worsen off the socio-economic life of the retired population. From these findings, the researcher recommends that, the National Social Security Fund should be able to hold seminars and give advices to the retired population on how they could better manage their retirement income, which will enable them to meet up their standard of living and satisfy their basic necessities such as their health, children’s education, feeding and many others.
The History, the Memory and the Educational Institution: A Necessary Relationship  [PDF]
Maria Elisabeth Blanck Miguel
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.79140
Abstract: This paper discusses the relationship between history, memory and the institution of the school. It builds on what the process of searching for, analyzing and interpreting sources according to a theoretical framework reveals about the way the institution of the elementary school came into being in the province of Paraná (1854-1889). Such reflections resulted from dealing with official documents, reports and letters of the public teaching (Presidents of the Province, General Inspectors of Public teaching and teachers who worked in schools) preserved in the Public Archives of Paraná. For in depth analysis we used Le Goff, Saviani, Magalhaes, Farge, Bloch, Thompson and Ciavatta. The reflections proceed from the position that teachers demonstrated originated by the schools. It is concluded that although the data presented by the people in charge at the end of the provincial period showed the failure of the school education, in fact, the work of the teachers has contributed to the process of the institution of the elementary school in the Province.
How Can Manual Rotation Reduce Vacuum, Forceps and Caesarean Deliveries?—A Review of the Evidence  [PDF]
Cathrine Os, Elisabeth Severinsson
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2017.71007
Abstract: The aim of this review was to investigate whether manual rotation can be used to reduce vacuum, forceps and caesarean deliveries in women with occiput posterior or occiput transverse positions from 7 cm dilation in labour. A search strategy was developed and relevant papers published between 1946 and January 2015 were identified from electronic databases. Key search terms used were manual and digital rotation, labour presentation, obstetric labour complications, occiput posterior and version foetal. The search revealed 330 papers. A short list of 33 publications of possible relevance was compiled and assessed using the following criteria: primary studies on the effectiveness of manual rotation performed in women with singleton occiput posterior or occiput transverse presentations published in English or the Scandinavian languages. The quality of the included studies was evaluated by means of the critical appraisal tools for quantitative studies. Seven studies were included in the thematic analysis. The results varied but the main finding was that in order to decrease vacuum, forceps and caesarean deliveries by means of manual rotation, it is essential that the procedure is successful. The success rate of manual rotation is dependent on the experience of the healthcare professionals who perform the rotation procedure rather than the technique employed. Predictors of successful manual rotation were used after engagement of the foetal head, at full dilatation and prophylactic use before failure to progress in labour. In conclusion, although the results vary, there is a consensus in all the studies that manual rotation is worth considering and that it can contribute to decreasing vacuum, forceps and caesarean deliveries. The implications for practice are that successful manual rotation can reduce caesarean delivery and increase spontaneous vaginal delivery, but experience is necessary to perform successful rotations. Because there are no risk factors associated with manual or digital rotation when performed after engagement of the head and at full dilatation, they are worth considering. The central role of the midwife in each individual labour makes her important for ensuring that manual rotation can be considered at the right time in labour.
Doing Care with Integrity and Emotional Sensibility—Reciprocal Encounters in Psychiatric Community Care of Older People with Mental Health Problems  [PDF]
Lis Bodil Karlsson, Elisabeth Rydwik
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.32025
Abstract:

The article focuses on the experiences of community care workers in the encounter with older persons suffering from mental health problems, such as mental illness and disability. The purpose is to describe and discuss opportunities for and challenges to reciprocal encounters with these older people in community care, based on statements from professionals interviewed. Structured conversations with five focus groups were organised, consisting of 26 participants, including nurses’ assistants, assistant nurses, nurses, social workers and occupational therapists. The participants in the focus groups highlight the essence of being involved and create space for a reflective attitude. Clinical implications will be presented as well.

Implementation Strategies for Improving the Care of Depressed Elderly Persons—Summary of an International Workshop  [PDF]
Elisabeth Severinsson, Anne Lise Holm
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.411076
Abstract: The aim of the study was to identify the most important research priorities as well as future strategies for promoting and implementing evidence-based care of depressed elderly persons. An interdisciplinary workshop was organized using a focus group format and the transcript of the discussion was interpreted by means of the qualitative content analysis. The most important research priorities for improving the care of depressed elderly persons, implementation levels, theoretical approaches as well as possible outcomes were analysed on individual consumer, healthcare system, and policy level. A wide range of theories and methods are necessary to identify and explain implementation processes and results. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies in combination with knowledge synthesis were discussed. In addition, the need to summarize the literature in terms of specific issues was emphasized. In conclusion, the implementation strategies for improving the care of depressed elderly persons should be addressed on three levels: individual consumer, healthcare system and policy. Although some aspects of the implementation model may need to be enhanced, the fact that it includes conditions on individual level, i.e. self-management support, is of importance. The expansion and maintenance of evidence-based care generate potential for change in mental healthcare, thus improving outcomes for individual elderly patients. Areas that require further research are organization, cost and leadership. The use of mixed methods could strengthen future studies. Implementation researchers need a broad repertoire in order to plan and perform evidence-based research. To improve practice, implementation strategies should be developed in clinical and community guidelines.
Understanding and Improving Quality of Care in the Context of Depressed Elderly Persons Living in Norway  [PDF]
Elisabeth Severinsson, Anne Lise Holm
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2014.412086
Abstract:

Effective leadership plays an important role in safe patient care. The aim of this paper was to understand and improve the implementation outcomes identified by empirical studies based on Proctors et al.’s key concepts, acceptability appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity, and to propose recommendations for further research. Methods: An interdisciplinary approach using mixed methods. Results: A total of twenty papers based on data from this interdisciplinary study have been published. Overall, our published empirical studies revealed that the CCM intervention had positive results due to staff members’ engagement to improve care, their awareness of the need for collaboration and willingness to assume responsibility for patient care. From the perspective of the depressed elderly persons the results of the research project indicated their need for support to increase self-management. In conclusion, an improved understanding of the implementation outcomes will have an impact on best practice for depressed elderly persons and dissemination purposes. Quality management and highly action-oriented involvement are necessary in implementation research. These will also affect the professional development of interdisciplinary teams as well as constitute a basis for further research on understanding and improving the care of depressed elderly individuals.

Mapping Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Suicidal Older Persons—A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Anne Lise Holm, Elisabeth Severinsson
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.53030
Abstract: Social disconnectedness in combination with depression, somatic disease, stigma, social exclusion and functional impairment has been described as a major risk factor for suicide in old age. However, protective factors have not been focused on in the same way. The aim was to identify psychosocial risk and protective factors in suicidal older persons. A systematic review was performed in Academic Search Premier (34), Ovid Medline (0), PsycInfo (0), PubMed (66), CINAHL (3) and ProQuest (1078) for the period May - September, 2014. Results: Twelve studies were included in the final analysis. Psychosocial risk factors were categorized under four themes: Being a burden to others increases depression and hopelessness, the struggle due to poor social integration, the strain of physical illness and old age and Negative aspects of religious activity. A total of four protective factors emerged: a sense of belonging, maintaining social dignity, satisfaction with relationships and feeling useful and positive aspects of religious activity. In conclusion, the context of a suicidal older person in a home healthcare service may create a “vulnerable psychosocial state” in which she/he is confronted by stressful psychosocial life events including physical illness and social network changes. The fact that protective factors are solely related to social factors needs to be taken into account in future prevention studies.
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