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Uso de tabaco por estudantes adolescentes portugueses e fatores associados
Fraga,Sílvia; Ramos,Elisabete; Barros,Henrique;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102006000500010
Abstract: objective: to describe smoking habits and to identify their determinants in adolescent students. methods: a cross-sectional study was carried out on smoking habits comprising 1,052 girls and 984 boys aged 13 years attending public and private schools in the city of porto, portugal. the proportion of participation was 77.5%. information on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was obtained from a questionnaire filled out at home by participants and their parents. at school, another self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information about tobacco use. several independent samples were compared using the kruskal-wallis test and proportions were compared by chi-square test. odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. results: overall, 19.9% (22.4% of girls and 17.1% of boys) students only had ever experimented smoking but were not smokers; 1.8% (2.0% of girls and 1.5% of boys) were occasional smokers and 1.3% (2.0% of girls and 0.4% of boys) smoked at least one cigarette/day. curiosity was the main reason given by adolescents to experiment smoking (48.4% of girls and 45.6% of boys). after adjustment to parental, siblings' and friends' smoking habits, the stronger association was with the smoking habits of their friends for both girls (or=4.03; 95% ci: 2.69-6.04) and boys (or=5.39; 95% ci: 3.34-8.70). conclusions: a high proportion of students had ever experimented smoking. smoking habits among peers proved to be the strongest determinant of smoking during adolescence.
Early Initiation of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking as a Predictor of Lower Forearm Bone Mineral Density in Late Adolescence: A Cohort Study in Girls
Raquel Lucas, Sílvia Fraga, Elisabete Ramos, Henrique Barros
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046940
Abstract: Background Adolescence is a critical stage for bone accrual. It is also decisive for the establishment of behaviors such as smoking and alcohol drinking. Objective To quantify the short- and long-term associations between smoking and drinking initiation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 731 girls identified in public and private schools in Porto, Portugal. Evaluations were conducted when participants were 13 and 17 years old. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the forearm by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and weight, height and fat-free mass were measured. Pubertal development status was estimated using menarche age. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on smoking and alcohol drinking, physical exercise and calcium and vitamin D intakes. BMD in early and late adolescence was analyzed as a continuous or dichotomous (Z-score cutoff: ?1.0) variable. Associations were calculated using linear or logistic regression. Results Over one quarter of these girls had tried smoking by 13, while 59% had drunk alcoholic beverages and 20% had experienced both behaviors by that age. Lower mean BMD at 17 years of age was observed in girls who had ever smoked by 13, as well as in those who reported drinking at that age. There were no significant cross-sectional associations between experience and frequency of smoking or drinking and BMD at 13 years of age. However, we observed significant associations between BMD z-score<?1 in late adolescence and having ever smoked by 13, after adjustment for menarche age and sports practice, (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.05) and with ever smoking and drinking in the same period (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.36, 4.00). Conclusion Our study adds prospective evidence to the role of early initiation of smoking and alcohol drinking as relevant markers of lower bone mineral density in late adolescence.
Violence in adolescents: social and behavioural factors
Sousa,Sandra; Correia,Teresa; Ramos,Elisabete; Fraga,Sílvia; Barros,Henrique;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112010000100008
Abstract: objective: to estimate the prevalence of young people's involvement in violence measured as participation in physical fights or being physically, sexually or emotionally abused. we also aimed to understand the role of social, demographic and other behavioural characteristics in violence. methods: we evaluated 7511 adolescents (4243 girls and 3268 boys) aged 15 to 19 years old, enrolled in public schools. information was obtained using an anonymous, self-administrated questionnaire. results: the most frequently reported type of violence was emotional abuse (15.6%). boys reported greater involvement in fights (3.6 vs. 13.6%, p<0.001) and physical abuse (7.5 vs. 19.5%, p<0.001). the prevalence of emotional abuse (16.2 vs. 14.8%, p=0.082) and sexual abuse (2.0 vs. 1.8%, p=0.435) was similar in girls and boys. after adjustment, increasing age decreased the odds of being involved in fights in both genders but increased the odds of emotional abuse. living in a rented home was associated with physical abuse in girls (odds ratio [or]: 1.4; 95% confidence interval [95%ci]: 1.0-1.9) and boys (or: 1.6; 95%ci: 1.2-2.0). in girls the odds of being emotionally abused increased with greater parental education. smoking and cannabis use were associated with all types of violence in both genders. conclusions: the most frequently reported form of violence was emotional abuse. we found differences by gender, with boys reporting more physical abuse and involvement in fights. adolescents whose parents had a higher educational level reported more physical and emotional abuse, which may be related to differences in the perception of abuse.
Qualidade do ar interior e sintomas respiratórios em escolas do Porto
Fraga,Sílvia; Ramos,Elisabete; Martins,Anabela; Samúdio,Maria Jo?o; Silva,Gabriela; Guedes,Joaquim; Fernandes,Eduardo Oliveira; Barros,Henrique;
Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia , 2008,
Abstract: aim: to evaluate the association between the indoor air quality in porto schools and the prevalence of allergic and respiratory symptoms in adolescents. material and methods: temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (co2) and volatile organic compound (voc) concentrations were evaluated in nine porto schools. questionnaires were distributed to 9 classes of 7th , 8th and 9th year students in each school, total 1607 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.0 years (standard deviation=0.3). information was collected on participants? socio-demographic and social characteristics, behaviour, and housing conditions. the international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (isaac) questionnaire was used to evaluate respiratory symptoms. results: 5.8% of participants stated they had had asthma, 9.2% wheezing, 22.0% sneezing and 6.6% itchy rash in the 12 months preceding the evaluation. after adjustment for parental educational attainment level, co2 > 2100ppm values were associated with exercise-induced wheeze [or=1.86 (95%ci:1.20-2.89)] and night cough [or=1.40 (4.20-2.89)]. we observed an increasing odds ratio in wheezing symptoms over the last 12 months, in asthma ?at some point? and asthma over the last 12 months, and night cough at schools with higher voc values. the association was not statistically significant, however. conclusion: lower indicators of indoor air quality, particularly co2, were associated with a greater respiratory symptomatology.
Digital, Special, Regular and Long Distance Learning: Under a Phenomenological First Glance  [PDF]
Valderez F. Fraga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.32004

This study presents and discusses trough a phenomenologic qualitative method summed up with an empirical insertion in the challenges of an education project on digital education for special, regular students and also a glace to long distance learning and teaching, in an Experimental School in Brazil. The discussions show the complexity but also the possibility of educational advances, to envision the advantages of the respect for students’ differences, in parallel to educators support and the significance of the aggregation of traditional methods and modern technologies in learning situations for all possible advantages from emotional to multiple intelligences for better living conditions.

Cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence
Arquivos de Medicina , 2007,
Abstract: the present review will examine the relationships among behavioural and biological cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence and cardiovascular disease later in adult life. a consistent finding is the co-occurrence of behavioural cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. although there are no consensual criteria to define adolescence overweight, it is the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factor representing an increasingly important health problem, and the increase in the prevalence overweight, among younger age groups, is likely to have effect on others biological cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence and long-term implications for cardiovascular disease. a cluster of risk factors that includes overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance was described in children and adolescents, leading to the hypothesis that the clustering process begins early in life and persists in adulthood.
One Rural, two Visions — Environmental Issues and Images on Rural Areas in Portugal
Elisabete Figueiredo
European Countryside , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10091-009-0002-8
Abstract: In recent years rural areas, specially the most peripheral and remote ones, have become increasingly perceived and identified as spaces of outstanding environmental quality. This relatively new function of the rural, while widely recognized both socially and institutionally, is to some extent strange to local residents to whom the natural resources and the environmental aspects are mainly perceived from an utilitarian perspective. The exteriority of the measures and policies to preserve rural environment tends to place remote rural areas in a new subaltern position. Correspondingly, the social and institutional construction of rural areas as environmental reserves tends to create a new rural-urban dichotomy which may have important repercussions in terms of the future directions of rural development processes. We aim to discuss the abovementioned aspects, based on empirical evidence from two Portuguese rural areas. We conclude that there are two different visions about the rural — the rural to visit and the rural to live - conveyed respectively by the urban residents and the State and by the local inhabitants.
O valor universal de um intelectual crítico The universal value of a critical intellectual
Elisabete Borgianni
Servi?o Social & Sociedade , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0101-66282012000400009
Implementando as unidades educacionais do curso de enfermagem da Famema: relato de experiência
Rezende, Kátia Terezinha Alves;Takeda, Elisabete;Fraga, Elaine Morelato Vilela;Braccialli, Luzmarina A. Doreto;Chirelli, Mara Quaglio;Costa, Maria Cristina Guimar?es da;Laluna, Maria Cristina Martinez Capel;Correa, Maria Elizabeth S. Hernandes;Tonhom, Sílvia Franco da Rocha;
Interface - Comunica??o, Saúde, Educa??o , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1414-32832006000200018
Abstract: the project seeks to report the development of the syllabus for the four-year nursing course of marília medical school (famema) in 2003. the method used was a reflection on the pedagogical practice, based on documental analysis of the teaching-learning programs for each year. the results identified some points that the political-pedagogical project needed to improve, such as: redefining health service professors' and nurses' roles; different understandings regarding methodology reference related to problematization and ability; professors' insecurity in working with uncertainty in the teaching-learning process. it was also possible to identify changes that contributed to the implementation of the project, which included: the strengthening of the partnership between teaching and service; the relation between the medical and nursing courses; the use of the principles of the meaningful learning; introduction of the continuous education process, enabling one to evaluate processes and strategies of the curriculum.
Cibercenários: Hekuras, Karuanas & Kurupiras
Tania Fraga
Galáxia , 2008,
Abstract: O projeto apresenta a possibilidade de miscigena o do campo biológico com instrumentos tecnológicos computacionais em jornadas que utilizam a computa o gráfica tridimensional interativa como cibercenários e que possibilitam a participa o ativa dos intérpretes que com elas interagem. O intérprete provoca mudan as, em tempo real, nos nichos virtuais que comp em os cibermundos, pela manipula o de um mouse sem fio. As jornadas resultantes integram suas a es com aquelas processadas em tempo real no computador. As imagens computacionais processadas s o projetadas em telas sobre o palco e sobre esses intérpretes. Palavras-chave intera o, arte computacional interativa, realidade virtual, arte contemporanea Abstract The project presents the possibility of amalgamating the biological field with computational, technological instruments by means of journeys using graphic, interactive, three-dimensional computation, which takes the form of cyber-scenarios, which allows the active participation of the performers in them. Each performer, manipulating a wireless mouse, interacts in real time with virtual niches that compose cyberworlds. The journeys integrate the actions carried out by the performers with those processed in real time on the computer. The final computer images are projected onto screens both on the stage and on the performers. Key words interaction, interactive computer art, virtual reality, contemporary art
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