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Research ethics committees: agents of research policy?
Elina Hemminki
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-3-6
Abstract: The Finnish law makes an arbitrary distinction between medical research and other health research, and the European Union's directive for good clinical trials further differentiates drug trials. The starting point of current rules is that clinical trials are lesser in the interest of patients and society than routine health care. However, commercial interests are not considered unethical. The contrasting procedures in research and normal health care may tempt physicians to continue introducing innovations into practice by relying on unsystematic and uncontrolled observations. Tedious and bureaucratic rules may lead to the disappearance of trials initiated by researchers. Trying to accommodate the special legislative requirements for new drug trials into more complex interventions may result in poor designs with unreliable results and increased costs. Meanwhile, current legal requirements may undermine the morale of ethics committee members.The aims and the quality of the work of ethics committees should be evaluated, and a reformulation of the EU directive on good clinical trials is needed. Ethical judgement should consider the specific circumstance of each trial, and ethics committees should not foster poor research for legal reasons.Various ethical rules and, lately, an increasing amount of legislation have been introduced to protect research participants. Ethical codes target the researchers, but ethical committees have come into existence to aid the researcher and to ensure that rules are followed. Ethical rules and codes have emerged within medical research, and still today in most countries, the legal requirements for research protocols to be checked by ethics committees are confined to medical research.Clinical trials are used variously to obtain unbiased estimates of the value of health technologies, for administrative purposes (e.g. for registering medicines), to get opinion leaders to commit, and for marketing. Currently, most clinical trials concern new d
Revista de derecho (Valdivia) , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-09502005000100006
Abstract: the aim of this article is to analyse the development of the notion of nationality regarding legal persons (companies, commercial entities, etc.) in foreign investment laws. the author reviews international treaties and arbitral decisions concerning the subject. a functional notion of nationality can be drawn from this analysis. the reach of the notion shall be determined in light of the purposes of the foreign investment regulatory scheme
"Konfettaskar" och "typografiska l ckerbitar" eller funktionalistisk formgivning?
Druker, Elina
Barnboken : Tidskrift f?r Barnlitteraturforskning , 2011,
Abstract: Eva Billow as picture book artist and graphic designerThe 1940’s and 50’s was a dynamic period for the Nordic picture book. There is a general aspiration to explore picture book aesthetics, a need to find imagery and expressions capturing a new era. In my article, I will discuss how these ideas are expressed in the illustrator and graphic artist Eva Billow’s picture books. Her illustration style is originated in a modernist tradition of simplicity, clarity and typographic precision. Also, an idea about books as an art form is evident through her production. Eva Billow’s production covers a wide field of graphic design, from picture books, cartoons and illustrations to book art, posters and advertisements. I will discuss Billow’s use of aesthetics that can be related to functionalist ideas and will further place this approach in a larger context in the history of Swedish graphic design. The general interest in graphic design and new printing techniques among picture book illustrators can also be seen as a part of a tendency within Nordic Modernism where the artist aspired to make arts a part of the society. But the appeal for the picture book among the young Nordic artists and authors, prior and after the Second World War, also expresses an inter-artistic tendency, where the limits between different forms of art are explored.
évolution et manifestation de la nouvelle esthétique de l’image et de la poétique de la parole dans l’avant-garde russe, exprimée dans les livres d’artistes futuristes
Elina Knorpp
Trans : Revue de Littérature Générale et Comparée , 2011,
Abstract: Bien que le futurisme russe, à ses débuts, f t influencé par les futuristes italiens, il évolua d’une manière autonome. Dans le domaine de la littérature, on trouve un grand nombre de groupements futuristes divers, tandis que dans les arts visuels, le soi disant Cubo-futurisme voyait le jour. Le Cubo-futurisme liait des tendances cubistes et futuristes afin de faire advenir une forme singulièrement russe. Les livres futuristes, publiés dans les années 1910, nous montrent la naissance d’une nouvelle esthétique du texte et de l’image ainsi que la rupture avec les anciennes normes littéraires et artistiques. Ceci s’exprime à travers des illustrations, la création d’une nouvelle langue et l’entrelacs de l’image et de la parole. Cet article analyse les commencements du futurisme en Russie à partir de plusieurs livres russes pris comme exemples de cette esthétique nouvelle. Although the Russian Futurist movement was initially influenced by the Italian Futurists, it developed in an independent way. In literature, there had been a number of different futurist groups, whereas in the visual arts, the so-called Cubo-Futurism was established, linking the cubist and futurist tendencies in a singularly Russian form. Futurist books, published in the1910s, show the birth of a new aesthetics of text and image and the break with older literary and artistic norms. This was expressed through illustrations, new language and the affiliation of image and word. This article examines the beginnings of Futurism in Russia and considers a few Futurist books as examples of this new aesthetic.
NACIONALIDAD DE LAS PERSONAS JURíDICAS EN EL DERECHO INTERNACIONAL Nationality of legal persons in international law
Elina Mereminskaya
Revista de Derecho , 2005,
Abstract: El presente artículo aborda el desarrollo conceptual que ha tenido la nacionalidad de las personas jurídicas en el derecho de protección de las inversiones extranjeras. La base del análisis está constituida por los tratados y jurisprudencia arbitral internacional. Como resultado de esta investigación, surge un concepto funcional de la nacionalidad de las sociedades, cuyo alcance concreto se determina a la luz de los objetivos del régimen regulatorio de las inversiones transfronterizas The aim of this article is to analyse the development of the notion of nationality regarding legal persons (companies, commercial entities, etc.) in foreign investment laws. The author reviews international treaties and arbitral decisions concerning the subject. A functional notion of nationality can be drawn from this analysis. The reach of the notion shall be determined in light of the purposes of the foreign investment regulatory scheme
Los estudios latinoamericanistas en Finlandia
Elina Vuola
Anuario Americanista Europeo , 2010,
Abstract: El artículo responde a las preguntas propuestas por la Coordinación de este número para componer una imagen de la situación y perspectivas de los estudios latinoamericanos en Finlandia. Latin American Studies in Finland This article answers the questions posed by the Coordination of this Number in order to paint a global picture of the current situation and perspectives of Latin American Studies in Finland.
Inhomogeneous Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Mutual Ion Diffusion
Elina Keihanen
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.66.043512
Abstract: We present a study of inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis with emphasis on transport phenomena. We combine a hydrodynamic treatment to a nuclear reaction network and compute the light element abundances for a range of inhomogeneity parameters. We find that shortly after annihilation of electron-positron pairs, Thomson scattering on background photons prevents the diffusion of the remaining electrons. Protons and multiply charged ions then tend to diffuse into opposite directions so that no net charge is carried. Ions with Z>1 get enriched in the overdense regions, while protons diffuse out into regions of lower density. This leads to a second burst of nucleosynthesis in the overdense regions at T<20 keV, leading to enhanched destruction of deuterium and lithium. We find a region in the parameter space at 2.1E-10
Determination of Omega_b From Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the Presence of Regions of Antimatter
Elina Sihvola
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.63.103001
Abstract: Production of regions of antimatter in the early universe is predicted in many baryogenesis models. Small scale antimatter regions would annihilate during or soon after nucleosynthesis, affecting the abundances of the light elements. In this paper we study how the acceptable range in Omega_b changes in the presence of antimatter regions, as compared to the standard big bang nucleosynthesis. It turns out that it is possible to produce at the same time both a low 4He value (Y_p < 0.240) and a low D/H value (D/H < 4e-5), but overproduction of 7Li is unavoidable at large Omega_b.
Orthogonal Decomposition of Symmetric Tensors
Elina Robeva
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: A real symmetric tensor is orthogonally decomposable (or odeco) if it can be written as a linear combination of symmetric powers of $n$ vectors which form an orthonormal basis of $\mathbb R^n$. Motivated by the spectral theorem for real symmetric matrices, we study the properties of odeco tensors. We give a formula for all of the eigenvectors of an odeco tensor. Moreover, we formulate a set of polynomial equations that vanish on the odeco variety and we conjecture that these polynomials generate its prime ideal. We prove this conjecture in some cases and give strong evidence for its overall correctness.
How Teachers’ and Students’ Mindsets in Learning Have Been Studied: Research Findings on Mindset and Academic Achievement  [PDF]
Junfeng Zhang, Elina Kuusisto, Kirsi Tirri
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2017.89089
Abstract: Empirical research on mindset has indicated that mindset can predict numerous individual achievement, including academic, cognitive, motivational, affective and even socioeconomic, through mediation of social-cognitive approaches. The purpose of this paper is to compile and synthesize articles published from 1998 to 2017 on the relationship between mindset and academic achievement and explore the role of mindset in academic achievement. The studies indicate that students’ mindsets play several roles of cause and mediator in academic achievement. Mindset can also be an outcome of students’ academic achievement. Furthermore, in some studies, the relationship between mindset and achievement is non-correlational. Meanwhile, teachers’ mindsets play the role of cause or mediator in students’ academic achievement, but no role of outcome. Limitations and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
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