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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 333154 matches for " Elia Sáez Giraldez "
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LA CIUDAD DESDE LA CASA: CIUDADES ESPONTáNEAS EN LIMA
Sáez Giraldez,Elia; García Calderón,José; Roch Pe?a,Fernando;
Revista INVI , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-83582010000300003
Abstract: in lima, informal settlements emerge from the construction of straw houses in the desert under poverty and precarious conditions. however, after seven decades of existence, they have transformed into relatively integrated neighborhoods in the city, with considerable level of development. this article describes how an urban fabric emerges within inverted planning processes, from large to small scales, from the city to the house (urbanization-division-consruction), being this inversion the engine of its development. straw houses, the only material that enables communities to settle in the territory, apart from offering shelter, have become a strategy for city making. housing is either a workshop or a store, a contribution to the urban fabric; it also changes its functions according to the needs of dwellers; housing expands as the neighborhood densifies, transforming its typology (from house to group home) or nature (rural to urban) when the settlement changes from village to neighborhood. the house expands as the city grows; both elements transform each other, giving dynamism to urban fabric, as well as ability to evolve.
LA CIUDAD DESDE LA CASA: CIUDADES ESPONTáNEAS EN LIMA
Elia Sáez Giraldez,José García Calderón,Fernando Roch Pe?a
Revista INVI , 2010,
Abstract: Los asentamientos informales en Lima surgen de la colocación de casas de estera en el desierto, en condiciones de precariedad y pobreza. Sin embargo, en estas siete décadas de existencia se han transformado en barrios relativamente integrados a la ciudad y con un considerable nivel de desarrollo. En esta investigación se describe cómo se ha generado un tejido urbano donde los procesos habituales de planificación, de la gran escala a la peque a, de la ciudad a la casa (urbanización-parcelación-edificación) se ven invertidos encontrando, en esta inversión, el mecanismo clave de su desarrollo. La casa de estera, en origen el único material para asentarse en el territorio, se convierte, más allá de un techo para sus ocupantes, en una estrategia para crear ciudad. La vivienda es taller o tienda, aportando esos usos al tejido urbano; cambia de funciones según las necesidades de los habitantes; crece a medida que se densifica el barrio, muta su tipología (de unifamiliar a colectiva) o de carácter (de rural a urbana) cuando el asentamiento pasa de pueblo a barrio. La casa crece al tiempo que crece la ciudad que forma; ambos se transforman mutuamente y esta simbiosis confiere al tejido su dinamismo y capacidad para evolucionar.
Patrones de transmisión de la tuberculosis en un área sanitaria de Madrid
I?igo Martínez,Jesús; Arce Arnáez,Araceli; Chaves Sánchez,Fernando; Palenque Mataix,Elia; Burgoa Arenales,Mar;
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1135-57272003000500004
Abstract: background: employing molecular epidemiology techniques for the study of tuberculosis can afford the possibility of identifying tuberculosis transmission patterns. this study has been made for the purpose of estimating the incidence of tuberculosis related to recent transmission in madrid and of identifying the risk factors making it possible to define transmission patterns. methods: a three-year descriptive populational study was conducted on patients diagnosed with tuberculosis based on cultures in four districts in madrid (550,442 inhabitants). the transmission patterns were described by means of conventional epidemiological research and molecular techniques (restriction fragment length polymorphism - rflp- analysis with is6110 and spoligotyping). results: an rflp analysis was conducted on 233 clinically isolated mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, 99 (42.5%) of which were grouped into 29 clusters. the most numerous group was comprised of 134 patients infected with m. tuberculosis strains of a single rflp pattern. these patients averaged 48.3 years of age (de 19.4), and 17.2% were revealed to have an endogenous risk factor. two transmission patterns were identified among the grouped cases. the first pattern included 57 patients pertaining to 23 small clusters (2-4 cases), 25 (43.9%) of which were epidemiologically linked to another case from the same cluster. the second pattern was comprised of 42 patients grouped into 6 large clusters (5 cases or more). the subjects averaged 31.4 years of age (de 15.8), 28.6% being intravenous drug users, 31% infected with hiv, and 26.2% having a prison background. conclusions: identifying tuberculosis transmission patterns by using molecular biology techniques affords the possibility of detecting population groups for whom preferential measures can be taken in the prevention and control programs.
Patrones de transmisión de la tuberculosis en un área sanitaria de Madrid
I?igo Martínez Jesús,Arce Arnáez Araceli,Chaves Sánchez Fernando,Palenque Mataix Elia
Revista Espa?ola de Salud Pública , 2003,
Abstract: Fundamento: La aplicación de las técnicas de epidemiología molecular en el estudio de la tuberculosis puede permitir identificar los patrones de transmisión de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido estimar la incidencia de tuberculosis asociada a transmisión reciente en Madrid e identificar los factores de riesgo que permitan definir patrones de transmisión. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo poblacional de tres a os de duración en pacientes diagnosticados de tuberculosis mediante cultivo en cuatro distritos de Madrid (550.442 habitantes). La descripción de los patrones de transmisión se realizó mediante la investigación epidemiológica convencional y las técnicas moleculares (análisis de fragmentos de restricción de longitud polimórfica -RFLP- con IS6110 y spoligotyping). Resultados: Se realizó RFLP en 233 aislados clínicos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis, de los que 99 (42,5%) estaban agrupados en 29 clusters. El grupo más numeroso lo formaban 134 enfermos infectados por cepas de M. tuberculosis con patrón RFLP único. Su media de edad era 48,3 a os (DE 19,4) y el 17,2% presentaba un factor de riesgo de reactivación endógena. Entre los casos agrupados se identificaron dos patrones de transmisión. El primero de ellos incluía a 57 enfermos pertenecientes a 23 clusters peque os (2-4 casos), de los que 25 (43,9%) estaban conectados epidemiológicamente con otro caso de su mismo cluster. El segundo lo formaban 42 pacientes agrupados en 6 clusters grandes (5 casos o más). La media de edad era de 31,4 a os (DE 15,8), el 28,6% eran usuarios de drogas inyectadas, el 31% estaban infectados por el VIH, y el 26,2% tenían antecedentes de estancia en prisión. Conclusiones: La identificación de patrones de transmisión de la tuberculosis utilizando técnicas de biología molecular permite detectar grupos de población susceptibles de actuación preferente en los programas de prevención y control.
Intervenciones para disminuir las desigualdades en salud
ez,Elia; Peirò,Rosana;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0213-91112004000700025
Abstract: the objective of this study is to compile, describe and assess interventions to reduce health inequalities developed in spain by administrations, ngo or other entities. the search was organized in three settings: governmental strategies, interventions, and among the latter, those particularly addressing excluded social groups. administration actions and policies were investigated through formal surveys addressed to regional governments (17 regions and 2 cities). production of information by gender and socio-economic level (sel), plans and programs, as well as interventions was explored. key informants were consulted and scientific literature was reviewed in order to identify interventions. médicos del mundo and cáritas, two of the main national ngo were consulted. fourteen administrations responded. in general, health information includes sex analysis, few administrations analyse by gender or sel and six study inequalities in the general population. most administrations produce specific information by pathologies (hiv/aids...) or social groups (women...). they mention intervention experiences applied to territories or vulnerable groups, evaluated through process indicators. in the period 1995-2002, 722 papers on inequalities in spain have been published. among them, 28 are interventions and 9 have been evaluated, mainly with quasi-experimental designs. large ngo, sometimes with public funding, work with excluded populations through outreach programs. most spanish health information does not include yet inequalities analysis, although it is growing steadily. publication of inequalities studies has increased sharply, but intervention publications are rare and evaluated interventions are extremely scarce. administrations and ngo work in interventions mainly addressed to excluded populations.
Fe de errores de Uso de contraste radiológico intraperitoneal para el diagnóstico de hidrotórax hepático Erratum to "Using intraperitoneal contrast in x-ray study in the diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax"
A. Garrote,E. Giraldez,S. de Lange,C. Galban
Medicina Intensiva , 2011,
Abstract:
Voltammetric Adsorption Studies of Commercial Corrosion Inhibitors. A First Correlating Approach to the Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency
D?Elia,L.F.; Torres,F.; Báez,V.;
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2009,
Abstract: adsorption of film forming corrosion inhibitors on metallic surfaces led to a decrease in corrosion rates, since the adsorbed organic molecules behave as chemical and physical barriers for cathodic and anodic reactions. a novel and simple methodology to characterize commercial corrosion inhibitors is proposed. fundamental studies of film forming corrosion inhibitors adsorption on platinum and its correlation with corrosion inhibition efficiencies of steel provide useful information for quality control of film forming inhibitors.
Voltammetric Adsorption Studies of Commercial Corrosion Inhibitors. A First Correlating Approach to the Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency
L.F. D’Elia,F. Torres,V. Báez
Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta , 2009,
Abstract: Adsorption of film forming corrosion inhibitors on metallic surfaces led to a decrease in corrosion rates, since the adsorbed organic molecules behave as chemical and physical barriers for cathodic and anodic reactions. A novel and simple methodology to characterize commercial corrosion inhibitors is proposed. Fundamental studies of film forming corrosion inhibitors adsorption on platinum and its correlation with corrosion inhibition efficiencies of steel provide useful information for quality control of film forming inhibitors.
Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-Alpha (HIF-1 Alpha) Is Induced during Reperfusion after Renal Ischemia and Is Critical for Proximal Tubule Cell Survival
Elisa Conde, Laura Alegre, Ignacio Blanco-Sánchez, David Sáenz-Morales, Elia Aguado-Fraile, Belén Ponte, Edurne Ramos, Ana Sáiz, Carlos Jiménez, Angel Ordo?ez, Manuel López-Cabrera, Luis del Peso, Manuel O. de Landázuri, Fernando Lia?o, Rafael Selgas, Jose Antonio Sanchez-Tomero, María Laura García-Bermejo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033258
Abstract: Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) during renal transplantation delays allograft function. Identification of factors that mediate protection and/or epithelium recovery could help to improve graft outcome. We studied the expression, regulation and role of hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1 α), using in vitro and in vivo experimental models of I/R as well as human post-transplant renal biopsies. We found that HIF-1 α is stabilized in proximal tubule cells during ischemia and unexpectedly in late reperfusion, when oxygen tension is normal. Both inductions lead to gene expression in vitro and in vivo. In vitro interference of HIF-1 α promoted cell death and in vivo interference exacerbated tissue damage and renal dysfunction. In pos-transplant human biopsies, HIF-1 α was expressed only in proximal tubules which exhibited normal renal structure with a significant negative correlation with ATN grade. In summary, using experimental models and human biopsies, we identified a novel HIF-1 α induction during reperfusion with a potential critical role in renal transplant.
Different anaesthetic problems in Prader-Willi Syndrome
V. Moschini,G. Marra,S. Elia
Pathos : Trimestrale di Algologia , 2006,
Abstract: Aim of this work is to discuss retrospectively the anaesthesia procedures for two children (aged three and twelve), with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS).The older child had some problems specific of the second stage of PWS: obesity, with difficult venous access, and sleep apnoea, while the younger child presented difficult tracheal intubation that appears to be a common characteristic of both stages of PWS, a feature that is confirmed in literature by similar difficulties found by other Authors. We didn’t find any particular challenge when using any kind of anaesthetic drugs. Despite the small number of cases reported, we suggest that difficult tracheal intubation could be of clinical relevance in patients with PWS.Moreover, we conclude that all drugs used in anaesthesia practice could be considered safe. Caution should be used with long acting sedatives, potentially depressing ventilation. An epileptogenic agent, like ketamine, should be used also with caution, and it is definitely not recommended in patients with a history of seizures, like our two children.
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