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The aim of this study was
to examine the use of bleaching creams containing hydroquinone, corticosteroids
and mercury for skin lightening among higher secondary school students in central
Sudan. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted at 19 different
girls’ schools. A total of 1187 young students aged 16 - 19 years old were
randomly selected and approached, using a well-structured questionnaire. The
main outcome measure was a number of epidemiological factors per abusers.
Results revealed that, 55.4% of the respondents misused this product, whilst
51.6% of girls used cosmetics to lighten their skin for 1 - 3 years with skin
irritations prevalence of 3.3%, and the face
was reported as main application site (35.4%). In conclusion, the lack
of health awareness and
ignorance was the main causative factor, whilst education, competent
authorities awareness and prescriptions restrictions were highly recommended.
With the aid of Mathematica, new exact travelling wave
solutions for fifth-order KdV equation are obtained by using the solitary wave ansatz method
and the Wu elimination method. The derivation of conservation laws for a fifth-order KdV
equation is considered.
Researchers have realized that radon-contaminated air inside buildings is a principal way of human exposure to certain healthy-risks. A model is developed to estimate radon concentrations which consider various parameters: in indoor air radon (radon-222) concentration, air permeability of ground, air pressure difference between outdoor and indoor at ground level, ventilation of building ground and number of air changes per hour due to ventilation. The radon-222 transport into building might dominated by diffusion, pressure driven flow or/and a mixture of both depending on the actual values of the various parameters. So, in several and regular periods of time: January, April, July and October, radon-222 concentrations have been measured in ten rooms of five elementary schools and in five rooms of one high school at Qena city (Upper Egypt). This has been carried out using alpha scintillation counters. We have noticed that in three rooms the value has exceeded 200 Bqm -3 at the basement and only one room at the first floor, and all values have changed with respect to time and localization: They have decreased from July to January and from basement to first floor. For example, radon-222 concentrations obtained by exposing track detectors varied in the range from 20 Bqm-3 up to 100 Bqm-3. The experimental results of the present work have been well fitted with the presented model (calculations) which supports the validity of the presented model. So, to decrease the level of indoor air radon-222 concentrations and to reduce its harmful effects it is recommended to follow the suggestions in the present study and to limit as possible the use of ceramic in the building construction, increase the hours of ventilation and to restrict the use of underground floors in buildings, the underground Metro and garage parking should be carefully (and even mandatory) ventilated.