We study a mathematical model of biological neuronal
networks composed by any finite number N≥ 2 of non-necessarily
identical cells. The model is a deterministic dynamical system governed by
finite-dimensional impulsive differential equations. The statical structure of
the network is described by a directed and weighted graph whose nodes are certain
subsets of neurons, and whose edges are the groups of synaptical connections among
those subsets. First, we prove that among all the possible networks such as their
respective graphs are mutually isomorphic, there exists a dynamical optimum.
This optimal network exhibits the richest dynamics: namely, it is capable to
show the most diverse set of responses (i.e. orbits in the future) under external stimulus or signals. Second, we prove that
all the neurons of a dynamically optimal neuronal network necessarily satisfy
Dale’s Principle, i.e. each neuron
must be either excitatory or inhibitory, but not mixed. So, Dale’s Principle is
a mathematical necessary consequence of a theoretic optimization process of the
dynamics of the network. Finally, we prove that Dale’s Principle is not
sufficient for the dynamical optimization of the network.

Abstract:
We prove that topologically generic orbits of C^{0} , transitive and non-uniquely ergodic dynamical systems, exhibit an extremely oscillating asymptotical statistics. Precisely, the minimum weak* compact set of invariant probabilities that describes the asymptotical statistics of each orbit of a residual set contains all the ergodic probabilities. If besides f is ergodic with respect to the Lebesgue measure, then also Lebesgue-almost all the orbits exhibit that kind of extremely oscillating statistics.

Abstract:
This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of animal abuse in their law enforcement, prevention, and treatment decisions.

Abstract:
in this paper i comment on m.á. fernández's paper on veritism and the value of understanding. i begin by observing that veritism relies on a definition of epistemic value that threatens to trivialize the discussion. then i proceed to examine fernandez's arguments with some detail.

Abstract:
we analyze, from a theoretical viewpoint, the bidirectional interdisciplinary relation between mathematics and psychology, focused on the mathematical theory of deterministic dynamical systems, and in particular, on the theory of chaos. on one hand, there is the direct classic relation: the application of mathematics to psychology. on the other hand, we propose the converse relation which consists in the formulation of new abstract mathematical problems appearing from processes and structures under research of psychology. the bidirectional multidisciplinary relation from - to pure mathematics, largely holds with the ‘hard' sciences, typically physics and astronomy. but it is rather new, from the social and human sciences, towards pure mathematics. summarizing, the problem we focusing in this paper, is not only the application of the mathematical theory of dynamical systems to psychology, but mainly the following questions: which psychological processes are involved in the development of pure mathematics? how can a multidisciplinary space be organized to activate the converse relation, from psychology towards pure mathematics? how may psychology provide a rich field of new mathematical questions to be investigated, not only by applied mathematicians, but also by researchers on pure mathematics? even if large advances had been achieved, the application of the mathematical theory to psychology is still mainly developed by mathematical psychologists and applied mathematicians, in the absence of pure mathematicians. conversely, the development of the pure mathematics is now a days mainly developed in the absence of applied scientists, particularly of human and social researchers. this is the opposite situation to the antique posture, in which theoretical mathematics and philosophy, for instance, were almost a single science. along this paper we aim to found how the potential strength of the mathematical tools can be more fully exploited in the interdisciplinary space, an

Abstract:
biological concepts basic for environmental policies are discussed, such as biodiversity (based on the notion of variety), conservation, ecosystem resilience, fragility ad disturbance, accumulative effects and cautionary principle. we analyze two main tools for conservation decisions, i.e., priority areas for conservation of biodiversity and lists of threatened species (which have been, in the practice of licensing, the only criterion taken into account). we also detail minimum criteria in protocols for environmental studies: taxonomic (all groups should be sampled), spatial (including the project area and those affected by it) and temporal (at least three annual cycles) coverage, whose sufficiency should be tested through accumulation curves legislation concerning caves is used as an example.

Abstract:
in this introduction i start by presenting and examining the main positions on the current debate concerning the semantic analysis of sentences containing definite descriptions. as is known, the debate in question has started off with russell's proposal (russell 1905), which has been initially criticized by both strawson (1950) and donnellan (1966). nowadays, waters are divided on this issue: some philosophers, representing the so-called univocality approach (kripke 1977, neale 1990), defend russell's original analysis, according to which all definite descriptions are quantificational expressions, whereas there are others who, following strawson′s and donnellan′s objections, consider that at least some descriptions are genuine singular terms and hence have referential meanings. among the defendants of the last approach, known as the ambiguity theory, we can find michael devitt (1981, 2004, 2007a, 2007b). in the second part of the paper, i then survey devitt's stance on some traditional arguments for the ambiguity theory -mainly, the arguments from misdescription, incompleteness, opacity, and anaphora-, and finally i consider the new ones that he has put forward in favor of the existence of referential descriptions: the argument from regularity, the one based on the comparison with demonstratives, and the argument based on weak rigidity.

Abstract:
in his paper "rigid application", michael devitt defends a particular version of the socalled 'essentialist conception' of rigidity for general terms, according to which rigid general terms are rigid appliers, namely, terms that if they apply to an object in any possible world then they apply to that object in every possible in which the object exists. devitt thinks that the thereby defined notion of rigidity makes for an adequate extension to general terms of kripke's notion, originally defined for singular ones, inasmuch as it serves to accomplish its same primary task: namely, "to distinguish terms that are not covered by a description theory from ones that are". he then criticizes the alternative conception of rigidity for general terms as identity of designation -specifically, laporte′s (2000) version- on the basis of its entanglement with some controversial metaphysical theses regarding the existence of universals -including a commitment to a selective realism concerning them. in this paper, i try to defend the identity of designation conception from his criticisms: with this aim, i propose a version different from laporte's, and claim it to be the best one to accomplish the above-mentioned primary semantic task, namely, the one of showing that some general terms, just like most ordinary names, cannot be accounted for in descriptive terms.

Abstract:
in this paper i take scientific explanations to be answers to questions, though not necessarily to why-questions. this, however, is not meant to imply that why-questions are not fundamental in their own peculiar way. as i understand it, why-questions are crucial elements in any research process because they are able to organize and systematize an agent's belief set. in order to justify my claim i start by identifying three basic stages in which whyquestions can arise, and then i proceed to characterize their structure. i also show how to use this analysis to elucidate the notion of comparative unification power of rival hypotheses. the notion of comparative unification power, in turn, can be thought of as one of the criteria that we should take into account at the time of assessing which of such rival hypotheses is the best explanation available, comparatively speaking.

Abstract:
this study presents the results of an analysis of the floral motif found on colonial keros. in the paper, i note a semantic similarity between the motifs observed on keros and unkus (male tunics) of this period. ethnobotanical and ethnohistorical data indicate that the same flowers represented on these objects were utilized in various ritual acts linked to social organization. a possible relationship between the ritual calendar and the growing cycle of these plants is also suggested. i conclude that the flowers depicted on the colonial keros were polisemic metaphors associated with concepts of order and mediation