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This paper studies the anomaly
of global annual 500 hpa geopotential anomaly and global warming through the
period (1950-2011). Anomaly method, linear trend and linear correlation coefficient
techniques are referred to identify and describe the correlation between
anomaly of global geopotential height field and global surface air temperature,
North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), El-Nino3.4.
The results revealed that, the anomaly of global annual geopotential height is
completely controlled by global warming and NAO, SOI, El-Nino3.4 during the
study period. However, the trend of the global surface air temperature anomaly
completely coincides with the trend of 500 hpa geopotential height anomaly.
This result uncovers the exist of abnormal weather phenomena through the last
The present paper
investigates the relationship between the global radiative forcing (GRF) and
global annual climatic variability. The relation between the GRF and global
annual changes in the operational weather and climatic parameters is uncovered.
There are several datasets which have been used to challenge this goal. The
NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset of several meteorological elements, such as air temperature, wind, surface
pressure, outgoing long wave radiation, precipitation rate and
geopotential height at level 500 hPa, etc. for the globe for the period
(1948-2012), has been used. Furthermore, the GRF data for greenhouse gases
through the period (1979-2010) has been used. Also, datasets of climatic
indices NAO, SOI, El Nino 3.4 and SST during the period (1948-2012) have been
used through this study. Time series analysis, anomaly and correlation coefficient
technique methods have been used to analyze the datasets. The results reveal
that there is an outstanding positive correlation coefficient (more than +0.80)
between GRF and the global annual weather elements of surface air temperature,
temperature and geopotential height at level 500 hPa, precipitation rate and
sea surface temperature. CO2 has a significant correlation coefficient
(+0.89) with the outcomes longwave radiation and sea surface temperature. There
is a significant relationship between the global annual variability of weather
and climatic elements and GHGs, global warming and climatic indices, NAO, SOI, El
Nino 3.4 and SST.
Strength, durability and stability are the main criteria for material selection and design in the construction industry. Consequently, development and enhancement of construction materials is always an active and attractive field for engineers and researchers. Elevated temperature (fire) is a potential threat for any structural buildings that can cause a major damage. Response of construction materials exposed to elevated temperature or fire requires a full study and analysis with lessons learned from previous cases. In this paper, properties of the common construction materials such as concrete, steel and composite structures under high temperature events is presented and discussed. In addition, performance of advanced materials, such as Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and Concrete Filled Tubular (CFT) when exposed to high temperature was discussed. Recommendations from different design codes to increase fire resistance of structures are introduced. Finally, damage assessment of several bridges and buildings found in the literature exposed to fire events is summarized.