Abstract:
The aphasia is the most complicated and the most difficult form of disorder of speaking and language. Most often it appears as a consequence of a brain stroke. The occurrence of aphasias is in about one third of the patients suffering from a brain stroke in an acute phase, or from 21% to 24%, and there are data for even bigger frequency. In a certain number of patients the aphasia withdraws spontaneously, but in a bigger number of patients it takes over all four models of language activity; phoneme pronunciation, carrying out a discussion, writing a letter of a full text. It spreads from the automatic to the creative expression. The process of rehabilitation of the spoken communication at the persons with aphasia is complicated, multidisciplinary and long lasting.Around the World, a big accent is placed on the use of methods and strategies of alternative communication methods (AAK) for the persons with aphasia. Although the augmentative and the AAK methods for the persons with aphasia are relatively novel in the speech therapy, their applicability deserves an attention as well as the fact that they are promising new paths for researching.The master thesis is written on 104 pages, which include 35 tables and 48 graphics, as well as a glossary with 114 biographical units. The content is divided into introduction, grounding theory and methodology of research. The introduction shows the meaning and the necessity for research of alternative methods in the therapy and the treatment of persons with aphasia. The section with the theoretical grounds contains several mutually connected chapters (parts). In methodology of research section are described the subject of the research, the aim and the character of the research. Further the text contains the tasks, hypothesis, research variables, methods and techniques of the research, as well as the sample and the organization of the research. The end of the section consist the analysis and interpretation of the collected data, results of the research, discussion, verification of the hypothesis and conclusions. After the methodology section follows the section with future recommendations. The subject of the research is the analysis of the forms of AAK that the patients with Brokin's and Vernike's aphasia use in their everyday communication. The necessity of the forms of AAK can be used for developing and improving of the communicative abilities at the persons with aphasia. The aim of this research is to find the forms and strategies of AAK that will support and help in the communication of the persons with aphasia in th

Abstract:
This paper aims to review our recent results on exploring the capabilities of non-quantum field theory as a possible tool for describing single photon-like objects, considered as massless time-stable spatially finite physical entities with compatible translational-rotational dynamical structure. The main idea is to interpret the local physical interaction as available Frobenius curvature. It consists of five chapters and includes 22 sections and subsections.

Abstract:
This paper presents a brief review of the newly developed \emph{Extended Electrodynamics}. The relativistic and non-relativistic approaches to the extension of Maxwell equations are considered briefly, and the further study is carried out in relativistic terms in Minkowski space-time. The non-linear vacuum solutions are considered and fully described. It is specially pointed out that solitary waves with various, in fact arbitrary, spatial structure and photon-like propagation properties exist. The {\it null} character of all non-linear vacuum solutions is established and extensively used further. Coordinate-free definitions are given to the important quantities {\it amplitude} and {\it phase}. The new quantity, named {\it scale factor}, is introduced and used as a criterion for availability of rotational component of propagation of some of the nonlinear, i.e. nonmaxwellian, vacuum solutions. The group structure properties of the nonlinear vacuum solutions are analyzed in some detail, showing explicitly the connection of the vacuum solutions with some complex valued functions. Connection-curvature interpretations are given and a special attention is paid to the curvature interpretation of the intrinsic rotational (spin) properties of some of the nonlinear solutions. Several approaches to coordinate-free local description and computation of the integral spin momentum are considered. Finally, a large family of nonvacuum spatial soliton-like solutions is explicitly written down, and a procedure to get (3+1) versions of the known (1+1) soliton solutions is obtained.

Abstract:
This paper aims to present a general idea for description of spatially finite physical objects with a consistent nontrivial translational-rotational dynamical structure and evolution as a whole, making use of the mathematical concepts and structures connected with the Frobenius integrability/nonintegrability theorems given in terms of distributions on manifolds with corresponding curvature defined by the Nijenhuis operator. The idea is based on consideration of {\it nonintegrable} subdistributions of some appropriate completely integrable distribution (differential system) on a manifold and then to make use of the corresponding curvatures as generators of measures of interaction, i.e. of energy-momentum exchange among the physical subsystems mathematically represented by the nonintegrable subdistributions. The concept of photon-like object is introduced and description of such objects in these terms is given.

Abstract:
This paper presents an alternative {\it relativistic nonlinear} approach to the vacuum case of classical electrodynamics. Our view is based on the understanding that the corresponding differential equations should be dynamical in nature. So, they must represent local energy-momentum balance relations. Formally, the new equations are in terms of appropriately extended Lie derivative of $\mathbb{R}^2$-valued differential 2-form along a $\mathbb{R}^2$-valued 2-vector on Minkowski space-time.

Abstract:
This paper aims to present an elaborate view on the motivation and realization of the idea to extend Maxwell's electrodynamics to Extended Electrodynamics in a reasonable and appropriate way in order to make it possible to describe electromagnetic (3+1)-soliton-like objects in vacuum and in the presence of continuous media (external fields), exchanging energy-momentum with the electromagnetic field.

Abstract:
This paper aims to give explicitly all non-linear vacuum solutions to our non-linear field equations, and to define in a coordinate free manner the important subclass of non-linear solutions, which we call almost photon-like. By means of a correct introduction of the local and integral intrinsic angular momentums of these solutions, we saparate the photon-like solutions through the requirement their integral intrinsic angular momentums to be equal to the Planck's constant. Finally, we consider such solutions, moving radially to or from a given center, using standard spherical coordinates.

Abstract:
This paper aims to consider the general properties of the non-linear solutions to the vacuum equations of Extended Electrodynamics. The *-invariance and the conformal invariance of the equations are mentioned. It is also proved that all non-linear solutions have zero invariants: F_{\mu\nu}F^{\mu\nu} = (*F)_{\mu\nu}F^{\mu\nu} = 0. The three invariant characteristics of the non-linear solutions: amplitude, phase and scale factor are introdiced and discussed.

Abstract:
This paper aims to relate some properties of photon-like objects, considered as spatially finite time-stable physical entities with dynamical structure, to well defined properties of the corresponding electromagnetic strains defined as Lie derivatives of the Minkowski (pseudo)metric with respect to the eigen vector fields of the Maxwell-Minkowski stress-energy-momentum tensor. First we recall the geometric sense of the concept of strain, then we introduce and discuss the notion for photon-like objects (PhLO). We compute then the strains along the eigen vectors of the stress-energy-momentum tensor $T_{\mu}^{\nu}$ and establish important correspondences with the divergence terms of $T_{\mu}^{\nu}$ and the terms determining some internal energy-momentum exchange between the two recognizable component-fields $F$ and $*F$ of a vacuum electromagnetic field. The role of appropriately defined Frobenius curvature is also discussed and emphasized. Finally, equations of motion and interesting PhLO-solutions are given.

Abstract:
This paper aims to show that making use of Newton's view on equations of motion of a physical system and of the Maxwell stress tensor we come to a natural nonlinearization of Maxwell equations in vacuum making use only of nonrelativistic terms. The new equations include all Maxwell solutions plus new ones, among which one may find time-stable and spatially finite ones with photon-like properties and behavior.