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The effects of 4-nonylphenol contamination on livers of Tilapia fish (Oreochromus spilurs) in Jeddah
Abdulla Bin-Dohaish,El-jawaher;
Biological Research , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602012000100002
Abstract: alkylphenol polyethoxylates is a group of estrogenic compounds. natural or synthetic types of these compounds react with the endocrine system by binding hormone receptors, resulting in interference with their action, which is why they are called endocrine disrupting chemicals. among their hydrolytic products are nonylphenols (np), which are considered pollutants of aquatic environments. the objective of this study was to evaluate the pathological alterations on liver tissue of fish exposed to these compounds for long durations, starting from beginning of life and during the period of sexual maturity. tilapia fish were obtained from abhur fish farms, reared in the laboratory in special basins, and divided into two groups. the first maternal group was untreated and their larvae were divided into three sub-groups: control; exposed to 15μg/l; and exposed to 30 μg/l. the second maternal group was divided into 2 sub-groups: with larvae exposed to 15μg/l; and with their larvae exposed to 30 μg/l. larvae and mother exposed to different concentrations of np (15 and 30 μg/l) showed an increased accumulation of np in both livers and muscles compared to the control group due to bioaccumulation. tissue section examinations of the treated group (15 μg np /l) showed disruption of liver architecture, with lyses, loss of nuclei, necrosis, and fatty infiltration. the changes were more marked in tissues exposed to (30 μg np /l). although this pollution was not lethal, its effect may be reflected in vital activities and in the economy.
The effects of 4-nonylphenol contamination on livers of Tilapia fish (Oreochromus spilurs) in Jeddah
El-jawaher Abdulla Bin-Dohaish
Biological Research , 2012,
Abstract: Alkylphenol polyethoxylates is a group of estrogenic compounds. Natural or synthetic types of these compounds react with the endocrine system by binding hormone receptors, resulting in interference with their action, which is why they are called endocrine disrupting chemicals. Among their hydrolytic products are nonylphenols (NP), which are considered pollutants of aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pathological alterations on liver tissue of fish exposed to these compounds for long durations, starting from beginning of life and during the period of sexual maturity. Tilapia fish were obtained from Abhur fish farms, reared in the laboratory in special basins, and divided into two groups. The first maternal group was untreated and their larvae were divided into three sub-groups: control; exposed to 15μg/L; and exposed to 30 μg/L. The second maternal group was divided into 2 sub-groups: with larvae exposed to 15μg/L; and with their larvae exposed to 30 μg/L. Larvae and mother exposed to different concentrations of NP (15 and 30 μg/L) showed an increased accumulation of NP in both livers and muscles compared to the control group due to bioaccumulation. Tissue section examinations of the treated group (15 μg NP /L) showed disruption of liver architecture, with lyses, loss of nuclei, necrosis, and fatty infiltration. The changes were more marked in tissues exposed to (30 μg NP /L). Although this pollution was not lethal, its effect may be reflected in vital activities and in the economy.
Pattern of Thyroid Cancer at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah: A 10-Year Retrospective Study  [PDF]
Amani Alhozali, Aisha Al-Ghamdi, Jawaher Alahmadi
Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (OJEMD) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojemd.2016.63016
Abstract: Background and objective: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. This report aims to describe the pattern of thyroid cancer presentations at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah. Methods: This was a retrospect chart review of all thyroid cancer cases diagnosed between 2001 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah. We documented patients’ demographic and clinical data, including age at diagnosis, tumor type and size, extrathyroidal extension, and metastasis. Results: A total of 114 thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed from 2001 through 2010. Females comprise the majority of cases (female to male ratio of 4:1). The mean ages of patients diagnosed with different thyroid cancers were: papillary thyroid cancer, 39.6 years; follicular thyroid cancer, 43.2 years; medullary thyroid cancer, 55.8 years; and anaplastic thyroid cancer, 46.0 years. Papillary thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 88 cases (77%), follicular thyroid cancer in 19 cases (17%), medullary thyroid cancer in 5 cases (4%), and anaplastic thyroid cancer in 2 cases (2%). Conclusion: Thyroid cancers are more common among females. The disease is diagnosed at a relatively young age among our patients (40 years). Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer.
Prevalence and Impact of Anxiety and Depression on Type 2 Diabetes in Tunisian Patients over Sixty Years Old
Jawaher Masmoudi,Rahma Damak,Hela Zouari,Uta Ouali,Anouar Mechri,Nouri Zouari,Abdelaziz Jaoua
Depression Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/341782
Abstract: Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in a population aged over sixty years with type 2 diabetes and to study the impact of anxiety and depression on glycemic balance and disease outcome. Results. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in the 62 subjects included in the study was, respectively, 40.3% and 22.6%. We found a relationship between these disorders and complicated diabetes. The subjects having an imperfectly balanced diabetes had a higher average anxiety score than those having a good glycemic control ( versus ; ). No relationship was found between diabetes balance and depression. Conclusion. Association between anxiety and depressive disorders and diabetes is frequent and worsens patients’ outcome, in terms of diabetes imbalance as well as in terms of diabetic complications. Our study shows that there is need for physicians to detect, confirm, and treat anxiety and depressive disorders in elderly diabetic patients. 1. Introduction In Tunisia, the proportion of individuals over 60 years is increasing, and it reached 9% in 2004 [1]. Diabetes is a major public health problem in Tunisia. Its prevalence has increased steadily and is currently about 9.9% [2]. Prevalence increases with age (11.9% for 60 years or older) [3, 4]. In addition, depression and anxiety, at the top of mental disorders list, mainly remain undiagnosed [5, 6], in particular in the elderly [7, 8] and consequently untreated [9]. Studying the link between diabetes and depressive as well as anxiety disorders in elderly subjects is useful for several reasons. First, diabetes as well as depression constitutes a major source of functional incapacity, and thus of loss of autonomy, in the elderly population [10]. Second, the association of these two pathologies in the same person worsens total health outcome [11] and quality of life [6, 12]. Finally, this association increases health care expenditures [11] and mortality [13]. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in a population of elderly subjects aged over sixty suffering from type 2 diabetes and to study the impact of anxiety and depression on glycemic control and the evolution of the disease. 2. Methods We undertook a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study on 62 patients who have consulted during September and October 2010 at the Department of Functional Explorations and Metabolic Diseases of Habib Bourguba University Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia. Recruitment was carried out on an ad hoc basis. The
Quality of Life in Alopecia Areata: A Sample of Tunisian Patients
Jawaher Masmoudi,Rim Sellami,Uta Ouali,Leila Mnif,Ines Feki,Mariam Amouri,Hamida Turki,Abdellaziz Jaoua
Dermatology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/983804
Abstract: Background. Alopecia areata (AA) has a significant impact on the quality of life and social interaction of those suffering from it. Our aim was to assess the impact of AA on the quality of life. Methods. Fifty patients diagnosed with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, between March 2010 and July 2010, were included. Quality of life was measured by SF 36; severity of AA was measured by SALT. Results. Eighty percent had patchy alopecia with less than 50% involvement, 12% had patchy alopecia with 50–99% involvement, and 8% had alopecia totalis. Compared with the general population, AA patients presented a significantly altered quality of life, found in the global score and in five subscores of the SF-36: mental health, role emotional, social functioning, vitality, and general health. Gender, age, marital status, and severity of alopecia areata had a significant influence on patients’ quality of life. Conclusions. This study indicates that patients with AA experience a poor quality of life, which impacts their overall health. We suggest screening for psychiatric distress. Studies of interventions such as counseling, psychoeducation, and psychotherapeutic interventions to reduce the impact of the disease may be warranted. 1. Introduction Alopecia areata (AA) is a common disease with an incidence of 2-3% among the dermatoses and 0.1% in the population at large [1]. This disorder occurs in both sexes, at all ages [2], and is characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas. Various factors, including immunologic and endocrine abnormalities [3], genetic factors [4], infections [5], and psychological/psychiatric disturbances, have been claimed to play a role in its etiopathogenesis [6]. Hence, it is suspected to be an autoimmune disease having a genetic predisposition and being influenced by environmental and ethnic factors. Epidemiological studies of AA are available from the USA, Japan, and European countries [7–9]. However, there is a paucity of data from Arab countries, with especially one published study from Kuwait done in the pediatric age group [10]. Hair loss significantly impacts an individual’s self image, and studies indicate that patients with both clinically apparent and clinically imperceptible hair loss may have significantly decreased quality of life [11, 12]. Quality of life is defined as the subjective perception of the impact on the health status and on the physical, psychological, and social functioning and well-being of the patients [13].
Terrestrial Snakebites in the South East of the Arabian Peninsula: Patient Characteristics, Clinical Presentations, and Management
Juma M. Alkaabi, Mariam Al Neyadi, Fakhra Al Darei, Mariam Al Mazrooei, Jawaher Al Yazedi, Abdishakur M. Abdulle
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024637
Abstract: Background To describe the characteristics, clinical presentations, management and complications of snakebites in the border region between Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Buraimi, Sultanate of Oman. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a retrospective review of medical records to study snakebite cases over four-year duration at three tertiary hospitals. Overall, 64 snakebite cases were studied with median hospitalization of 2 (interquartile range [IQR] 1–4) days. The majority of cases were male (87.5%), and most (61%) of the incidents occurred during summer months. The bite sites were predominantly (95%) to the feet and hands. Main clinical features included pain, local swelling, and coagulopathy, blistering and skin peeling. Overall, there were no deaths, but few major complications occurred; extensive skin peeling (n = 5, 8%), multi-organ failure (n = 1, 1.5%), and compartment syndrome (n = 1, 1.5%). Polyvalent anti snake venom (ASV), analgesia, tetanus toxoid, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics such as ampicillin, cloxacillin, and cephalosporins were commonly instituted as part of treatment protocols in the three hospitals. Conclusion The overwhelming majority of bites occurred during summer months, and envenomations were more common in, relatively, young male farmers, but with no serious clinical complications. Prevention and treatment strategies should include increasing public awareness, developing management guidelines, and manufacturing specific ASV for a wide spectrum of the local venomous snakes.
Effect of the Number and Orientation of Fractures on the P-Wave Velocity Diminution: Application on the Building Stones of the Rabat Area (Morocco)  [PDF]
Hamid El Azhari, Iz-Eddine El Amrani El Hassani
Geomaterials (GM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2013.33010
Abstract: This study is focused on two types of Moroccan rocks, among the most widely used as building stones: the calcarenite of Salé (CS) and the marble of oued Akrech (MA). The two rocks, lithologically different, show a clear contrast of their P-wave velocities (Vp): 3.90 vs 5.10 km/s at dry state and 4.29 vs 5.64 km/s at saturation. The “Artificial fractures” created in the two rock types reveal that their Vp undergo diminutions which the rates vary depending of the number and the plane orientation of the fractures. In the CS, Vp shows an increasing of cumulative diminution (Dc) according to the number of fractures, but with a variable rate of unitary diminution (Du) from one fracture to the other. This defines a linear regression with a low coefficient of determination (Dc = 10.18NbFr + 10.96; r2 = 0.87). The mode of the Vp evolution would be related to the roughness of fractures surface, which itself depends upon the petrographic nature of the calcarenite (friable structure, high porosity and heterogenous composition). The MA manifested an increasing Dc with a fairly constant rate of Du from a fracture to another, giving a regression line with a high coefficient of determination (Dc = 12.17NbFr10.69; r2 = 0.99). This steady diminution of Vp would be related to the granoblastic texture and the monomineral composition of the marble, which engender smoother fracture surfaces. The rates of Vp diminution also depend on the orientation plane of the fractures relative to the direction of wave propagation. The fractures parallel (θ = 0°) amplify slightly the Vp, playing a significant role of “waveguide”. The fractures oriented at 45° lead to a diminution lower than those of fractures oriented at 25° and 90°. The same trend of diminution, but at variable rates, appears on the samples of the two types of stones at dry and saturated state. This can be explained by the compressive nature of P-waves, which obey the physic laws of the transmission of the constraints in the solid mediums.
Waterlogging in the New Reclaimed Areas Northeast El Fayoum, Western Desert, Egypt, Reasons and Solutions  [PDF]
El Sayed Ali El Abd, Maged Mostafa El Osta
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.618147
Abstract: The waterlogging in the new reclaimed areas has become a major concern in the area Northeast El Fayoum, Western Desert, Egypt. It is not only endangering the structures and properties but also causing major environmental problem affecting the health of the area, habitats, and the biotic of the land community, as well as the deteriorating of Egypt’s Pharaonic monuments (El Lahun and Hawarah pyramids). Both the daily seepage from excess irrigation water and the presence of impervious clay or limestone beds at shallow depths may represent the main contributor of ground-water rising in the shallow aquifer. This paper investigates the interplay of the hydrogeological characteristics, soil properties and recent land reclamation projects on the distribution of waterlogging and salinization within the study area. The field observations show that new reclaimed areas have been recently cultivated in distant areas from the old agricultural land. These new cultivations have developed widespread waterlogging, soil salinization and deterioration of Egypt’s Pharaonic monuments as a result of rising groundwater related problems. In this paper, the data used come from database of drillings for eleven observation wells distributed inside the whole area to measure periodic water levels. The soil litho-units are mainly composed of coarse sand, sandy clay, silt and fractured limestone underlined by impervious clay or limestone, thus limiting the downward percolation of excess irrigation water and therefore develops waterlogging. The drainage networks and suitable irrigation methods have to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dry land to better control waterlogging and salinization hazard. It is highly recommended in this research that newly small and deep cut drainage canals network should be constructed and connected to the master drainage canal to dewater the excess irrigation water and to prevent the waterlogging in the concerned area.
On Elliptic Problem with Singular Cylindrical Potential, a Concave Term, and Critical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg Exponent  [PDF]
Mohammed El Mokhtar Ould El Mokhtar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.611166
Abstract: In this paper, we establish the existence of at least four distinct solutions to an elliptic problem with singular cylindrical potential, a concave term, and critical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg exponent, by using the Nehari manifold and mountain pass theorem.
Four Nontrivial Solutions for Kirchhoff Problems with Critical Potential, Critical Exponent and a Concave Term  [PDF]
Mohammed El Mokhtar Ould El Mokhtar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.614198
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the existence of multiple solutions to the Kirchhoff problems with critical potential, critical exponent and a concave term. Our main tools are the Nehari manifold and mountain pass theorem.
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