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Living Documents, Dying Archives: Towards a Historical Anthropology of Medieval Arabic Archives
El-Leithy, Tamer
Al-Qantara : Revista de Estudios Arabes , 2011,
Abstract: Based on an analysis of several collections of Medieval Arabic documents, this paper argues for the study of “archiving practices”, which selectively use documents as parts of wider social strategies of group formation and reproduction. This method also allows us to uncover the temporality (life-cycle) of documents and archives, including their dispersal, cycles of obsolescence and recycling; tactics of erasure, and deliberate destruction. Este trabajo es un análisis de varias colecciones de documentos árabes y propone estudiar las prácticas de archivo. Después de proponer un nuevo método de estudio de los documentos y los “archivos” o colecciones, este trabajo presta especial atención a las diferentes prácticas relacionadas con documentos; su producción, su uso, su conservación e, incluso, su destrucción deliberada.
Nuclear Localization of COX-2 in relation to the Expression of Stemness Markers in Urinary Bladder Cancer
Raynoo Thanan,Mariko Murata,Ning Ma,Olfat Hammam,Mohamed Wishahi,Tarek El Leithy,Yusuke Hiraku,Shinji Oikawa,Shosuke Kawanishi
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/165879
Abstract: Inflammation may activate stem cells via prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of stemness markers (Oct3/4 and CD44v6) and COX-2 in urinary bladder tissues obtained from cystitis and cancer patients with and without Schistosoma haematobium infections. Immunoreactivity to Oct3/4 was significantly higher in S. haematobium-associated cystitis and cancer tissues than in normal tissues. CD44v6 expression was significantly higher in bladder cancer without S. haematobium than in normal tissues. COX-2 was located in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of the cancer cells. Interestingly, the nuclear localization of COX-2, which was reported to function as a transcription factor, was significantly associated with the upregulation of Oct3/4 and CD44v6 in bladder cancer tissues with and without S. haematobium infection, respectively. COX-2 activation may be involved in inflammation-mediated stem cell proliferation/differentiation in urinary bladder carcinogenesis.
Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant Bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization
Imad Fadl-Elmula, Soili Kytola, Mona EL Leithy, Mohamed Abdel-Hameed, Nils Mandahl, Atif Elagib, Muntaser Ibrahim, Catharina Larsson, Sverre Heim
BMC Cancer , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-2-5
Abstract: DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results.Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion.Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries.Bladder cancer (BC) is the 5th and 7th most common malignancy among men and women, respectively, in Europe and the United States, with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) dominating and accounting for more than 90% of all cases [1]. In the Middle East and African sub-Sahara, BC is the most common malignancy (25% of all cancers in men), with a clear dominance (87%) of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) sub-type [2]. In addition to the SCC differentiation and more pronounced male preponderance, a low mean age at diagnosis and rare involvement of the trigonal region characterize BC in Africa and the Middle East [3]. The geographic and clinical differences in BC behavior appear to be due mainly to etiologic differences: Whereas chemicals, including cigarette smoke and occupational exposures, cause TCC of the bladder in industrialized countries, a similarly strong association with urinary bilharziasis exists in Africa and the Middle East [4]. The mechanisms whereby urinary
Effect of the Number and Orientation of Fractures on the P-Wave Velocity Diminution: Application on the Building Stones of the Rabat Area (Morocco)  [PDF]
Hamid El Azhari, Iz-Eddine El Amrani El Hassani
Geomaterials (GM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gm.2013.33010
Abstract: This study is focused on two types of Moroccan rocks, among the most widely used as building stones: the calcarenite of Salé (CS) and the marble of oued Akrech (MA). The two rocks, lithologically different, show a clear contrast of their P-wave velocities (Vp): 3.90 vs 5.10 km/s at dry state and 4.29 vs 5.64 km/s at saturation. The “Artificial fractures” created in the two rock types reveal that their Vp undergo diminutions which the rates vary depending of the number and the plane orientation of the fractures. In the CS, Vp shows an increasing of cumulative diminution (Dc) according to the number of fractures, but with a variable rate of unitary diminution (Du) from one fracture to the other. This defines a linear regression with a low coefficient of determination (Dc = 10.18NbFr + 10.96; r2 = 0.87). The mode of the Vp evolution would be related to the roughness of fractures surface, which itself depends upon the petrographic nature of the calcarenite (friable structure, high porosity and heterogenous composition). The MA manifested an increasing Dc with a fairly constant rate of Du from a fracture to another, giving a regression line with a high coefficient of determination (Dc = 12.17NbFr10.69; r2 = 0.99). This steady diminution of Vp would be related to the granoblastic texture and the monomineral composition of the marble, which engender smoother fracture surfaces. The rates of Vp diminution also depend on the orientation plane of the fractures relative to the direction of wave propagation. The fractures parallel (θ = 0°) amplify slightly the Vp, playing a significant role of “waveguide”. The fractures oriented at 45° lead to a diminution lower than those of fractures oriented at 25° and 90°. The same trend of diminution, but at variable rates, appears on the samples of the two types of stones at dry and saturated state. This can be explained by the compressive nature of P-waves, which obey the physic laws of the transmission of the constraints in the solid mediums.
Waterlogging in the New Reclaimed Areas Northeast El Fayoum, Western Desert, Egypt, Reasons and Solutions  [PDF]
El Sayed Ali El Abd, Maged Mostafa El Osta
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.618147
Abstract: The waterlogging in the new reclaimed areas has become a major concern in the area Northeast El Fayoum, Western Desert, Egypt. It is not only endangering the structures and properties but also causing major environmental problem affecting the health of the area, habitats, and the biotic of the land community, as well as the deteriorating of Egypt’s Pharaonic monuments (El Lahun and Hawarah pyramids). Both the daily seepage from excess irrigation water and the presence of impervious clay or limestone beds at shallow depths may represent the main contributor of ground-water rising in the shallow aquifer. This paper investigates the interplay of the hydrogeological characteristics, soil properties and recent land reclamation projects on the distribution of waterlogging and salinization within the study area. The field observations show that new reclaimed areas have been recently cultivated in distant areas from the old agricultural land. These new cultivations have developed widespread waterlogging, soil salinization and deterioration of Egypt’s Pharaonic monuments as a result of rising groundwater related problems. In this paper, the data used come from database of drillings for eleven observation wells distributed inside the whole area to measure periodic water levels. The soil litho-units are mainly composed of coarse sand, sandy clay, silt and fractured limestone underlined by impervious clay or limestone, thus limiting the downward percolation of excess irrigation water and therefore develops waterlogging. The drainage networks and suitable irrigation methods have to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dry land to better control waterlogging and salinization hazard. It is highly recommended in this research that newly small and deep cut drainage canals network should be constructed and connected to the master drainage canal to dewater the excess irrigation water and to prevent the waterlogging in the concerned area.
On Elliptic Problem with Singular Cylindrical Potential, a Concave Term, and Critical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg Exponent  [PDF]
Mohammed El Mokhtar Ould El Mokhtar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.611166
Abstract: In this paper, we establish the existence of at least four distinct solutions to an elliptic problem with singular cylindrical potential, a concave term, and critical Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg exponent, by using the Nehari manifold and mountain pass theorem.
Four Nontrivial Solutions for Kirchhoff Problems with Critical Potential, Critical Exponent and a Concave Term  [PDF]
Mohammed El Mokhtar Ould El Mokhtar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.614198
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the existence of multiple solutions to the Kirchhoff problems with critical potential, critical exponent and a concave term. Our main tools are the Nehari manifold and mountain pass theorem.
Effect of Urbanization and Industrialization Processes on Outdoor Thermal Human Comfort in Egypt  [PDF]
El-Sayed ROBAA
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2011.13012
Abstract: Detailed studies on the effect of urbanization and industrialization processes on outdoor thermal human com- fort in Greater Cairo region, Egypt have been performed in this study. Four different districts in Greater Cairo region have been selected to represent rural, suburban, typical urban and industrial areas. The data of surface dry, wet bulb temperatures and wind speed for two different periods represent non-urbanized and urbanized periods have been used. Discomfort indices for the two periods have been calculated for the four districts. The study revealed that urbanization and industrialization processes have resulted in the distinctly modification of human comfortable at all districts. The feeling of quite comfortable reduced from the old non-urbanized period to the recent urbanized period at the four districts. During the recent urbanized period, the rural area has the highest total number of quite comfortable hours while both urban and industrial areas have the lowest total number of hours. The serious hot uncomfortable didn’t occur at all districts during the old non-urbanized period while during the recent urbanized period, all people had felt extreme serious hot uncomfortable only at urban and industrial areas. It could be concluded that the urbanization and industriali-zation processes cause increase of human serious hot uncomfortable feeling which in turn leads to more hin-dering for the human activities while the rural conditions leads to optimum weather comfort for further and more human activities.
Power Density and SAR in Multi-Layered Life Tissue at Global System Mobile (GSM) Frequencies  [PDF]
Khitam El Wasife
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.38052
Abstract: In this paper, the power density and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution in multi-layered life tissues and exposed to electromagnetic field emitted from handheld cellular phone operating in the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz is studied. We modeled a life tissue by four layered system to represent skin-fat-muscles-organs respectively. Matlab program and finite difference time domain (FDTD) computations were used to evaluator the electric, magnetic field, power density and specific absorption rate. A one dimensional FDTD algorithm has been built, some simulations for electromagnetic wave through the life tissue is made. Results show that electro magnetic fields penetrate the life tissues and attenuate fast to reach zero at the organs layer. The absorbent power and SAR show maximum at the skin and fat layers.
Virtual water: an effective mechanism for integrated water resources management  [PDF]
Alaa El-Sadek
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23033
Abstract: In regions, which suffer from water shortage or potential water shortage like the Middle East, water policies and different mitigation measures are formulated. With the increasing population and increasing demand for food and drinking water with the fixed supply of water, the demand management policies have been introduced. Virtual Water has been adopted as an alternative or potential alternative water resource. In the application of the Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), virtual water has to be considered as a resource of water. In this paper, the practical value of the virtual water concept as well as the possibility of the application of the concept in the regional and national level are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the application of virtual water in agriculture products and virtual water trade of these products. This research concluded that, there is a possibility for the application of the virtual water concept on the national level taking into account water endowments, and other natural and social economic conditions. The virtual water strategy seeks ways to consciously and efficiently utilize the internal and external water resources to alleviate water scarcity. This, however, by no means implies that importing food is the only response the water scarce countries and regions should and can take. Other measures concerning the supply and demand sides of water management are imperative. The argument here is that the virtual water strategy should be an integral component in the whole package of integrated water resources management.
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