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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17971 matches for " Eisner Mark "
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Approximation-Aware Dependency Parsing by Belief Propagation
Matthew R. Gormley,Mark Dredze,Jason Eisner
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: We show how to train the fast dependency parser of Smith and Eisner (2008) for improved accuracy. This parser can consider higher-order interactions among edges while retaining O(n^3) runtime. It outputs the parse with maximum expected recall -- but for speed, this expectation is taken under a posterior distribution that is constructed only approximately, using loopy belief propagation through structured factors. We show how to adjust the model parameters to compensate for the errors introduced by this approximation, by following the gradient of the actual loss on training data. We find this gradient by back-propagation. That is, we treat the entire parser (approximations and all) as a differentiable circuit, as Stoyanov et al. (2011) and Domke (2010) did for loopy CRFs. The resulting trained parser obtains higher accuracy with fewer iterations of belief propagation than one trained by conditional log-likelihood.
Risk factors for hospitalization among adults with asthma: the influence of sociodemographic factors and asthma severity
Eisner Mark,Katz Patricia,Yelin Edward,Shiboski Stephen
Respiratory Research , 2001,
Abstract: Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization. Results Thirty-nine subjects (16%) reported hospitalization for asthma during the 18-month follow-up period. On controlling for asthma severity in multiple logistic regression analysis, non-white race (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–8.8) and lower income (OR, 1.1 per $10,000 decrement; 95% CI, 0.9–1.3) were associated with a higher risk of asthma hospitalization. The severity-of-asthma score (OR, 3.4 per 5 points; 95%, CI 1.7–6.8) and recent asthma hospitalization (OR, 8.3; 95%, CI, 2.1–33.4) were also related to higher risk, after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Reliance on emergency department services for urgent asthma care was also associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.0–9.8). In multivariate analysis not controlling for asthma severity, low income was even more strongly related to hospitalization (OR, 1.2 per $10,000 decrement; 95% CI, 1.02–1.4). Conclusion In adult asthmatics with access to health care, non-white race, low income, and greater asthma severity were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. Targeted interventions applied to high-risk asthma patients may reduce asthma morbidity and mortality.
The impact of SHS exposure on health status and exacerbations among patients with COPD
Mark D Eisner,Carlos Iribarren,Edward H Yelin,Stephen Sidney
International Journal of COPD , 2009,
Abstract: Mark D Eisner1,3, Carlos Iribarren3, Edward H Yelin2, Stephen Sidney3, Patricia P Katz2, Gabriela Sanchez3, Paul D Blanc11Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine; 2Institute for Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA, USAAbstract: Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Because it contains respiratory irritants, it may adversely influence the clinical course of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used data from nonsmoking members of the FLOW cohort of COPD (n = 809) to elucidate the impact of SHS exposure on health status and exacerbations (requiring emergency department visits or hospitalization). SHS exposure was measured by a validated survey instrument (hours of exposure during the past week). Physical health status was measured by the SF-12 Physical Component Summary Score and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) by the Airways Questionnaire 20-R. Health care utilization for COPD was determined from Kaiser Permanente Northern California computerized databases. Compared to no SHS exposure, higher level SHS exposure was associated with poorer physical health status (mean score decrement 1.78 points; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.48 to 0.074 points) after controlling for potential confounders. Higher level SHS exposure was also related to poorer disease-specific HRQL (mean score increment 0.63; 95% CI 0.016 to 1.25) and less distance walked during the Six-Minute Walk test (mean decrement 50 feet; 95% CI 102 to 1.9). Both lower level and higher level SHS exposure was related to increased risk of emergency department (ED) visits (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.05 and HR 1.41; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.13). Lower level and higher level SHS exposure were associated with a greater risk of hospital-based care for COPD, which was a composite endpoint of either ED visits or hospitalizations for COPD (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.18 and HR 1.40; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.10, respectively). In conclusion, SHS was associated with poorer health status and a greater risk of COPD exacerbation. COPD patients may comprise a vulnerable population for the health effects of SHS.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, tobacco smoke pollution
Operation and Defensive Role of "Gin Traps" in a Coccinellid Pupa (Cycloneda Sanguinea)
Thomas Eisner,Maria Eisner
Psyche , 1992, DOI: 10.1155/1992/54859
Abstract:
Unpalatability of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-ContainingMoth Utetheisa Ornatrix, and its Larva, to Wolf Spiders
Thomas Eisner,Maria Eisner
Psyche , 1991, DOI: 10.1155/1991/95350
Abstract:
Euxoa Auxiliaris: A Moth That Sprays
Thomas Eisner,Maria Eisner
Psyche , 1992, DOI: 10.1155/1992/92656
Abstract:
Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Mark D Eisner, John Balmes, Patricia P Katz, Laura Trupin, Edward H Yelin, Paul D Blanc
Environmental Health , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-4-7
Abstract: Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD.Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD.Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21). The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84). The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure.ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.COPD is a common disease, affecting 5–10% of the population of North America and Europe [1-3]. During the past two decades, death and disability from COPD have continued to increase worldwide [1,4]. Although direct cigarette smoking is the major cause of COPD, up to two cases out of ten cannot be explained solely by direct smoking [5]. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, which appears to cause new cases of asthma, could also cause COPD [6-8]. Because it contains potent airway irritants, ETS could lead to chronic airway irritation, inflammation, and obstruction [6,9]. The role of ETS exposure in causing COPD, however, has received
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 predicts pulmonary status declines in α1-antitrypsin deficiency
Theodore A Omachi, Mark D Eisner, Alexis Rames, Lada Markovtsova, Paul D Blanc
Respiratory Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-12-35
Abstract: We utilized data from the placebo arm (n = 126) of a clinical trial of patients with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and emphysema to examine the links between plasma MMP-9 levels, pulmonary status, and COPD exacerbations over a one year observation period. Pulmonary function, computed tomography lung density, incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), and COPD exacerbations were assessed at regular intervals over 12 months. Prospective analyses used generalized estimating equations to incorporate repeated longitudinal measurements of MMP-9 and all endpoints, controlling for age, gender, race-ethnicity, leukocyte count, and tobacco history. A secondary analysis also incorporated highly-sensitive C-reactive protein levels in predictive models.At baseline, higher plasma MMP-9 levels were cross-sectionally associated with lower FEV1 (p = 0.03), FVC (p < 0.001), carbon monoxide transfer factor (p = 0.03), resting oxygen saturation (p = 0.02), and ISWT distance walked (p = 0.02) but were not associated with radiographic lung density or total lung capacity (TLC). In longitudinal analyses, MMP-9 predicted a further decline in transfer factor (p = 0.04) and oxygen saturation (p < 0.001). MMP-9 also predicted worsening lung density (p = 0.003), increasing TLC (p = 0.02), and more frequent COPD exacerbations over follow-up (p = 0.003). Controlling additionally for hs-CRP levels did not substantively change the longitudinal associations between MMP-9 and these outcomes.Increased plasma MMP-9 levels generally predicted pulmonary status declines, including worsening transfer factor and lung density as well as greater COPD exacerbations in AATD-associated emphysema.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but predictors of progression remain elusive [1]. Alpha1-antitrypsin inhibits neurophil elastase, and the discovery of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and its association with emphysema and COPD helped to establis
Work life of persons with asthma, rhinitis, and COPD: A study using a national, population-based sample
Edward Yelin, Patricia Katz, John Balmes, Laura Trupin, Gillian Earnest, Mark Eisner, Paul Blanc
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6673-1-2
Abstract: Persons ages 55 to 75 reporting a physician's diagnosis of COPD, asthma, or rhinitis as well as those without any of these conditions were identified by random-digit dialing (RDD) in the continental U.S and administered a structured survey. We used Kaplan-Meier life table analysis to estimate the duration of work life among persons with and without the three conditions and Cox proportional hazard regression to examine the role of demographic and work characteristics in the proportion leaving employment in each time interval.Persons with COPD, asthma, and rhinitis were no less likely than the remainder of the population to have ever worked, but those with COPD were less likely to be working when interviewed or as of age 65, whichever came first. As of age 55, only 62 percent of persons with COPD continued to work versus 72 and 78 percent of persons with asthma and rhinitis, respectively. Persons with COPD, asthma, and rhinitis all had an elevated risk of leaving work prior to age 65 relative to those without chronic conditions, with and without adjustment for demographic and work characteristics.COPD and to a lesser extent asthma and rhinitis were associated with a substantially shortened work life, an effect not due to demographic and work characteristics.The impact of chronic respiratory conditions on employment even when work is not a cause of these conditions has been the subject of a growing literature. Most of the studies have concerned the impact of asthma [1-18], although a few concern other discrete respiratory conditions, including allergic rhinitis [14,19], cystic fibrosis [20], and chronic bronchitis [17].The vast majority of studies have used clinical samples, with the attendant risk that the work disability rate will be overestimated since persons sampled in clinical environments are more likely to have severe disease [21]. Recently there have been several studies that use population-based sampling frames [2,10,14,16,17,22-24]. However, each of these st
Risk factors for hospitalization among adults with asthma: the influence of sociodemographic factors and asthma severity
Mark D Eisner, Patricia P Katz, Edward H Yelin, Stephen C Shiboski, Paul D Blanc
Respiratory Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/rr37
Abstract: In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization.Thirty-nine subjects (16%) reported hospitalization for asthma during the 18-month follow-up period. On controlling for asthma severity in multiple logistic regression analysis, non-white race (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1–8.8) and lower income (OR, 1.1 per $10,000 decrement; 95% CI, 0.9–1.3) were associated with a higher risk of asthma hospitalization. The severity-of-asthma score (OR, 3.4 per 5 points; 95%, CI 1.7–6.8) and recent asthma hospitalization (OR, 8.3; 95%, CI, 2.1–33.4) were also related to higher risk, after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Reliance on emergency department services for urgent asthma care was also associated with a greater likelihood of hospitalization (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.0–9.8). In multivariate analysis not controlling for asthma severity, low income was even more strongly related to hospitalization (OR, 1.2 per $10,000 decrement; 95% CI, 1.02–1.4).In adult asthmatics with access to health care, non-white race, low income, and greater asthma severity were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. Targeted interventions applied to high-risk asthma patients may reduce asthma morbidity and mortality.Asthma is a common condition in general medical practice, accounting for about 1% of all ambulatory visits in the USA [1]. The mortality rate from asthma has risen sharply since the late 1970s, which may reflect increasing disease severity [2]. The hospitalization rate, another population-level marker of asthma severity, remains substantial [2], generating nearly one-half of all US health care costs for asthma [3]. Hospitalization rates for asthma have actually increased in some demographic subgroups, such as young adults [2] and the urban poor [4], desp
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