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Comparison of growth, nutrition and soil properties of pure stands of Quercus castaneifolia C. A. Mey. and mixed with Carpinus betulus L. in the Hyrcanian forests of Iran
Seyed Mohsen Hosseini,Einollah Rouhi-Moghaddam,Ezzatollah Ebrahimi,Ahmad Rahmani
Ecologia Balkanica , 2011,
Abstract: In the present study, Quercus castaneifolia (Oak, as target species) and Carpinus betulus (Horn beam, as native component species) were planted in five proportions (100Q, 70Q:30C, 60Q:40C, 50Q:50C, 40Q:60C) in the Noor region (North Iran). After 12 years, the effects of the species on the growth of the trees, nutrient concentrations in the live and senescent leave and on soil properties were assessed. The results showed the survival and diameter at breast height (dbh) of the individual Oak trees were positively affected by the presence of Horn beam. Percent retranslocation of the nutrients in Quercus trees was: K>N>P. Leaflitter fall production ranged from 4.70 to 6.80 Mg ha1 year 1. N concentration in fully expanded leaves, N and Ca concentrations in the senescent leaves of Quercus trees and N concentration in topsoil were higher in some of the mixed plantations than in the monocultures of the Quercus trees. N fluxes, N and P etranslocation, and soil P concentrations in the monocultures were intermediate relative to mixed plantations. The obtained results somewhat indicated that the mixing with hornbeam increased the productivity and sustainability of the oak sites. Within the framework of this experiment, it appeared that production was maximized when these two species were grown together in the proportion of 50% Quercus castaneifolia and 50% Carpinus betulus.
The Regeneration Structure and Biodiversity of Trees and Shrub Species in Understory of Pure Plantations of Oak and Mixed with Hornbeam in the Hyrcanian Forests of Iran
Einollah Rouhi-Moghaddam,Seyed Mohsen Hosseini,Ezzatollah Ebrahimi,Ahmad Rahmani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: The regeneration structure and biodiversity of trees and shrub species in under story of pure and mixed Oak plantations were investigated in Chamestan Forest and Rangeland Research Station of Iran. Planted species including Oak (as main species) and Hornbeam (as associated species). This species were planted in five proportions (100Q, 70Q:30C, 60Q:40C, 50Q:50C, 40Q:60Z) in Northern of Iran in 11 years ago. All of regenerating seedlings and saplings of woody plants were divided into two height classes of 15-200 cm and more than 200 cm. In biodiversity study dominance index of Berger-Parker, diversity index of Fisher alpha, richness index of Margalef and evenness index of Equitability J were used. The results showed that abundance and diversity of regenerated species in under story of all plantations of oak were more than unplanted control plots and also under 50Q:50C were more than pure stand of oak. The presence of primary forest species in under stories of mixed plantation showed the usage of these plantations in development of succession in natural forests.
An Optimal Algorithm for Conflict-Free Coloring for Tree of Rings
Einollah Pira
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: An optimal algorithm is presented about Conflict-Free Coloring for connected subgraphs of tree of rings. Suppose the number of the rings in the tree is |T| and the maximum length of rings is |R|. A presented algorithm in [1] for a Tree of rings used O(log|T|.log|R|) colors but this algorithm uses O(log|T|+log|R|) colors. The coloring earned by this algorithm has the unique-min property, that is, the unique color is also minimum.
The Effects of Focused and Unfocused Indirect Feedback on Accuracy in EFL Writing
Afsar Rouhi,Mitra Samiei
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2010.481.485
Abstract: This study examines the effects of focused and unfocused indirect feedback on the use of simple past tense in L2 writing. About 60 Azari learners of English were assigned to a focused group, an unfocused group and a control group (20 in each). A packet including a short response test, an error correction test, a fill in the blank test and a narrative writing test was given to the participating groups. The groups turned out to be homogeneous in terms of the form in focus. Any past tense used incorrectly in the production of the participants of the focused group was underlined. All erroneous structures in the production of the unfocused group were underlined while the control group received no corrective feedback. The tests which carried feedback for the 2 experimental groups and were untouched for the control group were returned to the participants. The experimental groups were asked to reflect upon the feedback provided. The same packet of tests was given to the groups after 1 week and 3 weeks later. Split-plot ANOVAs run on the data showed that there was no statistically significant difference among the 3 groups of the study, the interaction of time and treatment was not statistically significant while the accuracy of all the 3 groups appeared to improve from time 1-2 but not from time 2-3.
Effect of Althaea Officinalis on Cough Associated with ACE Inhibitors
Hamid Rouhi,Forouzan Ganji
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: Nowadays Angiotensin- converting enzyme inhibitor drugs are the leading drugs for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure and some of nephropathy. But One of the most frequent side effect of these drugs is cough. A dry, tickly and often bothersome cough that may develop in around 15 to 39 percent of these patients and may lead to discontinuation of treatment. So we decided to use herbal drug of althaea officinalis for the treatment of this cough. For this study in the year 1385 and by using of method of double- blind clinical trial 60 patients with hypertension who were from the province of Chaharmal va bakhtiarei and had been developed cough during taking of angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitor drugs were selected. Then for all of them were filled a paper of questionnaire. In these papers the scores of severity of their cough on a scale between 0 to 4 and the advantages of their spirometery tests were noted. Then all of these patients were divided in 2 groups. The first group was treated by herbal drug of althaea officinalis and the second group by placebo by 20 drops for every 8 hour (TDS). These patients used these drugs for treatment period of 4 weeks. At the end of 4 weeks the scores of severity of their cough with the advantages of their spirometery tests were noted again. The Mean scores of the severity of the cough in the first group which have been treated by althaea officinalis had a significant change from the score of) 2/66+0.958 (to) 1/23+1.006 (Eight patient in the althaea officinalis group showed almost complete cough abolition. No significant change in laboratory data related to spirometery tests were observed in either group. The mechanism of this type of cough maybe is related to the stimulation of tracheae-bronchial tree and the herbal drug of althaea officinalis can have important role in decreasing and treatment of the cough of ACEI drugs.
Fungus Ball Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions
Sepideh Rouhi,Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with benign histology probability. The purpose was to report our experience regarding fungus ball diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CTs were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, then all CTs were double checked by the same radiologist. Diagnosis of fungus lesions and their differentiations were based on pathology reports. "nResults: During this four-year study, 20 fungus lesions (15 men and five women) were found. The mean age of the patients were 54.75 years (ranging: 19-77). In these series, there were 16 (80%) aspergillosis, two (10%) mucor mycosis and two undifferentiated fungus balls. The mean diameter of the lesions was 5.650 cm (range: 1-11.5 cm) and the distance of the lesions to the chest wall was 0.75 cm (range: 0-3 cm). Nine (45%) fungus lesions were located in the left upper, four (20%) in the right lower, four (20%) in the right upper and the rest (15%) in the left lower and right middle lobes. Pneumothorax occurred in two cases (one aspergillosis and one mucor mycosis), while the chest tube was placed only for the patient with mucor mycosis in order to manage the compli-cation. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for fungus balls.
Lymphoma Diagnosis on Computed Tomography Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy
Sepideh Rouhi,Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background/Objective: In the recent years, CT-guided biopsy is going to be replaced with open biopsy for the diagnosis of lymphoma. This study was designed to assess the diagnosis of lymphoma by CT-guided biopsy and also to identify the complication rate of the procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 78 CT-guided biopsies of mediastinal lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist. The CTs were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and the diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum, then all CTs were double checked by the same radiologist. Lesions were considered benign or malignant and lymphoma based on pathology reports. "nResults: Biopsy yielded sufficient tissue for pathologic examination in 63 cases (80.77%); 14 lesions (17.9%) were benign and 49 lesions (62.8%) were malignant. In the malignant masses, 15 were lymphoma (30.6%) and 20 other kinds of tumors (46.8%) were found. Moreover, 11 malignant lesions had no differentiation. Among lymphoma lesions, there were seven (46.7%) Hodgkin, five (33.33%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and three (20%) lymphoma without differentiation. Pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum as complications did not present in any case. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be reliable as a less invasive diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for lymphoma.
Hydatid Cyst Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions
Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram,Sepideh Rouhi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients; however, some studies do not recommend it in lesions with probable benign histology. The objective was to report our experience regarding hydatid cyst diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 99 CT-guided biopsies of infected thoracic lesions performed to investigate hydatid cyst masses from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CT scans were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of the lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum and then all CT scans were double checked by the same radiologist. Lesions considered infection and their differentiations based on pathology reports. "nResults: During this four year study six hydatid cysts (three men and three women) were found the men age of the patients was 49.83 years (ranging: 25-81). The mean diameter of the lesions was 4.083 cm (range: 1-6 cm) and the distance of the lesion to the chest wall was 0.417 cm (range: 0-1.5 cm). In these cases, three (50%) hydatid cysts were located in the left lower lobe, two (33.3%) in the left upper lobe and one (16.7%) in the mediastinum. Pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum as complications did not present in any case. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for hydatid cysts.
Tuberculosis and Other Infectious Diseases Diagnosed on Computed Tomography (CT) Guided Needle Aspiration and Biopsy of Thoracic Lesions
Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram,Sepideh Rouhi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Background/Objective: CT-guided biopsy provides results in a short period and can be applied on outpatient and even high-risk patients. The aim was to report our experience regarding infectious lesion diagnosis on CT-guided biopsy and to identify the complication rate of procedure. "nPatients and Methods: We evaluated 224 CT-guided biopsies of benign thoracic lesions performed from March 2004 to December 2008 retrospectively. All biopsies were performed by one radiologist with Westcott needle number 20 and 18. The CT scans were assessed by a trained general practitioner for the size and location of lesions and diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum and then all CT scans were double checked by the same radiologist. Lesions considered benign and the differentiations based on pathology reports. "nResults: In this series, 99 (44.2%) infectious, 98 inflammatory, 14 neoplastic and 13 granulomatous lesions were found. In the infectious lesion group, 73 (73.7%) of the lesions were bacterial, 20 (20.2%) were fungal and six (6.1%) were hydatid cysts. The location of the cases are as follows; 29 (29.3%) in the right lower, 24 (24.2%) in the left upper, 20 (20.2%) in the right upper lobes and 26 were in other locations. 26% in the right middle, left lower lobes, mediastinum and the chest wall. The mean diameter of infectious masses and the distance of the lesions to the chest wall were 6.187 cm and 0.348 cm, respectively. Moreover, four cases with Tuberculosis were detected in the right lower (2), right upper (1) and left upper (1) lobes. Pneumothorax occurred in four infectious lesions, while chest tube was placed for only one case. "nConclusion: CT-guided needle biopsy seems to be a safe and feasible diagnostic modality with a low-risk probability of complications for infectious diseases.
Nanoparticles in Cancer Imaging
Sepideh Rouhi,Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field as a combination of engineering, biology and medicine. It manipulates atoms and molecules to create devices at atomic, molecular and supramolecular levels for potential clinical use. Cancer nanotechnology as the latest trend in cancer diagnosis and treatment has provided nanoscale tools like biosensors, dendrimers, quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles such as iron oxide with unique optical, magnetic and electronic properties. They are 100 to 1,000-fold smaller than cancer cells and may be conjugated with several functional molecules like imaging probes, specific ligands and antibodies. The capability of transferring through leaky blood vessels, passive and active targeting, intracellular delivery and subcellular localization has made them dual-purpose and multifunctional probes in cancer. Conventional imaging techniques such as CT and MRI using nontargeted contrast agents have limitations in early and accurate diagnosis and monitoring of treatment that may be eventually removed through the use of nanostructures' properties."nCancer diagnosis in an early stage, which influences the patient's survival, is possible earlier than ever imaginable. For example in contrast to mammography, which can detect breast cancer when it has at least 1000,000 cells, these new tools can accurately detect the tumor when it has less than 100 cells. "nThis article is a review on applications of nanotechnology, as a rapidly growing field for cancer imaging in medicine contributing to the early detection of cancer cells through available imaging techniques.
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