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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9401 matches for " Einas Ahmed "
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The Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Dynamics of Post-Conflict Political Partnership in Sudan Das Umfassende Friedensabkommen im Sudan und die Dynamik politischer Partnerschaft in der Nachkriegsphase
Einas Ahmed
Africa Spectrum , 2009,
Abstract: Most of the researches on peace agreements conclude that powersharing arrangements included in these are mostly to the detriment of longterm democratic transformation. The basic argument of these studies is that peace deals consolidate mainly the power of the signatories to the detriment of other major political forces. This article illustrates that, in contrast to many cases, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which was signed in 2005 between the government of Sudan represented by the ruling party, the National Congress Party (NCP) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), has led to an important political transformation in state structure as well as in power relations. Although the CPA enhanced the legitimacy of the SPLM and the NCP and consolidated their political domination, it, nevertheless, contributed to a significant political opening for other political forces in the North and in the South. The CPA put an end to the historically exclusive political hegemony of the North. This article focuses on the dynamics of relations between the SPLM and the NCP during the transitional period and illustrates how these dynamics have impacted upon the process of political transformation. Untersuchungen zu Friedensvereinbarungen kommen zumeist zu dem Schluss, dass die enthaltenen Machtteilungsklauseln einer langfristigen demokratischen Transformation abtr glich sind. Als wichtigstes Argument wird dabei angeführt, dass Friedensvereinbarungen vor allem die Position der unterzeichnenden Partner st rken – zum Schaden anderer bedeutender politischer Kr fte. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, dass – im Gegensatz zu vielen anderen F llen – das Umfassende Friedensabkommen (Comprehensive Peace Agreement, CPA), das 2005 von der Regierung des Sudan, repr sentiert durch die Regierungspartei National Congress Party (NCP) und die Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A), unterzeichnet wurde, zu einem erheblichen Wandel sowohl der staatlichen Strukturen als auch der politischen Herrschaftsbeziehungen geführt hat. Obwohl das Abkommen zur Legitimierung von SPLM und NCP beitrug und ihre politische Machtposition st rkte, trug es nichtsdestotrotz auch zu einer signifikanten ffnung für andere politische Kr fte im Norden und Süden bei. Es führte zudem zur Beendigung der historisch verankerten exklusiven politischen Hegemonie des Nordens. Der Artikel richtet den Blick auf die Dynamik der Beziehungen zwischen SPLM und NCP in der übergangsperiode und zeigt auf, inwieweit diese Dynamik den politischen Transformationsprozess beeinflusste.
Physical Activity Performance among Obese Adolescents Who Are Enrolled in the Obesity Treatment Program: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Malak Al Qahtani, Einas Al Eisa
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2016.43015
Abstract: Existing literature indicates that a weight-management program that includes diet modification, Physical Activity (PA) instructions and behavioral modification in weight reduction increases obese adolescents’ participation in PA. However, the effect of such a program on obese Saudi adolescents is unknown. Objective: To examine the effects of a weight-management program in terms of decreasing Body Mass Index (BMI) and improving participation in PA in obese Saudi adolescents, and to establish whether differences exist between genders in response to a weight-management program. PA was measured by Arab Teens Life Style (ATLS) questionnaire for both groups. Results: A wide range of differences in PA and sedentary time are evident between new and weight- managed patients and two genders. PA performance was significantly higher among the weight- managed patients compared with new patients. Also, for boys there were no differences between both groups in PA performance. While, girls’ PA was significantly higher among the girls in weight- managed group compared with girls in new patients group. Weight-managed patients spend significantly less time on the computer and/or the Internet per day compared with new patients. After treatment, the mean BMI among the weight-managed patients slightly decreased. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that the weight-management program could be effective in treating Saudi obese adolescents due to its effect in BMI reduction and greater improvement in PA performance. The surprising result from this study, PA differences between the groups were because of the total PA of girls only, meaning that obesity treatment program can lower the percentage of obesity among women and increase their levels of physical activity.
Explanation of Pressure Effect for High Temperature Superconductors Using Pressure Dependent Schrodinger Equation and String Theory  [PDF]
Einas Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed, Nagwa Idriss Ali Ahmed, Musa Ibrahim Babiker Hussein, Rasha Abd Elhai Mohammad Taha, Mohammed Idriss Ahmed, Mubarak Dirar Abd-Alla
Natural Science (NS) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2020.121004
Abstract: A pressure dependent Schrodinger equation is used to find the conditions that lead to superconductivity. When no pressure is exerted, the superconductor resistance vanishes beyond a critical temperature related to the repulsive force potential of the electron gass, where one assuming the electron total energy to be thermal, where applying mechanical pressure destroys Sc when it exceeds a certain critical value. However when the electron total energy is an assumed to be that of the free electron model and that the pressure is thermal and mechanical, the situation is different. The quantum expression for resistance shows that the increase of mechanical pressure increases the critical temperature. Such phenomenon is observed in high temperature cupper group.
Indicators of adherence to physiotherapy attendance among Saudi female patients with mechanical low back pain: a clinical audit
Einas Al-Eisa
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-124
Abstract: A retrospective chart review was conducted on female LBP patients referred to the department of physiotherapy at a local tertiary hospital over a 12 month period. A total of 98 charts were reviewed. Two physiotherapists specialized in musculoskeletal rehabilitation collected information from the medical files. Data were classified in three categories: patients' personal demographics, patients' medical condition and history, and type of physiotherapy administered. Contingency tables and chi-square test were computed to test for differences in proportions. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated to examine relationships among variables.Subjects who attended their scheduled appointments were classified as adherent (40%), and those who failed to attend 2 consecutive scheduled appointments and got discharged were classified as non-adherent (60%). Factors that significantly correlated with adherence included: age (r = 0.7, p < 0.05), initial pain intensity (r = 0.5, p < 0.05), and subjective report of improvement (r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Adherence did not correlate with the type of LBP, patient occupation, experience or nationality of the physiotherapist.This study reveals an alarming level of non-adherence to physiotherapy among patients with LBP. It remains unclear as to what level of adherence is required to achieve beneficial effect of treatment. It is quite evident however, that early withdrawal from treatment would not allow the therapeutic benefits of the treatment to be realized. Future research should be directed toward developing strategies to improve adherence.Low back pain (LBP) is considered a major health problem due to its high prevalence [1,2], high probability of recurrence [3], and associated disability [4]. It is generally defined as the perception of pain in the posterior aspect of the body between the inferior border of the rib cage and the inferior gluteal fold [5]. The epidemiology and socioeconomic cost of LBP has been well documented [6-8
Choriocarcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report and a Literature Review
Khaled Baagar,Fahmi Yousef Khan,Einas AlKuwari
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/697251
Abstract: A 35-year-old Qatari man presented to our hospital with a 4-month history of mild abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice. He was found to have central intra-abdominal mass and a single testis in the scrotum. His investigations showed cholestatic jaundice and very high level of β-HCG (1131379?IU/L). CT scans of the chest and abdomen showed a huge pelvic-abdominal mass with extensive retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, in addition to liver and lung metastases. CT-guided Tru-Cut biopsy of the mass showed mixed germ cell tumor. Chemotherapy was refused by the patient and his family. In the following days, the patient bled from his liver metastases leading to hemorrhagic shock, hemorrhage from metastatic sites of choriocarcinoma containing tumors is named choriocarcinoma syndrome. He was transferred to the medical intensive care unit, where he was intubated and resuscitated. Embolization of the right hepatic artery was done, but failed to control the bleeding, which continued with development of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and a severe abdominal compartment syndrome, and eventually the patient died. 1. Introduction Testicular neoplasms comprise the most common solid malignancy affecting men between the ages of 15 and 35, but they only represent almost 1% of all solid tumors in males. Approximately two to three new cases per 100,000 males are reported in the United States each year, and 95 percent of all primary testicular tumors are germ cell tumors [1, page 1574]. This rare tumor can be complicated by a very rare, life threatening complication which is choriocarcinoma syndrome with only few cases reported worldwide. Choriocarcinoma syndrome entails hemorrhage from metastatic sites of choriocarcinoma associated with a significant rise of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) [2]. In this report, we present a case of choriocarcinoma syndrome in a 35-year-old Qatari man, to draw attention of our physicians to the importance of considering this syndrome while dealing with patients who have massive and advanced testicular tumors with high β-HCG, as this syndrome is life-threatening and needs urgent treatment. 2. Case Report A 35-year-old male, not known to have any chronic illness, presented with a 4-month history of mild, dull, and intermittent abdominal pain, associated with jaundice, loss of appetite, and weight loss of 10 kilograms, as well as a one-month history of abdominal swelling. On examination, he had normal vital signs, but he was pale and jaundiced. There were no palpable lymph nodes. There was central intra-abdominal mass 15?cm in
Study the Effect of Recycled Tire Rubber on the Mechanical and Rheological Properties of TPV (HDPE/Recycled Tire Rubber)  [PDF]
Ziyad T. Al-Malki, Einas A. Al-Nasir, Moayad N. Khalaf, Raed K. Zidan
Open Journal of Polymer Chemistry (OJPChem) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpchem.2013.34017
Abstract:

Thermoplastic elastomeric blends prepared from blending of (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50 wt%) high density polyethylene(HDPE) and (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50 wt%) ground rubber tire (TPV-R). The blends prepared contain (HDPE)/polybutadiene (TPV-V). The two blends were successfully prepared through a dynamic vulcanization process, involving dicumyl peroxide (3%) as vulcanizing agent. The data of the mechanical (tensile strength at yield, %elongation and young modulus) and rheological properties (shear stress, shear rate, viscosity, flow behavior index and activation energy of melt flow) of the TPV-V and TPV-R showed that there was comparable results between the two blends.

Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women
Einas S. Al-Eisa,Hana I. Al-Sobayel
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/642187
Abstract: Background. Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits and disease prevention and is often prescribed in managing many health conditions. Understanding the cultural influences is relevant in order to effectively promote PA. The objective of this study was to assess the level of PA among Saudi women, measured by daily step count, and the association between PA and health beliefs. Methods. A total of 161 eligible participants were asked to complete two questionnaires to assess health beliefs: Health Locus of Control (HLC) and Self-Efficacy Assessment Scale. Each participant was given a pedometer and a diary to record their daily PA for two weeks. Results. One hundred and five participants completed the two weeks pedometer data (mean age 26.3±7.1 years, BMI 25±4.2 kg/m2). The average pedometer score over two weeks was 5114±2213 steps. Step count had strong correlation with self-efficacy (=0.75), mild correlation with internal HLC (=0.42), and mild negative correlation with external HLC (=?0.35). Conclusion. The study demonstrates high level of inactivity among Saudi females in reference to the international recommendation for minimum activity. The data also reveal an association between PA and health beliefs. Ultimately, such information can be used to design gender- and culture-sensitive interventions that could enhance adherence to PA.
Pattern of glomerular diseases in Sudanese children:A clinico-pathological study
Abdelraheem Mohamed,Ali El-Tigani,Mohamed Reem,Hassan Einas
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Glomerular diseases are a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in many countries. The pattern of glomerular diseases has been reported in adult Sudanese patients but there has been no previous study on Sudanese children. The aim of this study is to describe the pattern of glomerular diseases in Sudanese children from a clinico-pathological perspective. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 321 children seen with nephritis/nephrosis at the Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Soba University Hospital and Dr. Salma Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation Centre, Khartoum, Sudan during the period from 2002 to 2007. Biopsies were studied with light microscopy and immuno-histochemistry with electron microscopy performed abroad in selected patients (predominantly Alport′s). The mean age of the 321 study children was 8.71 years (range 2 months-16 yrs) of whom, 188 were males (60.2%). The most common presentation was with the nephrotic syndrome, seen in 202 patients (62.9%). The most common glomerular disease encountered was minimal change disease, seen in 96 children (29.9%), followed by post-infectious GN in 78 (24.3%) and focal and segmental glome-rulosclerosis, seen in 44 patients (13.7%). Membranoproliferative GN (MPGN) was seen in 43 patients (13.4%) while mesangioproliferative GN was seen in 24 (7.5%). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was the most common secondary glomerular disease accounting for 16 patients (4.9%). HBsAg was positive in 10 patients and the most common associated lesion was MPGN (60%). Histopathology enabled us to change the therapy in 55.3% of the patients. Our study suggests that the pattern of GN in our cohort of patients is comparable with reports from other parts of the world with a high prevalence of post-infectious GN. Renal biopsies have an important part in planning therapy and management. Also, the importance of establishing a Sudanese renal registry including pediatric patients is stressed.
Treatment of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis: Platelet Rich Plasma versus Extra-Corporeal Shock Wave Therapy  [PDF]
Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Othman
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.43013
Abstract: Background: Several treatment options have been proposed to treat lateral epicondylitis. Both Platelet rich plasma (PRP) and Extra-corporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) are new treatment modalities for tendinopathy. Patients and Methods: Thirty seven patients suffering from chronic lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) for at least six months were treated in this study. The patients were divided into two treatment groups, the first group including 20 patients treated by ESWT and the second group including 17 patients treated by local injection of platelet-rich plasma. The results were evaluated using the visual analogue scale and the DASH score. Results: In the first group (treated by ESWT), the average follow-up period was 21.55 months. The average VAS improved from 8.2 to 1.95 and the average DASH score improved from 72.25 to 51.7. Moreover, 11 cases were satisfied (55%), 3 cases (15%) were satisfied with reservation and 6 cases (30%) were not satisfied. In the second group (treated by PRP), the average follow-up period was 18.47 months. The average VAS improved from 8.52 to 1.47, the DASH score improved from 72 to 48.23. Concerning patient satisfaction, 13 cases were satisfied (83.33%), 3 cases (10.52%) were satisfied with reservation and 1 case (5.55%) was not satisfied. Conclusion: Platelet rich plasma was proved to achieve superior results when compared to ESWT as regards pain relief, improvement of elbow function and patient satisfaction at follow-up.
Open versus Arthroscopic Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stiff Elbow  [PDF]
Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed Othman
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2014.411047
Abstract: Thirty three patients with post-traumatic stiff elbow were divided into two groups. The first group included 18 patients with an average age of 31.05 years treated by open arthrolysis. The second included 15 patients with an average age of 31.66 years treated by arthroscopic method. The results were evaluated using the Mayo clinic score and DASH score for elbow function. In the open group, after an average period of follow-up 19.33 months, the average range of flexion-extension movement improved from 51.11° to 103.94°. The average Mayo clinic score improved from 63.38 to 92.83 and the average DASH score improved from 68.1 to 40.23. There were 13 cases (72.22%) excellent, 4 cases (22.22%) good and 1 case (5.55%) with the poor result. In the arthroscopic group, after an average period of follow-up 17.73 months, the average range of flexion-extension movement improved from 59.46° to 101.53°. The average Mayo clinic score improved from 62.93 to 92.73 and the average DASH score improved from 69.25 to 46.4. There were 10 cases (66.66%) excellent, 3 cases (20%) good and 2 cases (13.33%) with the poor result. Both open and arthro-scopic treatment can be effective in treatment of post-traumatic stiff elbow. Arthroscopic treatment is associated with less post-operative pain and morbidity. However, open treatment provides better range of motion and marked improvement of elbow function.
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