OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721



匹配条件: “Eiji Osawa” ,找到相关结果约690条。
Nanodiamond and its application to drug delivery
Eiji Osawa,Dean Ho
Journal of Medical and Allied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Quasi-spherical diamond crystals having an average diameter of 3.7±0.6 nm are attracting much attention as an ideal material in carbon nanotechnology. In contrast to the other popular nanocarbons including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphenes, our single-nanodiamond can be produced in uniform shape/size on industrial scale. Thus, the most serious problem in nanocarbon industry that persisted in the past 25 years, namely the technical failure to produce highly crystalline nanocarbons in narrow shape/size range does not exist in our diamond from the beginning. Among potential applications of the single-nanodiamond under development, this review concentrates on its highly promising role as a drug carrier, especially for therapeutic-resistant cancer. An interesting possibility of intercalation is proposed as the mechanism of drug transport through blood, which takes into accounts of the spontaneous formation of nanographene layer on the [111] facets, which is then extensively oxidized during oxidative soot removal process to give nanographene oxide partial surface, capable of intercalating drug molecules to prevent them from leaking and causing undesirable side effects during transportation to target malignant cells. A perspective of quantifying the drug delivery process by anticipating orders of magnitude in the number of administered detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles is suggested.
Surgeon-Operated In-Office Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging  [PDF]
Tsutomu Kobayashi, Atsushi Yamamoto, Hitoshi Shitara, Tsuyoshi Ichinose, Eiji Takasawa, Daisuke Shimoyama, Toshihisa Osawa, Kenji Takagishi
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.49A002

Objective: Few investigators have evaluated whether ultrasonography operated by a surgeon during a patient’s clinic visit is capable of obtaining a similar degree of accuracy as magnetic resonance imaging in regard to the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears and lesions of the biceps tendon. The purpose of this study was to clarify the accuracy of in-office ultrasonography for the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: One hundred and three patients (105 shoulders) with a clinical diagnosis of impingement and suspected rotator cuff tear, who subsequently underwent arthroscopic surgery were retrospectively enrolled in this study, including 7 males with 89 shoulders, and 33 females with 33 shoulders, and their mean age was 60.9 years (range, 30 to 83 years). The subjects were examined using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging within three months pre-operatively per normal practice of the outpatient clinic. The two modalities were then compared to the reference standard, arthroscopic findings. Results: Intra-operatively, 79 full-thickness and 15 partial-thickness rotator cuff tears were found. The agreement between ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosis of rotator cuff tears was statistically good; observed degree of agreement was 87% with Kappa coefficient of 0.73. Ultrasonography showed a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100% for full-thickness tears, and a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 91% for partial-thickness tears. The agreement of the two modalities for diagnosis of lesions of the biceps tendon was also good; observed degree of agreement was 93% with Kappa coefficient of 0.76. In addition, ultrasonography showed comparable accuracy for classifying the size of rotator cuff tears to that of magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion: Surgeon-operated in-office ultrasonography is an appropriate technique for the assessment of rotator cuff tears with a comparable sensitivity and specificity to that of magnetic resonance imaging.

Decline of VOC Concentrations with the Aging of Houses in Japan  [PDF]
Motoya Hayashi, Haruki Osawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.412A1004

The purpose of this investigation is to know the long-term characteristics of VOC concentrations in houses built before the building code in 2003 and to clarify the countermeasures against indoor air pollution in the houses already built. For example, the improvements of living habits, ventilation and the remove of building materials. The concentrations of VOCs were measured in these houses in summer and winter from 2000 to 2005. The results showed that the concentration of formaldehyde decreased in the first year. After that the decline of the concentration was not seen and the concentration changed only with the temperature. The characteristics of decline were thought to be caused by two sorts of emission. One is an emission of concealed formaldehyde in the process of material production and the other is an emission with the generation of formaldehyde from adhesives of urea resin and moisture. The concentration of toluene decreased rapidly in the first year. The concentrations of xylene, ethyl-benzene and styrene showed a similar change. But the concentrations of acetaldehyde which were measured from the summer of 2002 did not decrease and its concentration in some houses was higher than the guideline even in the winter of 2005.

Finite rank intermediate Hankel operators and the big Hankel operator
Tomoko Osawa
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/ijmms/2006/51705
Abstract: Let La2 be a Bergman space. We are interested in an intermediate Hankel operator HφM from La2 to a closed subspace M of L2 which is invariant under the multiplication by the coordinate function z. It is well known that there do not exist any nonzero finite rank big Hankel operators, but we are studying same types in case HφM is close to big Hankel operator. As a result, we give a necessary and sufficient condition about M that there does not exist a finite rank HφM except HφM=0.
Ghrelin and Helicobacter pylori infection
Hiroyuki Osawa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Ghrelin is primarily secreted from the stomach and has been implicated in the coordination of eating behavior and weight regulation. Ghrelin also plays an essential role in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense. Thus, it is important to clarify which diseases primarily influence changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is involved in the pathogenesis of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H pylori eradication is related to body weight change. Compared, H pylori infected and negative subjects with normal body mass index, plasma ghrelin concentration, gastric ghrelin mRNA, and the number of ghrelin producing cells in gastric mucosa are significantly lower in H pylori infected subjects than in H pylori-negative controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration decreases with the progression of gastric atrophy. Impaired gastric ghrelin production in association with atrophic gastritis induced by H pylori infection accounts for the decrease in plasma ghrelin concentration. However, the ratio of plasma acylated ghrelin to total ghrelin levels is higher in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. This may result from the compensatory increase in plasma active ghrelin concentration in response to gastric atrophy. After H pylori eradication, gastric preproghrelin mRNA expression is increased nearly 4-fold in most cases. However, changes in plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after H pylori cure are not associated with the gastric ghrelin production. Plasma ghrelin changes are inversely correlated with both body weight change and initial plasma ghrelin levels.
Gene Polymorphisms and Chemotherapy in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer , 2009,
Abstract: The phamacogenetics is being used to predict whether the selected chemotherapy will be really effective and tolerable to the patient. Irinotecan, oxidized by CYP3A4 to produce inactive compounds, is used for treatment of various cancers including advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. CYP3A4*16B polymorphism was associated with decreased metabolism of irrinotecan. Irinotecan is also metabolized by carboxylesterase to its principal active metabolite, SN-38, which is subsequently glucuronidated by UGT1As to form the inactive compound SN-38G. UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms were useful for predicting severe toxicity with NSCLC patients treated with irinotecan-based chemotherapy. Platinum-based compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) are being used in combination with new cytotoxic drugs such as gemcitabine, paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinorelbine in the treatment of advanced NSCLC. Cisplatin activity is mediated through the formation of cisplatin-DNA adducts. Gene polymorphisms of DNA repair factors are therefore obvious candidates for determinants of repair capacity and chemotherapy efficacy. ERCC1, XRCC1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms were a useful marker for predicting better survival in advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. XPA and XPD polymorphisms significantly increased response to platinum-based chemotherapy. These DNA repair gene polymorphisms were useful as a predictor of clinical outcome to the platinum-based chemotherapy. EGFR kinase inhibitors induce dramatic clinical responses in NSCLC patients with advanced disease. EGFR gene polymorphism in intron 1 contains a polymorphic single sequence dinucleotide repeat (CA-SSR) showed a statistically significant correlation with the gefitinib response and was appeared to be a useful predictive marker of the development of clinical outcome containing skin rashes with gefitinib treatment. The other polymorphisms of EGFR were also associated with increased EGFR promoter activity. EGFR gene mutations and polymorphisms were also associated with EGFR kinase inhibitors response and toxicity.
DNS Analysis on the Indirect Relationship between the Local Burning Velocity and the Flame Displacement Speed of Turbulent Premixed Flames  [PDF]
Kazuya Tsuboi, Eiji Tomita
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.43022
Abstract: The local burning velocity and the flame displacement speed are the dominant properties in the mechanism of turbulent premixed combustion. The flame displacement speed and the local burning velocity have been investigated separately, because the flame displacement speed can be used for the discussion of flame-turbulence interactions and the local burning velocity can be used for the discussion of the inner structure of turbulent premixed flames. In this study, to establish the basis for the discussion on the effects of turbulence on the inner structure of turbulent premixed flames, the indirect relationship between the flame displacement speed and the local burning velocity was investigated by the flame stretch, the flame curvature, and the tangential strain rate using DNS database with different density ratios. It was found that for the local tangential strain rate and the local flame curvature, the local burning velocity and the flame displacement speed had the opposite correlations in each density ratio case. Therefore, it is considered that the local burning velocity and the flame displacement speed have a negative correlation.
Finite-rank intermediate Hankel operators on the Bergman space
Takahiko Nakazi,Tomoko Osawa
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171201001971
Abstract: Let L2=L2(D,r dr dθ/π) be the Lebesgue space on the open unit disc and let La2=L2∩ℋol(D) be the Bergman space. Let P be the orthogonal projection of L2 onto La2 and let Q be the orthogonal projection onto L¯a,02={g∈L2;g¯∈La2,   g(0)=0}. Then I−P≥Q. The big Hankel operator and the small Hankel operator on La2 are defined as: for ϕ in L∞, Hϕbig(f)=(I−P)(ϕf) and Hϕsmall(f)=Q(ϕf)(f∈La2). In this paper, the finite-rank intermediate Hankel operators between Hϕbig and Hϕsmall are studied. We are working on the more general space, that is, the weighted Bergman space.
Cytomegalovirus infection in critically ill patients: a systematic review
Ryosuke Osawa, Nina Singh
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7875
Abstract: Studies in which critically ill immunocompetent adults were monitored for CMV infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) were reviewed.CMV infection occurs in 0 to 36% of critically ill patients, mostly between 4 and 12 days after ICU admission. Potential risk factors for CMV infection include sepsis, requirement of mechanical ventilation, and transfusions. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (21 to 39 days vs. 13 to 24 days) and duration of ICU stay (33 to 69 days vs. 22 to 48 days) correlated significantly with a higher risk of CMV infection. Mortality rates in patients with CMV infection were higher in some but not all studies. Whether CMV produces febrile syndrome or end-organ disease directly in these patients is not known.CMV infection frequently occurs in critically ill immunocompetent patients and may be associated with poor outcomes. Further studies are warranted to identify subsets of patients who are likely to develop CMV infection and to determine the impact of antiviral agents on clinically meaningful outcomes in these patients.Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major β herpes virus and a significant human pathogen. Infection is common with seroprevalence rates increasing steadily from 65% among 40 to 49 year olds to 91% in those aged 80 years or over [1]. After primary infection, CMV, like other β herpes viruses, establishes life-long latency. In immunocompetent individuals, asymptomatic viral shedding may be detectable in saliva or urine; however, cell-mediated host immune responses prevent the development of overt CMV disease.In contrast, CMV infection has been shown to lead to significant disease in immunocompromised hosts such as those with HIV infection or transplant recipients. End-stage HIV-infected patients with a CD4 lymphocyte count of less than 50 cells/mm3 are at the highest risk of developing CMV retinitis [2]. In transplant recipients, CMV disease occurs in 11 to 72% of patients especially in the first three months after transplant while the patient
Trabalho "porco, perigoso e pesado" dos dekasseguis e incidência de doen as psíquicas
Cibele Cristina Osawa
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/s0103-73312006000100010

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