Abstract:
The presence of $2\gamma$-exchange in electron proton elastic scattering is discussed. From C-invariance and crossing symmetry, $2\gamma$ contribution induces a specific dependence of the reduced cross section on the variable $\epsilon$. No evidence of such dependence exists in the available experimental data.

Abstract:
This note collects formulas relative to the energy dependence of the cross sections for open charm and $J/\psi$ production for $NN$-collisions at threshold. It is a basis for the best input to MonteCarlo calculations, for associative charm particle production in nucleon-nucleon, nucleon-nucleus, ion-ion and proton-antiproton collisions.

Abstract:
We briefly summarize the status with electromagnetic nucleon form factors, and give in this framework, arguments to study the angular dependence of the differential cross section and single-spin polarization phenomena (polarized target or polarized beam) in $\bar{p}+{p}\to \ell^++\ell^-$, in view of the availability of future antiproton beams.

Abstract:
We calculate the cross section and the beam asymmetry for exclusive photoproduction of charmed particles near threshold ($\gamma+p\to \Lambda_c^+ +\bar{D^0}$), in the framework of an effective Lagrangian model. We discuss the sensitivity of these observables to the magnetic moment of the $\Lambda_c$ baryon and of the coupling constant in the $p\Lambda_c D$ vertex. We show that exclusive measurements allow, in principle, to determine the magnetic moments of charmed baryons.

Abstract:
Recent measurements of the branching ratios for the decays $\omega\to\pi^0\pi^0\gamma$ and $\rho^0\to\pi^0\pi^0\gamma$ lead to coupling constants of the $V\sigma\gamma$-interaction ($V$ is a vector meson) one order of magnitude smaller than previously assumed to describe the threshold cross section of $\gamma+p\to p+\rho^0$ and the HERMES effect. The new $g^2_{V\sigma\gamma}$ couplings are in contradiction with the predictions of the QCD sum rules, but are in good agreement with VDM-estimation of the $\sigma\to \gamma\gamma$-width.

Abstract:
The threshold region for processes of hadronic and nuclear interactions is very interesting for a theoretical as well as an experimental point of view. In this region one can apply different physical methods, starting from classical current algebra methods - for processes invloving soft pions, through effective Lagrangian approaches - or perturbative chiral symmetry theory (ChPT). The essential simplification of the spin structure of matrix elements for threshold regime results in better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and allows the analysis of polarization phenomena. A dedicated formalism is developed here for a wide class of processes including even such complicated processes as production of pseudoscalar and vector mesons in nucleon-nucleon collisions. Many interesting physical problems are discussed: hidden strangeness of nucleons and OZI-violation, $\eta N$ -and $\omega N$ interactions in S-state, the determination of P-parity of strange particles. Special attention is devoted to the analysis of the spin structure and polarization phenomena for nuclear processes with light nuclei which have important applications in fundamental astrophysics and in nuclear fusion.

Abstract:
We derive from first principles, as the C-invariance of the electromagnetic interaction and the crossing symmetry, the general properties of two-photon exchange in electron-proton elastic scattering. We show that the presence of this mechanism destroys the linearity of the Rosenbluth separation.

Abstract:
QCD gives definite predictions for hadron electromagnetic form factors in space-like and time-like momentum transfer regions, such as the quark counting rules, the hypothesis of hadron helicity conservation, and the relations between nucleon and deuteron form factors in the formalism of reduced nuclear matrix elements. Recent precise data about these form factors, obtained in polarization experiments at the Jefferson Laboratory, have essentially changed our view on this subject. QCD-predictions do not apply to these data up to $Q^2$=5-6 GeV$^2$ for deuteron and for the electric form factor of proton. An analysis of these data suggests that the asymptotic region will more probably start at $Q^2$=20-25 GeV$^2$. We show that the separation of magnetic and electric proton form factors in the time-like region represents the most stringent test of the asymptotic regime and QCD-predictions.

Abstract:
We establish the model-independent spin structure of the matrix elements for the near-threshold scalar meson production in $pp-$ and $np$-collisions, when the final particles are emitted in S-state. Polarization phenomena are derived in a general form. The properties of the $t-$channel dynamics, which is based on different meson exchanges, are studied in terms of the $s-$channel parametrization of the matrix element. The prediction of a 'realistic' model, based on $\pi+\sigma$-exchanges are also presented.

Abstract:
Polarization phenomena are essential for the understanding of elementary processes, and are typically large in the threshold region. The selection rules with respect to P-parity, angular momentum, isotopic spin and the Pauli principle allow to parametrize in a model independent way, the spin structure of the matrix elements for the near-threshold heavy meson production in NN-collisions in terms of a small number of partial amplitudes. Such parametrization is very powerful for the analysis of polarization phenomena and possible $t-$exchange mechanisms.