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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150203 matches for " Edward B. Breitschwerdt "
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A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp. berkhoffii
Breitschwerdt Edward B,Maggi Ricardo G
Parasites & Vectors , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-s1-s3
Abstract: Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression of disease manifestations are illustrated in the case of an infected Labrador retriever. Here, the authors discuss the seemingly diverse spectrum of disease manifestations, the co-infections of Bartonella spp. with other vector-borne pathogens (mainly Ehrlichia spp. or Babesia spp.) and the difficulties in microbiological confirmation of an active Bartonella infection, all of which make the disease pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis more problematic.
Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella
Virna L. Saenz, Ricardo G. Maggi, Edward B. Breitschwerdt, Jung Kim, Edward L. Vargo, Coby Schal
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073661
Abstract: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Lesions in the Central Nervous System of a Dog with Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis
Linda G. Lang,John F. Griffin,Jonathan M. Levine,Edward B. Breitschwerdt
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/379627
Abstract: A ten-year-old neutered male dog was examined for tetraparesis, vestibular dysfunction, ataxia,and vertebral column hyperesthesia of 10 days duration. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),there were multifocal, punctate, T2-hyperintense lesions in the brain and cervical spinal cord andintracranial leptomeningeal contrast enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed apredominantly mononuclear pleocytosis and mildly elevated protein. Ehrlichia canis wasdiagnosed by serum immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) testing. The dog improved withadministration of doxycycline. This report describes MRI central nervous system findings in a dogwith ehrlichiosis.
PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures
Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, B Robert Mozayeni, Barbara C Hegarty, Julie M Bradley, Patricia E Mascarelli
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-76
Abstract: In this study, Bartonella koehlerae bacteremia was documented in eight immunocompetent patients by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing, either prior to or after enrichment blood culture using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium. Presenting symptoms most often included fatigue, insomnia, joint pain, headache, memory loss, and muscle pain. Four patients were also infected with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II. After molecular documentation of B. koehlerae infection in these patients, a serological test was developed and serum samples were tested retrospectively. Bartonella koehlerae antibodies were not detected (titers < 1:16) in 30 healthy human control sera, whereas five of eight patient samples had B. koehlerae antibody titers of 1:64 or greater.Although biased by a study population consisting of individuals with extensive arthropod and animal exposure, the results of this study suggest that B. koehlerae bacteremia is more common in immunocompetent people than has been previously suspected. Future studies should more thoroughly define modes of transmission and risk factors for acquiring infection with B. koehlerae. In addition, studies are needed to determine if B. koehlerae is a cause or cofactor in the development of arthritis, peripheral neuropathies or tachyarrhythmias in patients.Bartonella koehlerae has a relative short microbiological history. In 1994, during a study designed to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in domestic cats, B. koehlerae was isolated for the first time from the blood of two flea-infested healthy cats located on a farm in northern California [1,2]. Following experimental subcutaneous inoculation of one of these California B. koehlerae isolates, four cats became bacteremic for a mean of 74 days and each cat developed a species-specific antibody response to B. koehlerae outer membrane proteins [3]. Subsequently, B. koehlerae DNA was amplified from cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) coll
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease
Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, Paul M Lantos, Christopher W Woods, Barbara C Hegarty, Julie M Bradley
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-29
Abstract: PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment.Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain) were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father) and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients.B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod vectors, including biting flies, fleas, keds, lice, sandflies and ticks have been confirmed or are suspected as the primary mode of transmission of Bartonella species among animal populations and may also pose a risk to human beings.When a genus of bacteria is discovered or, in the case of Bartonella, rediscovered; numerous clinical, microbiological and pathological concepts related to disease causation and microbial pathogenesis are sequentially redefined. Subsequently, the medical relevance of the genus undergoes continued maturation
Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq
Bruno B. Chomel ,Audrey C. McMillan-Cole,Rickie W. Kasten,Matthew J. Stuckey,Shingo Sato,Soichi Maruyama,Pedro P. V. P. Diniz,Edward B. Breitschwerdt
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001843
Abstract: Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55–31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World.
Granulomatous hepatitis due to Bartonella henselae infection in an immunocompetent patient
Thomas R VanderHeyden, Sherri L Yong, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Ricardo G Maggi, Amanda R Mihalik, Jorge P Parada, Claus J Fimmel
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-17
Abstract: We present a case of hepatic bartonellosis in an immunocompetent woman who presented with right upper quadrant pain and a five cm right hepatic lobe mass on CT scan. The patient underwent a right hepatic lobectomy. Surgical pathology revealed florid necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis, favoring an infectious etiology. Despite extensive histological and serological evaluation a definitive diagnosis was not established initially. Thirteen months after initial presentation, hepatic bartonellosis was diagnosed by PCR studies from surgically excised liver tissue. Interestingly, the hepatic granulomas persisted and Bartonella henselae was isolated from the patient's enriched blood culture after several courses of antibiotic therapy.The diagnosis of hepatic bartonellosis is exceedingly difficult to establish and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Recently developed, PCR-based approaches may be required in select patients to make the diagnosis. The optimal antimicrobial therapy for hepatic bartonellosis has not been established, and close follow-up is needed to ensure successful eradication of the infection.Cat scratch disease (CSD) is caused by B. henselae, a gram-negative, aerobic alpha Proteobacterium that is transmitted by the bite or scratch of a cat. The traditional diagnostic criteria for CSD include (1) contact with a cat and history of a scratch or other inoculation event, (2) positive cat scratch skin test reaction, (3) regional lymphadenopathy with no other apparent etiology, and (4) characteristic histopathologic features on biopsy [1]. The development of PCR-based diagnostic assays has revealed a growing number of cases in which the traditional diagnostic criteria for CSD were absent [2].Hepatic bartonellosis has been reported in 1-2% of CSD cases, and represents the third most common clinical manifestation after fever and lymphadenopathy. The typical symptoms include right upper quadrant pain, fevers, malaise, weight loss, chills and headaches [3].E
Antimicrobial Use Guidelines for Treatment of Urinary Tract Disease in Dogs and Cats: Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases
J. Scott Weese,Joseph M. Blondeau,Dawn Boothe,Edward B. Breitschwerdt,Luca Guardabassi,Andrew Hillier,David H. Lloyd,Mark G. Papich,Shelley C. Rankin,John D. Turnidge,Jane E. Sykes
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/263768
Abstract: Urinary tract disease is a common reason for use (and likely misuse, improper use, and overuse) of antimicrobials in dogs and cats. There is a lack of comprehensive treatment guidelines such as those that are available for human medicine. Accordingly, guidelines for diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections were created by a Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. While objective data are currently limited, these guidelines provide information to assist in the diagnosis and management of upper and lower urinary tract infections in dogs and cats. 1. Introduction Urinary tract disease is commonly encountered in dogs and cats and accounts for significant use (and presumably also overuse and misuse) of antimicrobials. Improper therapy can lead to a variety of patient health (e.g., failure to resolve infection), economic (e.g., need for repeated or prolonged treatment), public health (e.g., antimicrobial resistance) and regulatory (e.g., antimicrobial use) concerns. In human medicine, antimicrobial use guidelines such as those developed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) are widely respected and provide excellent guidance to physicians on management of various infectious diseases, including urinary tract infections (UTIs) [1, 2]. Such guidelines can be directly used or form the basis of hospital-level antimicrobial use guidelines. The impact of national or international guidelines is difficult to assess, but implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines at the hospital level has been shown to significantly improve antimicrobial prescribing practices, either alone or as part of a broader antimicrobial stewardship program [3–5]. This document contains guidelines developed in 2010 by the Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases. During the course of guideline development, it became abundantly clear that there are significant limitations in objective, published information. Accordingly, recommendations are based on available data, whenever present, along with expert opinion, considering principles of infectious diseases, antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobial resistance, pharmacology, and internal medicine. Corresponding guidelines for human medicine were evaluated, with careful consideration of the abundant differences between species. As with all guidelines, these should be interpreted as general recommendations that are reasonable and appropriate for the majority of cases. The Working Group acknowledges the variability
All the Fundamental Massless Fermion Fields in Superstring Theory: A Rigorous Analysis  [PDF]
Edward B. Manoukian
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.39135
Abstract: A systematic rigorous analysis of both massless fermion fields in the mass spectra of superstring theory is carried out. Our interest is in dynamical aspects of these fields. An explicit novel expression for the propagator of the massless Rarita-Schwinger field (the gravitino), in the mass spectrum involving massless fermions in superstring theory in 10 dimensions, is derived. The analysis is carried in the presence of a non-constrained external source so that the full expression of the propagator emerges. The number of associated degrees of freedom is also obtained. We work in a Coulomb-like gauge. The massless Dirac field (the dilatino), the other massless fermion field in the mass spectra of superstring theory in 10 dimensions, is first investigated to this end.
Self-consistent Modelling of the interstellar medium
Dieter Breitschwerdt
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1023/B:ASTR.0000014982.31688.bf
Abstract: The dynamical evolution of hot optically thin plasmas in the ISM crucially depends on the heating and cooling processes. It is essential to realize that all physical processes that contribute operate on different time scales. In particular detailed balancing is often violated since the statistically inverse process of e.g. collisional ionization is recombination of an ion with two electrons, which as a three-body collision is usually dominated by radiative recombination, causing a departure from collisional ionization equilibrium. On top of these differences in atomic time scales, hot plasmas are often in a dynamical state, thereby introducing another time scale, which can be the shortest one. The non-equilibrium effects will be illustrated and discussed in the case of galactic outflows. It will be shown, that spectral analyses of X-ray data of edge-on galaxies show a clear signature in the form of "multi-temperature" halos, which can most naturally be explained by the "freezing-in" of highly ionized species in the outflow, which contribute to the overall spectrum by DELAYED RECOMBINATION. This naturally leads to a non-equilibrium cooling function, which modifies the dynamics, which in turn changes the plasma densities and thermal energy budget, thus feeding back on the ionization structure. Therefore SELF-CONSISTENT modelling is needed.
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