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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23671 matches for " Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce "
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Sexuality in subjects with intellectual disability: an educational intervention proposal for parents and counselors in developing countries
Katz,Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800018
Abstract: in developing countries, the study of intellectual disability has enormous knowledge gaps, especially in the areas of intervention, utilization of services and legislation. this article provides information not only for aiding in the potential development of sexuality in individuals with intellectual disability, but also for fostering their social integration. in mexico and the region, in order to develop educational interventions for promoting sexual health, it is necessary to consider the following priorities: a) mental health professionals should have the knowledge or receive training for carrying out a sexual education and counseling program; b) educational interventions for subjects with intellectual disability should be adapted for the different stages of life (childhood, adolescence and adulthood); c) during childhood, educational intervention should emphasize the concept of public and private conducts; d) in adolescence, intervention should consider the actual mental age and not the chronological age of the subjects receiving intervention; e) the expression of sexuality in the adult with intellectual disability depends on the early incorporation of factors for promoting social inclusion; f) for educational interventions to be successful, it is fundamental that sexual educators and counselors, in addition to working with the clients, also work with their parents and other close family members; g) intervention programs should establish development objectives for developing in persons with intellectual disability a positive attitude towards sexuality and the improvement in self-esteem; h) in subjects with intellectual disability, their linguistic comprehension level should be taken into consideration and techniques for open discussion and non-inductive education should be used; i) social integration programs should address the needs of developing countries and their individuals, since it is not feasible to import external programs due to differences in infrastr
Intellectual disability: definition, etiological factors, classification, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis
Katz,Gregorio; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800005
Abstract: etiology and classification: causal factors related with cognitive disability are multiples and can be classified as follows: genetic, acquired (congenital and developmental), environmental and sociocultural. likewise, in relation to the classification, cognitive disability has as a common denominator a subnormal intellectual functioning level; nevertheless, the extent to which an individual is unable to face the demands established by society for the individual?s age group has brought about four degrees of severity: mild, moderate, severe and profound. diagnostic: the clinical history must put an emphasis on healthcare during the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period and include the results of all previous studies, including a genealogical tree for at least three generations and an intentional search for family antecedents of mental delay, psychiatric illnesses and congenital abnormalities. the physical exam should focus on secondary abnormalities and congenital malformations, somatometric measurements and neurological and behavioral phenotype evaluations. if it is not feasible to establish a clinical diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct high-resolution cytogenetic studies in addition to metabolic clinical evaluations. in the next step, if no abnormal data are identified, submicroscopic chromosomal disorders are evaluated. prognosis: intellectual disability is not curable; and yet, the prognostic in general terms is good when using the emotional wellbeing of the individual as a parameter. conclusions: intellectual disability should be treated in a comprehensive manner. nevertheless, currently, the fundamental task and perhaps the only one that applies is the detection of the limitation and abilities as a function of subjects? age and expectations for the future, with the only goal being to provide the support necessary for each one of the dimensions or areas in which the person?s life is expressed and exposed.
Tendencias del tabaquismo en adultos en México entre 1988 y 2008
Franco-Marina,Francisco; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800006
Abstract: objetive. to describe the changes in several smoking indicators occurred in mexico over the past two decades and to explore if the tobacco control policies implemented in mexico, since 2004, show a favorable impact on tobacco consumption by 2008. materials and methods. we analyze trends in comparable data on the prevalence of never and daily smokers, using the five national addiction surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008. the analysis is restricted to persons aged 18 through 65 years. data are adjusted for age, sex and marginality index. results. between 2002 and 2008 the percentage of never smokers has increased by 19.6% and the percentage of daily smokers has decreased by 24.8%. these changes were more important in men, but in women the average number of cigarettes consumed decreased by 21.1% over the compared period and there was also a 13.9% rise in the percentage of women attempting to quit. daily smokers prevalence has declined more rapidly since 2005, coincidently with an increase in cigarette taxation. conclusions. over the past two decades there has been in mexico an increase in the percentage of never smokers and a decline in the percentage of daily smokers. a positive impact is observed, few years after the implementation of more effective tobacco control policies in mexico, notably higher taxation of tobacco products.
La epidemia de tabaquismo: Epidemiología, factores de riesgo y medidas de prevención
Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo C,Hernández-Avila Mauricio
Salud Pública de México , 2002,
Estudios de cohorte: Metodología, sesgos y aplicación Cohort study: Methodology, biases and application
Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce,Esteve Fernández,Eduardo Salazar-Martínez,Mauricio Hernández-ávila
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiología , 2007,
Estudios epidemiológicos de casos y controles: Fundamento teórico, variantes y aplicaciones Case-control epidemiological studies: Theoretical foundation, variants and applications
Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo Salazar-Martínez,Mauricio Hernández-ávila
Revista Cubana de Higiene y Epidemiología , 2007,
Estudios epidemiológicos de casos y controles. Fundamento teórico, variantes y aplicaciones
Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo,Salazar-Martínez Eduardo,Hernández-Avila Mauricio
Salud Pública de México , 2001,
El conocimiento de profesionales de la salud sobre la prevención del cáncer cervical. Alternativas de educación médica
Arillo-Santillán Edna,Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo,Peris Merce,Salazar-Martínez Eduardo
Salud Pública de México , 2000,
Abstract: OBJETIVO: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos que diversos tipos de profesionales de la salud tienen sobre la prevención del cáncer cervical. MATERIAL Y MéTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal entre 520 profesionales de la salud del estado de Morelos durante 1998, para evaluar y cuantificar el nivel de conocimientos que poseen en relación con el impacto, la etiología, el tamizaje, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del cáncer cervicouterino. Se aplicó un cuestionario con escala de 1 a 10, y la muestra incluyó a especialistas en medicina familiar, especialistas de áreas clínicas, enfermeras especialistas y generales, así como trabajadoras sociales. El análisis estadístico incluyó análisis de varianza y estimación de intervalos de confianza al 95%. RESULTADOS: La media del nivel de conocimiento acerca de la prevención del cáncer cervicouterino fue de 4.74, con un intervalo de confianza (IC) al 95% de 4.57-4.88, en una escala máxima de 10. La mayor diferencia en el índice de conocimiento acerca de el diagnóstico, la prevención y el tratamiento del cáncer cervical se observó entre los médicos de especialidades clínicas ( o = 5.21, IC95% 4.81-5.60), en comparación con las trabajadoras sociales ( o = 3.07, IC95% 2.31-3.82). En la mayoría de los casos, la periodicidad con la que una mujer debe hacerse la prueba de Papanicolaou se postula menor a un a o, y existe un pobre consenso en relación con el periodo de edad en que debe obtenerse dicha prueba. El nivel de conocimientos es menor conforme se tratan de identificar aspectos etiológicos y perspectivas de tratamiento. CONCLUSIONES: La educación médica continua es necesaria para el desarrollo óptimo de un programa de detección oportuna de cáncer cervical. Los resultados del estudio en el estado de Morelos revelan que, además de mejorar los programas académicos de formación de pregrado, es necesario incrementar las intervenciones educativas entre los profesionales de la salud. Para ello, se contemplan diversas estrategias, entre las que destacan la actualización, el reciclaje, la capacitación, la educación en salud y la educación médica continua. De esta forma se podrá promover la competencia profesional para incrementar la calidad de la atención médica.
Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico
Rocio Parada, Rosalba Morales, Anna R Giuliano, Aurelio Cruz, Xavier Castellsague, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-25
Abstract: For the comparison of the prevalence of HPV infection in men and women, we used the MacNemar test. This test is used to prove a hypothesis of equality of proportions in non-independent groups. In this case the groups of men and women are not independent because they are sexual partners. Table 1 shows that the prevalence of HPV is greater in men than in women (20.4% vs 13.7%, p value = 0.0009). There were no statistically significant differences between type specific infection in men and women; only in types HPV31, HPV53, HPV55, HPV61 and HPV84 (Table 1 and Figure 1).The analysis of known risk factors for HPV infection was carried out separately for men and women. Non-conditional logistic regression was performed. When stratifying by sex we do not need to consider the condition of sexual partners. This part of the analysis was performed in this way, as it allows us to include explanatory variables in men - variables that cannot be defined in women, such as circumcision, use of condoms, and some specific characteristics on sexual risk behaviors. In women it allows us to consider, in addition to characteristics of their own sexual behaviors, characteristics of their male partner's sexual behavior - circumcision, use of condoms, etc. (Table 2). The last section of the study focuses on assessing the risk of HPV infection in women, considering the presence of HPV infection in their sex partners as an explanatory variable. Thus we find that women whose sexual partners are HPV positive have 5.15 times greater risk of HPV, compared to those whose partners are HPV negative (CI 95% 3.01, 8.82). Indeed, what matters to us in this part is proving that the variable "presence of HPV in male partner" be associated with the presence of HPV in the female. We do not seek to compare the risk of HPV infection between men and women (Table 3).We are thankful for your observations and deeply regret the confusion in the results presented.The pre-publication history for this paper can be acc
Prevalence, concordance and determinants of human papillomavirus infection among heterosexual partners in a rural region in central Mexico
Rocio Parada, Rosalba Morales, Anna R Giuliano, Aurelio Cruz, Xavier Castellsagué, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-223
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 504 clinically healthy heterosexual couples from four municipalities in the State of Mexico, Mexico. HPV testing was performed using biotinylated L1 consensus primers and reverse line blot in cervical samples from women and in genital samples from men. Thirty-seven HPV types were detected, including high-risk oncogenic types and low-risk types. Multivariate logistic regression models were utilized to evaluate factors associated with HPV.The prevalence of HPV infection was 20.5% in external male genitals and 13.7% in cervical samples. In 504 sexual couples participating in the study, concordance of HPV status was 79%; 34 partners (6.7%) were concurrently infected, and 21 out of 34 partners where both were HPV positive (61.8%) showed concordance for one or more HPV types. The principal risk factor associated with HPV DNA detection in men as well as women was the presence of HPV DNA in the respective regular sexual partner (OR = 5.15, 95%CI 3.01-8.82). In men, having a history of 10 or more sexual partners over their lifetime (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.3 - 4.8) and having had sexual relations with prostitutes (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.01 - 2.8) increased the likelihood of detecting HPV DNA.In heterosexual couples in rural regions in Mexico, the prevalence of HPV infection and type-specific concordance is high. High-risk sexual behaviors are strong determinants of HPV infection in men.Although there is clear evidence for the influence of the male factor in the development of cervical neoplasia[1,2], HPV transmission in heterosexual couples has rarely been studied. The few studies conducted have included the male sexual partners of women with clinical HPV lesions [3-8] In addition, heterosexual couples have been studied through controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of the use of condoms on the rate of persistence of flat penile lesions[9]. Previous reports from prospective studies of women initiating sexual life have estimated an accumul
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