Abstract:
In light of the question of finite-time blow-up vs. global well-posedness of solutions to problems involving nonlinear partial differential equations, we provide several cautionary examples which indicate that modifications to the boundary conditions or to the nonlinearity of the equations can effect whether the equations develop finite-time singularities. In particular, we aim to underscore the idea that in analytical and computational investigations of the blow-up of three-dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations, the boundary conditions may need to be taken into greater account. We also examine a perturbation of the nonlinearity by dropping the advection term in the evolution of the derivative of the solutions to the viscous Burgers equation, which leads to the development of singularities not present in the original equation, and indicates that there is a regularizing mechanism in part of the nonlinearity. This simple analytical example corroborates recent computational observations in the singularity formation of fluid equations.

Abstract:
The Navier-Stokes-Voigt model of viscoelastic incompressible fluid has been recently proposed as a regularization of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the purpose of direct numerical simulations. Besides the kinematic viscosity parameter, $\nu>0$, this model possesses a regularizing parameter, $\alpha> 0$, a given length scale parameter, so that $\frac{\alpha^2}{\nu}$ is the relaxation time of the viscoelastic fluid. In this work, we derive several statistical properties of the invariant measures associated with the solutions of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes-Voigt equations. Moreover, we prove that, for fixed viscosity, $\nu>0$, as the regularizing parameter $\alpha$ tends to zero, there exists a subsequence of probability invariant measures converging, in a suitable sense, to a strong stationary statistical solution of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, which is a regularized version of the notion of stationary statistical solutions - a generalization of the concept of invariant measure introduced and investigated by Foias. This fact supports earlier numerical observations, and provides an additional evidence that, for small values of the regularization parameter $\alpha$, the Navier-Stokes-Voigt model can indeed be considered as a model to study the statistical properties of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and turbulent flows via direct numerical simulations.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the Cauchy problem to the TROPIC CLIMATE MODEL derived by Frierson-Majda-Pauluis in [Comm. Math. Sci, Vol. 2 (2004)] which is a coupled system of the barotropic and the first baroclinic modes of the velocity and the typical midtropospheric temperature. The system considered in this paper has viscosities in the momentum equations, but no diffusivity in the temperature equation. We establish here the global well-posedness of strong solutions to this model. In proving the global existence of strong solutions, to overcome the difficulty caused by the absence of the diffusivity in the temperature equation, we introduce a new velocity $w$ (called the pseudo baroclinic velocity), which has more regularities than the original baroclinic mode of the velocity. An auxiliary function $\phi$, which looks like the effective viscous flux for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, is also introduced to obtain the $L^\infty$ bound of the temperature. Regarding the uniqueness, we use the idea of performing suitable energy estimates at level one order lower than the natural basic energy estimates for the system.

Abstract:
We study the global regularity, for all time and all initial data in $H^{1/2}$, of a recently introduced decimated version of the incompressible 3D Navier-Stokes (dNS) equations. The model is based on a projection of the dynamical evolution of Navier-Stokes (NS) equations into the subspace where helicity (the $L^2-$scalar product of velocity and vorticity) is sign-definite. The presence of a second (beside energy) sign-definite inviscid conserved quadratic quantity, which is equivalent to the $H^{1/2}-$Sobolev norm, allows us to demonstrate global existence and uniqueness, of space-periodic solutions, together with continuity with respect to the initial conditions, for this decimated 3D model. This is achieved thanks to the establishment of two new estimates, for this 3D model, which show that the $H^{1/2}$ and the time average of the square of the $H^{3/2}$ norms of the velocity field remain finite. Such two additional bounds are known, in the spirit of the work of H. Fujita and T. Kato \cite{kato1,kato2}, to be sufficient for showing well-posedness for the 3D NS equations. Furthermore, they are directly linked to the helicity evolution for the dNS model, and therefore with a clear physical meaning and consequences.

Abstract:
This contribution covers the topics presented by the authors at the {\it ``Fundamental Problems of Turbulence, 50 Years after the Marseille Conference 1961"} meeting that took place in Marseille in 2011. It focuses on some of the mathematical approaches to fluid dynamics and turbulence. This contribution does not pretend to cover or answer, as the reader may discover, the fundamental questions in turbulence, however, it aims toward presenting some of the most recent advances in attacking these questions using rigorous mathematical tools. Moreover, we consider that the proofs of the mathematical statements (concerning, for instance, finite time regularity, weak solutions and vanishing viscosity) may contain information as relevant, to the understanding of the underlying problem, as the statements themselves.

Abstract:
We introduce here a simple finite-dimensional feedback control scheme for stabilizing solutions of infinite-dimensional dissipative evolution equations, such as reaction-diffusion systems, the Navier-Stokes equations and the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The designed feedback control scheme takes advantage of the fact that such systems possess finite number of determining parameters (degrees of freedom), namely, finite number of determining Fourier modes, determining nodes, and determining interpolants and projections. In particular, the feedback control scheme uses finitely many of such observables and controllers. This observation is of a particular interest since it implies that our approach has far more reaching applications, in particular, in data assimilation. Moreover, we emphasize that our scheme treats all kinds of the determining projections, as well as, the various dissipative equations with one unified approach. However, for the sake of simplicity we demonstrate our approach in this paper to a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion equation paradigm.

Abstract:
We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space $\nR^3$ and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Since the main purpose of this line of research is to introduce a reliable and stable inviscid numerical regularization of the underlying model we, in particular, show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter $\alpha\maps0$, to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization. This type of regularization, and the corresponding results, are valid for, and can also be applied to, a wide class of hydrodynamic models.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider a nonlinear interaction system between the barotropic mode and the first baroclinic mode of the tropical atmosphere with moisture; that was derived in [Frierson, D.M.W.; Majda, A.J.; Pauluis, O.M.: Dynamics of precipitation fronts in the tropical atmosphere: a novel relaxation limit, Commum. Math. Sci., 2 (2004), 591-626.] We establish the global existence and uniqueness of strong solutions to this system, with initial data in $H^1$, for each fixed convective adjustment relaxation time parameter $\varepsilon>0$. Moreover, if the initial data enjoy slightly more regularity than $H^1$, then the unique strong solution depends continuously on the initial data. Furthermore, by establishing several appropriate $\varepsilon$-independent estimates, we prove that the system converges to a limiting system, as the relaxation time parameter $\varepsilon$ tends to zero, with convergence rate of the order $O(\sqrt\varepsilon)$. Moreover, the limiting system has a unique global strong solution, for any initial data in $H^1$, and such unique strong solution depends continuously on the initial data if the the initial data posses slightly more regularity than $H^1$. Notably, this solves the VISCOUS VERSION of an open problem proposed in the above mentioned paper of Frierson, Majda and Pauluis.

Abstract:
We show that the only locally integrable stationary solutions to the integrated Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation in $R$ and $R^2$ are the trivial constant solutions. We extend our technique and prove similar results to other nonlinear elliptic problems in $\R^N$.

Abstract:
A basic example of shear flow was introduced by DiPerna and Majda to study the weak limit of oscillatory solutions of the Euler equations of incompressible ideal fluids. In particular, they proved by means of this example that weak limit of solutions of Euler equations may, in some cases, fail to be a solution of Euler equations. We use this shear flow example to provide non-generic, yet nontrivial, examples concerning the loss of smoothness of solutions of the three-dimensional Euler equations, for initial data that do not belong to $C^{1,\alpha}$. Moreover, we show by means of this shear flow example the existence of weak solutions for the three-dimensional Euler equations with vorticity that is having a nontrivial density concentrated on non-smooth surface. This is very different from what has been proven for the two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz problem where a minimal regularity implies the real analyticity of the interface. Eventually, we use this shear flow to provide explicit examples of non-regular solutions of the three-dimensional Euler equations that conserve the energy, an issue which is related to the Onsager conjecture.