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Smokers' reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada
Thrasher,James F; Hammond,David; Fong,Geoffrey T; Arillo-Santillán,Edna;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800013
Abstract: objective: this comparison of population-based representative samples of adult smokers in canada (n=1 751) and mexico (n=1 081) aimed to determine whether cigarette packages with graphic warning labels in canada had a stronger impact than the text-only warning labels in mexico. materials and methods: bivariate and multivariate adjusted models were used in this study. results. canadian smokers reported higher warning label salience (i.e., noticing labels & processing label messages) than mexican smokers, and warning label salience independently predicted intention to quit. moreover, canadians had higher levels of knowledge about smoking-related health outcomes that were included as content on canadian, but not mexican, warning labels. finally, a majority of mexican smokers want their cigarette packs to contain more information than they currently contain. discussion: these results are consistent with other studies that indicate that cigarette packages whose warning labels contain prominent graphic imagery are more likely than text-only warning labels to promote smoking-related knowledge and smoking cessation.
Hacia el consumo informado de tabaco en México: efecto de las advertencias con pictogramas en población fumadora
Thrasher,James F; Pérez-Hernández,Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Inti;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300006
Abstract: objective: evaluate the effect of the first pictorial warning labels on cigarette packs in mexican smokers. materials and methods: a population-based representative cohort of smokers from seven mexican cities was surveyed before (2010) and after (2011) the implementation of pictorial warning labels. to determine the change variables representing the cognitive and behavioral impact of pictorial warnings, bivariate and adjusted generalized estimating equations were estimated. data from the second survey (2011) were analyzed to determine the factors associated with aided recall of specific pictorial warnings, as well as the factors associated with self-report of the impact that these warnings had. results: from 2010 to 2011, significant increases were found in smoker's knowledge about smoking risks, the toxic components of tobacco, and the quitline number for receiving cessation assistance. recall and impact of specific pictorial warnings was generally broad and equally distributed across the smoker population. in comparison with recent ex-smokers interviewed in 2010, more recent ex-smokers in 2011 reported that pack warnings had influenced their decision to quit (rm=2.44, 95% ic 1.27-4.72). conclusion: the first pictorial warning labels on cigarette packages in mexico have had a significant impact on knowledge and behavior.
Impacto de las advertencias con pictogramas en las cajetillas de cigarrillos en México: resultados de una encuesta en fumadores de Guadalajara
Thrasher,James F; Pérez-Hernández,Rosaura; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Barrientos-Gutiérrez,Inti;
Salud Pública de México , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342012000300007
Abstract: objetive: evaluate the impact of the first pictorial health warning labels (hwls) on cigarette packs in mexico. materials and methods: cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1 765 adult smokers from guadalajara, mexico, 2010. logistic regression models were estimated to determine the association between recall of having purchased a pack with a pictorial hwl and psychosocial variables indicating their impact. results: 58% reported having purchased a pack with one of the pictorial hwls, and these were considered the exposed population. exposed smokers reported a greater frequency of thinking about smoking-related risks (34 vs. 25% p=0.003), and thinking about quitting smoking (23 vs. 14% p=0.001). exposure to pictorial hwls was also associated with a greater acceptability of hwls as a means of communicating with smokers (93 vs. 87% p<0.001), as was the perception that the government communicates well about tobacco-related health risks (68 vs. 55% p<0.001). conclusion: pictorial hwls have made smokers think more about these risks and about quitting smoking. this policy should continue to be exploited as a cost-effective educational intervention.
Differential impact of local and federal smoke-free legislation in Mexico: a longitudinal study among adult smokers
Thrasher,James F; Swayampakala,Kamala; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Sebrié,Ernesto; Walsemann,Katrina M; Bottai,Matteo;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800020
Abstract: objective. to assess the impact of mexico city and federal smoke-free legislation on secondhand tobacco smoke (shs) exposure and support for smoke-free laws. material and methods. pre- and post-law data were analyzed from a cohort of adult smokers who participated in the international tobacco control (itc) policy evaluation suvey in four mexican cities. for each indicator, we estimated prevalence, changes in prevalence, and between-city differences in rates of change. results. self-reported exposure to smoke-free media campaigns generally increased more dramatically in mexico city. support for prohibiting smoking in regulated venues increased overall, but at a greater rate in mexico city than in other cities. in bars and restaurants/cafés, self-reported shs exposure had significantly greater decreases in mexico city than in other cities; however, workplace exposure decreased in tijuana and guadalajara, but not in mexico city or ciudad juárez. conclusions. although federal smoke-free legislation was associated with important changes smoke-free policy impact, the comprehensive smoke-free law in mexico city was generally accompanied by a greater rate of change.
Susceptibilidad al consumo de tabaco en estudiantes no fumadores de 10 ciudades mexicanas
Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Thrasher,James; Rodríguez-Bola?os,Rosibel; Chávez-Ayala,Rubén; Ruiz-Velasco,Silvia; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342007000800007
Abstract: objective: to identify the cognitive susceptibility to smoking and associated factors in students between 12 and 15 years of age. material and methods: the baseline measurement of a self-administered survey conducted between 2005 and 2006 of 12 293 non-smoking high school students was analyzed. susceptibility was considered to be a student who would accept a cigarette from his or her best friend and would smoke the following year. multilevel logistic regression models were obtained. results: the prevalence of susceptibility was 30%. associated factors were low self-esteem (rm = 1.2, ic95% 1.0-1.5), seeking new sensations (rm = 1.6, ic95% 1.3-2.0) and a favorable attitude towards smoking (rm = 2.6, ic95% 2.2-3.2), as well as the social permissibility reflected in the norms at home (rm = 2.2, ic95% 1.7-2.8). the interaction between permissibility of smoking at home and tobacco consumption by parents existed only for females (rm = 2.1, ic95% 1.1-3.8). conclusions: prevention should promote the sensitization of the family?s parents and teachers as anti-smoking models and encourage tobacco-free homes.
Assessing the impact of cigarette package health warning labels: a cross-country comparison in Brazil, Uruguay and Mexico
Thrasher,James F; Villalobos,Victor; Szklo,André; Fong,Geoffrey T; Pérez,Cristina; Sebrié,Ernesto; Sansone,Natalie; Figueiredo,Valeska; Boado,Marcelo; Arillo-Santillán,Edna; Bianco,Eduardo;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800016
Abstract: objective. to assess the impact of different health warning labels (hwl). material and methods. data from the international tobacco control survey (itc survey) were analyzed from adult smokers in brazil, uruguay and mexico, each of which used a different hwl strategy (pictures of human suffering and diseased organs; abstract pictorial representations of risk; and text-only messages, respectively). main outcomes were hwl salience and cognitive impact. results. hwls in uruguay (which was the only country with a hwl on the front of the package) had higher salience than either brazilian or mexican packs. people at higher levels of educational attainment in mexico were more likely to read the text-only hwls whereas education was unassociated with salience in brazil or uruguay. brazilian hwls had greater cognitive impacts than hwls in either uruguay or mexico. hwls in uruguay generated lower cognitive impacts than the text-only hwls in mexico. in brazil, cognitive impacts were strongest among smokers with low educational attainment. conclusions. this study suggests that hwls have the most impact when they are prominent (i.e., front and back of the package) and include emotionally engaging imagery that illustrates negative bodily impacts or human suffering due to smoking.
Mercadotecnia social y políticas públicas de salud: campa?a para promover espacios libres de humo de tabaco en México
Villalobos,Víctor; Ortiz Ramírez,Olivia; Thrasher,James F; Arillo Santillán,Edna; Pérez Hernández,Rosaura; Cedillo,Claudia; González,Wendy;
Salud Pública de México , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342010000800008
Abstract: "porque todos respiramos lo mismo" is a mass media campaign to promote smoke-free places (sfp). the development stages were: strategic planning; formative research; message development; media plan; and impact evaluation. development involved formation of a coalition of key actors in various sectors. the target population was smokers and nonsmokers, with the aim of changing social norms around sfp. nonsmokers were targeted because they comprised the majority and were most likely to appreciate the benefits of sfps. campaign materials were aired on television, radio, print and on billboards. one key limitation was the lack of evidence for previous campaigns, which increased the importance of formative research and of including a rigorous evaluation for this one. the campaign evaluation indicates a significant impact, which suggests that future campaigns use similar strategies in their development.
Expans?o da fronteira, megaprojetos de infraestrutura e integra??o sul-americana
Castro, Edna;
Caderno CRH , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-49792012000100004
Abstract: the analysis of the relationship between developmentalist policies and social and territorial dynamics in the amazon usually focuses on a brazilian national perspective. this article aims to reveal an increase of interest in the exploitation of the region's natural resources, beyond its political borders, thus turning the pan-amazon into a vital zone in brazilian geopolitics. the brazilian growth acceleration programs (pac i and ii) and the initiative for the integration of the regional infrastructure of south america (iirsa) follow the same direction of a competitive integration, adopting a modernization model based on investment megaprojects. the iirsa, carried on in south america as a regional block, and the pac, developed nationwide, are programs that aim to boost transport, energy and communication logistics. continent-wise, they both indicate irreversible social and territorial dynamics and represent the common interests of brazil and the other countries, based on the 1970's dominant model of border expansion in the amazon.
Hepatite C
Strauss, Edna;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822001000100011
Abstract: it has been estimated that 3% of the world population is infected with the hepatitis c virus. those who are blood product recipients or have been illicit drug users are at risk. dental and medical procedures as well as tattooing and acupuncture are also risk factors. chronic infection occurs in up to 85% of infected cases but they may remain without symptoms during years or even decades, and clinical presentation varies. determination of anti-hcv in sera is a fairly sensitive tool for the diagnosis, and confirmation requires the identification of hcv-rna. staging of the liver disease as well as definition of its present activity can be graded by liver biopsy. the aim of treatment is to stop the progression of the hepatic disease by inhibiting viral replication. due to the low therapeutic efficacy combined with important side-effects, the administration of interferon and ribavirin have specific indications and contraindications. predictive factors of therapeutic response, particularly viral load and genotypes of hcv, are useful in the evaluation of patients.
Sylvia Ostrowetsky em visita a Belém
Edna Castro
Sociedade e Estado , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/s0102-69922004000200014
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