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A Comparative Analysis of Social Service Provision and Accessibility in Regularised Settlements in Tanzania  [PDF]
Edmund Zakayo, Emmanuel Patroba Mhache, Wakuru Magigi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105278
Social service provision and accessibility play a great role in ensuring city de-velopment in both developed and developing countries with emerging econo-mies, Tanzania inclusive. This paper provides a comparative study on the situation, arguments and criticisms of three planned neighborhoods, whereby in those cases, local communities were involved in settlement upgrading through land regularization in Tanzania. The discussion centered on comparing the social infrastructure service provision and the levels of accessibility of neighborhood residents to roads, waste disposal, water and electricity supply. Similarly, the paper highlights the role of neighborhood leaders in ensuring social service provision, accessibility levels, reasons for connections, and the correlation between source of water and electricity supply as well as inferential statistics for the effects of the land regularization on the access to social services. We find that local leadership determines provision and accessibility of infrastructures in an area where informal settlement upgrading project takes place. Location differences of neighborhoods and proximity to the infrastructure service influence business growth, home improvement, service payments, and residents’ mindset change in the neighborhood land development processes. We also found that conditions set for provision of social services include: availability of permanent building structure, land ownership, affordability level, household agreement, offering land for public use and freedom from the road reserve. Local Authority sets guidelines for service provision and helps meet with the local community and thus, shows the recognized role of community involvement in settlement upgrading projects. Furthermore, the role of planning institutions and differences is highlighted. The study concludes that community involvement and local leadership championship in informal settlement upgrading are vital elements for the success of the program and towards ensuring development control, coordination and sustainability once the project ends.
Infrastructure Provision in Regularised Informal Settlement through Labour Based Approach: Lessons from Miembeni Settlement in Moshi, Tanzania  [PDF]
Edmund Zakayo, Emmanuel Patroba Mhache, Wakuru Magigi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105883
Labour based approach as a participatory approach in infrastructure pro-vision has become a topical global agenda to ensure success of urban plan-ning practice in informal settlements. This paper contributes to the emerging debate on the roles and critiques of the use of labour based approach in infrastructure provision as one step in the implementation of land regularization taking Miembeni settlement in Moshi Tanzania as a case. The study highlights motives and needs for infrastructure provisioning as an important step for local communities’ engagement in land regularization towards improving infrastructure facilities and utilities in the settlement. It provides explanation on technology in which labour adopted, supported by light equipment, which was used as a cost-effective method of constructing and maintaining infrastructure at a required standard. Likely provides donor community contributions and settlement characteristics. The analysis is grounded in understanding labour based approach as a theoretical base in using local community and simple technology in improving infrastructure in informal settlements, implementation process, the role of planning institutions, planning standards and written and unwritten norms. The paper ends by providing reflections and concluding remarks which provide lessons and sharing knowledge for replication in informal settlements of the same context in Tanzania and elsewhere.
Sexual Behaviours among Adolescents in Community Secondary Schools in Rural Areas of Central Tanzania: A Case of Bahi District in Dodoma Region
M.O. Zakayo,J. Lwelamira
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2011,
Abstract: This study was carried out in the study area between July to August, 2010 with the aim of determining sexual behaviours among adolescents enrolled to community secondary schools. Quantitative data for the study were collected through interviews with 202 students using a pre-tested semi- structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight (8) Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with students and in-depth interview with some key informants were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Findings from the study revealed that despite majority of adolescents were aware of some issues related to Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH), however, levels of sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours among them were unacceptably high. Sixty three percent of sampled adolescents had ever experienced sex, with age at first sex by half of them (51.2%) being 15 years and below. Furthermore, of the respondents who had ever experienced sexual intercourse, 22% had multiple sexual partners, 21% had ever had sex with casual partner, and 36% didn’t use condom in their last sexual encounter Main factors for prevalence of sexual activity among adolescents in the study population included failure by adolescents to control their sexual emotions, peer pressure, financial/material gain, cultural practices, and living arrangement. Based on these findings, recommendations to improve the situation have been indicated.
Use of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests among Medical Doctors in a Tertiary Hospital, South East Nigeria  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.107072
Abstract: Malaria is a major health problem in Nigeria that has as high as 25% of all global cases, and 30% of deaths attributable to malaria. In 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) recommended universal confirmation of diagnosis of malaria through blood parasitological test, prior to initiation of treatment. In addition to Microscopy, Malaria Rapid diagnostic Tests (mRDTs) are blood tests for malaria. Early diagnosis of malaria ensures that the correct treatment is commenced in good time, and this subsequently improves the prognosis. The objective of this study is to assess the use of mRDTs among medical doctors working in a tertiary hospital, Southeast Nigeria. This study was conducted in Enugu State Teaching hospital, Southeast Nigeria. The study was of cross-sectional design, and conducted in October 2016 among medical doctors working in the General Outpatient, Internal Medicine, and Paediatrics departments of the Teaching hospital. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used for data analysis. A total of 86 medical doctors, out of the eligible 91 in the three departments participated in the study, and were distributed as follows; 24 (27.9%) in the General Outpatient, 30 (34.9%) in the Internal Medicine, and 32 (37.2%) in the Paediatrics departments. More medical doctors in the Paediatrics department (31.3%) used mRDTs in making diagnosis of malaria, followed by Internal medicine (13.3%), then General Outpatient Department (8.3%). Malaria rapid diagnostic tests are cost-effective, and useful tools in malaria control and elimination programmes. If tangible progress on the implementation of the WHO guidelines on confirming diagnosis of malaria before treatment; and the T3: Test, Treat, Track initiative is to be made; then the government and the Management of hospitals ought to take more determined efforts aimed at educating and informing health workers, especially medical doctors on the benefits of mRDTs.
Formal Education Related Pattern of Awareness and Basic Knowledge on Zika Virus Disease, among Women Visiting Children Immunization Unit in a Tertiary Hospital, Southeast Nigeria  [PDF]
Edmund O. Ndibuagu
Health (Health) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/health.2018.1011119
Abstract: Zika virus is transmitted through the bite of infected Aedesa egypti, or Aedes albopictus mosquito, and re-emerged as a disease of global public health importance in March/April 2015 in Brazil. The objective of this study is to assess the formal education related pattern of awareness, and basic knowledge on Zika virus disease, among women visiting children immunization unit in a tertiary hospital, in Nigeria. Study was conducted in 2016/2017 with 256 randomly selected respondents. Semi-structured questionnaire was used in the cross-sectional study. Findings including 77.8% of respondents with postgraduate educational qualification were aware that there is a disease known as Zika Virus Disease (ZVD), 62.0% for tertiary education qualification, 53.8% for secondary education level, 20.0% for primary education level, while none of the three respondents that had no formal education were aware of ZVD. The level of awareness increased with increasing educational qualification. These findings were analyzed using the Likelihood Ratio which was calculated to be 28.329, with P-value of <0.001. Television was the commonest source of first ZVD information. Overall mean percentage knowledge level of the different educational groups revealed as followed; no formal education 22.2%, primary level 12.0%, secondary level 46.1%, tertiary level 54.4%, and postgraduate level was 51.5%. The mean for the stated scores was 37.2%. Students’ T-Test at 95.0% confidence interval was 0.012, showing that the difference in the mean percentage scores between the groups was significant. Respondents with tertiary and postgraduate education qualifications recorded overall mean score above 50.0% each, while secondary, primary, and no formal education groups recorded overall mean percentage scores below 50.0%. Stepping up ZVD health education and awareness activities, especially among women with educational qualification below tertiary level will greatly improve the awareness and knowledge on ZVD among this study population.
Prevalence and Correlates of Pre-Marital Fertility (Childbearing) among Unmarried Female Youths in Chamwino District in Central Tanzania
J. Lwelamira,S. Nyakoki,M.O. Zakayo
Current Research Journal of Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: Fertility/childbearing among non-married female youths has been associated with several social problems to a female youth, as well as both social and health problems to a child (newborn). This study was carried out in Chamwino district in Central Tanzania between July to August, 2010 with the aim of identifying correlates of pre-marital fertility/childbearing among non-married female youths in a study area. Specific objectives of the study were to determine the extent of sexual and other risky behaviours and fertility among non-married female youths in the study area; identification of socio- demographic, and behavioral factors that are associated with pre- marital fertility among non-married female youths in the study area. This was a crosssectional study that involved 202 non-married female youths aged between 12-24 years from four randomly selected villages from four randomly selected wards with one village from each ward. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages; as well as Binary Multiple Logistic Regression for identification of factors associated with pre- marital fertility using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12. Results of this study indicated sexual practices, risky behaviours and hence pre-marital fertility/ childbearing among non-married female youths in a study population existed at a substantial rate, with 75% of study participants reported to had ever had sex, and nearly a quarter (24%) of those who had ever had sex indicated to had ever given birth. Likelihood (chances) of having pre-marital fertility among non-married female youths increased with increase in age (Odds ratio (OR = 14.9-19.80, p<0.01), increased with being from polygamous family (OR = 4.9, p<0.05), decreased by been living with both parents in most of the time (OR = 0.04, p<0.05); and decreased with religious affiliation being protestant (OR = 0.16, p<0.05) compared to the counterparts. The likelihood also decreased with being from other ethnic groups other than Gogo (OR = 0.10, p<0.05), increased with use of alcohol (OR = 5.4, p<0.05), increased with if had ever received money or material gift in exchange for sex (OR = 11.5, p<0.05), and if had close friends that are sexually active (peer pressure) (OR = 3.2, p<0.05) compared to the counterparts. Furthermore, having secondary education and above were associated with decreased odds of having pre-marital fertility compared to primary education or none (OR = 0.08, p<0.01). Family type (i.e. living in nucleus or extended family) had no significant influence on
Evaluation for the Performance of the CORDEX Regional Climate Models in Simulating Rainfall Characteristics over Mbarali River Catchment in the Rufiji Basin, Tanzania  [PDF]
Edmund Mutayoba, Japhet J. Kashaigili
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2017.54011
Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the performance of the individual Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) and the ensemble average of the four RCMs to feign the characteristics of the rainfall pattern for the Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin for the period of 1979 to 2005. Statistical analysis for model performance such as Root mean square error, Mean error, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mean, Median, standard deviation and trend analysis are used. In addition to the statistical measure of model performance, the models are tested on their ability to capture the observed annual cycles and interannual variability of rainfall. Results indicated that the RCMs from the CORDEX indicated a better performance to reproduce the rainfall characteristics over Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin. They reproduced fairly the Era Interim annual cycle and inter-annual variability of rainfall. The ensemble average performed better than individual models in representing rainfall over Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin. These suggest that rainfall simulation from the ensemble average will be used for the assessment of the hydrological impact studies over Mbarali River catchment in Rufiji Basin.
Austrid, suitsul he ja Stiltoni juust
Edmund Leach
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 2012,
Abstract: French anthropologist, ethnologist and myth researcher Claude Lévi-Strauss adopted from linguistics the structuralist model and cause an epistemological revolution in anthropolgy. His works have proved most influential in the fields of studying kinship relations, classifications and mythology, but also general understanding of history, culture and thinking. Lévi-Strauss believes that the basic characteristics of human nature remain the same in all cultures, while great civilisations emerge as a result of synergy between cultures. His structuralist theory is analysed and commented by the British social anthropologist Edmund Leach.
16th Carbonyl Metabolism Meeting: from enzymology to genomics
Maser Edmund
Human Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-7364-6-25
Abstract: The 16th International Meeting on the Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism, Castle of Ploen (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany), July 10–15, 2012, covered all aspects of NAD(P)-dependent oxido-reductases that are involved in the general metabolism of xenobiotic and physiological carbonyl compounds. Starting 30 years ago with enzyme purification, structure elucidation and enzyme kinetics, the Carbonyl Society members have meanwhile established internationally recognized enzyme nomenclature systems and now consider aspects of enzyme genomics and enzyme evolution along with their roles in diseases. The 16th international meeting included lectures from international speakers from all over the world.
A ingenuidade da ciência
Edmund Husserl
Scientiae Studia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/s1678-31662009000400008
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