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HALLAZGO DE MERCURIO EN PECES DE LA CIéNAGA DE AYAPEL, CóRDOBA, COLOMBIA
Marrugo,José; Lans,Edineldo; Benítez,Luis;
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2007,
Abstract: objetive. to establish total mercury (hg-t) concentrations in some fishes species in the ayapel marsh (colombia). materials and methods. sampling was conducted from july 2004 to june 2005, including both the dry and rainy seasons. hg-t was analized by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid digestion. results. the highest concentrations in hg-t were observed for analized samples of the carnivorous specie ageneiosus caucanus (0.504±0.103 mg hg kg-1 fresh weight), and the lowest concentrations in the iliophagus specie prochilodus magdalenae (0.130±0.056 mg hg kg-1 fresh wt). the highest hg-t concentrations were found in the samples of the dry season. the hg-t mean levels for fish samples did not exceed the human limit consumption level according to the world health organization (who, 0.5 mg hg kg-1 fresh weight). conclusions. the risk assessment based on the hazard index suggested that the consumption of 0.12 kg per day of fish (mainly carnivorous) could increase the risk of mercury poisoning in the local population.
HALLAZGO DE MERCURIO EN PECES DE LA CIéNAGA DE AYAPEL, CóRDOBA, COLOMBIA
José Marrugo,Edineldo Lans,Luis Benítez
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2007,
Abstract: Objetivo. Determinar las concentraciones de mercurio total (Hg-T) en algunasespecies de peces de la ciénaga de Ayapel (Colombia). Materiales y métodos. Losmuestreos fueron realizados desde Julio de 2004 a Junio de 2005, incluyendo lasépocas seca y lluviosa. Las muestras fueron analizadas por espectrometría deabsorción atómica por vapor frío después de digestión ácida. Resultados. Lasconcentraciones más altas de Hg-T se observaron para las muestras analizadas dela especie carnívora Ageneiosus caucanus (0.504±0.103 mg Hg kg-1 peso fresco), ylas menores concentraciones en la especie Iliófaga Prochilodus magdalenae(0.130±0.056 mg Hg kg-1 peso fresco). Las concentraciones más altas fueronencontradas en las muestras de la época seca. Los niveles promedio de Hg-T en lasmuestras de peces no excedieron el límite para consumo humano establecido por laOrganización Mundial de la Salud (OMS, 0.5 mg Hg Kg-1 peso fresco). Conclusiones.La evaluación del riesgo basado en el índice de peligrosidad sugiere que el consumode 0.12 kg de pescado por día en la población humana (principalmente carnívoros)podría incrementar el riesgo de envenenamiento por mercurio en la población local.
Composición fisicoquímica de la semilla y del aceite de la semilla del Canime (Copaifera officinalis L)
Lafont,Jennifer J; Páez,Manuel S; Lans,Edineldo;
Información tecnológica , 2011, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642011000300004
Abstract: the morphological characteristics, the proximate composition and the quantity of minerals present in the seed of canime (copaifera officinalis l) and its oil were determined. also, some physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid profile, not yet reported in the literature, were determined. the seeds were crushed and the oil was extracted by soxhlet using different solvents to find that giving the optimum yield. iodine index, acidity, fluidity, turbidity and chemical composition through chromatography of gas joined to masses, were determined. the results show that the canime seeds contain nutrients that are considered of special importance for making animal food, such as carbohydrates, fatty acids and vitamin e. for all this, the use of these seeds is recommended for manufacturing animal food.
Compuestos organoclorados residuales en dos especies ícticas de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Córdoba, Colombia
Lans C,Edineldo; Díaz P,Basilio; Paez M,Manuel;
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2011,
Abstract: objective: to determine the levels of organochlorinated pesticides (ocps) in two fish species, obtained from ciénaga grande del bajo sinu. materials and methods. a gas chromatograph (perkin elmer xl autosystem) with electron capture detector and capillary column 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethylpolysiloxane, with 30 m in length, 0.25 mm internal diameter and 0.25 mm thick film were used. two species were studied: prochilodus magdalenae and hoplias malabaricus during wet and dry seasons. results. the percentages of pesticides recovered were 80 and 84% whereas the detection and quantification limit was 0.02 to 0.18 ng/g and 0.2 to 1.8 ng/g for both species, respectively. relative standar deviation remained below 7% in all cases. among those organochlorinated investigated here, a-clordane, endrín and aldrín were detected in both fish species. in one of the species studies, it was observed that when weight and size of fishes incresed the pesticides concentration also increased. the concentration levels of ocps were in the range of 0.35-3.75 and 0.48-5.49 ng/g for moncholo (hoplias malabaricus) and bocachico (prochilodus magdalenae) respectively. conclusions. the frequency of ocps and the levels detected in these species might be the result of anthropogenic activities conducted in the vicinity of the lake. the correlation between the biometric measurements and concentration was depending on the fish species. the concentrations found in the studied species hoplias malabaricus and prochilodus magdalenae do not represent an immediately lethal toxicity.
Termólisis de 4-Hidroxi-3-Metil-2-Butanona y Análisis del Efecto de Solventes a Diferentes Temperaturas Thermolysis of 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone and analysis of solvent effects at different temperatures
Jennifer J Lafont,Yudi C Torres,Edineldo Lans
Información Tecnológica , 2013,
Abstract: Se realizó la termólisis del compuesto 4-hidroxi-3-metil-2-butanona solo y en solución con p-xileno, tolueno, benceno y dioxano, a cada 5 grados en el intervalo de temperaturas 463 a 483 K. Se determinaron las constantes de velocidad, el orden de reacción, y los parámetros de activación. Se propone también un mecanismo de termólisis para el compuesto en estudio, y se analiza el efecto del solvente. Las reacciones de termólisis fueron realizadas en un reactor químico peque o (150 ml) y los productos fueron identificados en un cromatógrafo de gases acoplado a espectrometría de masas. Se encontró que la termólisis del compuesto obedece la ley cinética de primer orden. De acuerdo con sus productos (formaldehido y 2-butanona) y a las propiedades fisicoquímicas se propone un estado de transición cíclico de seis miembros concertado y semipolar. Las termólisis de los sistemas en solución presentaron efecto del solvente, los que aceleraron las velocidades de la reacciones. The thermolysis of the compound 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone was carried without solvent and in solution with p-xylene, toluene, benzene and dioxane, at every 5 degrees of temperatures in the range 463 to 483 K. The rate constants, the reaction order and the activation parameters were determined. Also, a thermolysis mechanism for the compound under study is proposed and the effect of the solvents is analyzed. Thermolysis was carried out in a small chemical reactor (150 ml) and the products were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results showed that thermolysis of the compound obey a first order kinetics. According to the products (formaldehyde and 2-butanone) and to the physicochemical properties it is proposed a concerted, semi- polar six-member cyclic transition state. The thermolysis in solutions showed solvent effects, which accelerated the reaction rates.
Composición fisicoquímica de la semilla y del aceite de la semilla del Canime (Copaifera officinalis L) Physicochemical composition of the seed and oil of Canime seed (Copaifera officinalis L)
Jennifer J Lafont,Manuel S Páez,Edineldo Lans
Información Tecnológica , 2011,
Abstract: Se han determinado las características morfológicas, composición proximal y cantidad de minerales presentes en la semilla de canime (Copaifera officinalis L) y de su aceite. También se han determinado algunas características fisicoquímicas y el perfil de ácidos grasos, no reportados aún en la literatura. Las semillas fueron trituradas el aceite fue obtenido por extracción soxhlet con diferentes solventes para encontrar el de mejor rendimiento. Se analizó: índice de yodo, acidez, puntos de fluidez, enturbiamiento y composición química mediante cromatografía de gases acoplada a masas. Los resultados muestran que las semillas de canime contienen nutrientes considerados principales en la elaboración de alimento para animales, como carbohidratos, ácidos grasos y vitamina E. Se recomienda el aprovechamiento de estas semillas para uso como alimento para animales. The morphological characteristics, the proximate composition and the quantity of minerals present in the seed of canime (Copaifera officinalis L) and its oil were determined. Also, some physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid profile, not yet reported in the literature, were determined. The seeds were crushed and the oil was extracted by soxhlet using different solvents to find that giving the optimum yield. Iodine index, acidity, fluidity, turbidity and chemical composition through chromatography of gas joined to masses, were determined. The results show that the canime seeds contain nutrients that are considered of special importance for making animal food, such as carbohydrates, fatty acids and vitamin E. For all this, the use of these seeds is recommended for manufacturing animal food.
Compuestos organoclorados residuales en dos especies ícticas de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Córdoba, Colombia
Edineldo Lans C,Basilio Díaz P,Manuel Paez M
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2011,
Abstract: Objetivo. Determinación de niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs) en especies ícticas, procedentes de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Materiales y métodos. Se usó un cromatógrafo de gases (Perkin Elmer Autosystem XL) con detector captura de electrones y columna capilar 5% de difenil y 95% de dimetilpolisiloxano, de 30 m, 0.25 mm de diámetro interno y 0.25 μm de espesor de película. Las especies estudiadas fueron: bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae) y moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus), durante las estaciones seca y húmeda. Resultados. El porcentaje de recuperación de los pesticidas determinados se registró entre 80 y 84%, mientras que los límites de detección y cuanficación fueron 0.02 a 0.18 ng/g y 0.2 a 1.8 ng/g respectivamente. La desviación estándar relativa permaneció por debajo del 7% en todos los casos. De los pesticidas organoclorados investigados, en las dos especies se detectaron el a-clordano, endrín y aldrín. Se observó que a medida que aumenta el peso y el tama o del pez, aumenta la concentración de los plaguicidas en una de las especies. Los niveles de concentración de los POCs estuvieron en el intervalo de 0.35-3.75 y 0.48-5.49 ng/g para el moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus) and bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae) respectivamente. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de aparición de POCs y los niveles detectados en las especies podrían ser consecuencia de actividades antropogénicas realizadas en los alrededores de la ciénaga. La correlación entre las medidas biométricas y la concentración depende de la especie íctica. Las concentraciones encontradas en las especies estudiadas, Hoplias malabaricus y Prochilodus magdalenae no representan toxicidad letal inmediata.
Residuos de insecticidas organoclorados presentes en leche cruda comercializada en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia
Díaz Pongutá Basilio,Lans Ceballos Edineldo,Barrera Violeth José Luis
Acta Agronómica , 2012,
Abstract: En el estudio se determinaron residuos de plaguicidas organoclorados en leche cruda proveniente de hatos lecheros del departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Durante el procedimiento de extracción se utilizó una columna de tierra de diatomeas y como sistema eluyente una mezcla de n-hexano-acetona- acetato de etilo (4:2:1), seguida de metanol al 5% en hexano. Para la determinación se usó un cromató- grafo de gases Perkin Elmer, Autosystem XL con detector captura de electrones, en modo de inyección 'splitless', una columna capilar Rtx-5 30 m, 0.25 mm di y 0.25 μm de espesor de película. El porcen- taje de recuperación para los plaguicidas determinados se encontró entre 88.5 y 96%, los lImites de detección se definieron entre 0.01 y 0.04 ng/g con desviaciones est ndar & 6%. En las 6+ muestras analizadas se determinaron p,p′-DDT, a-HCH, -HCH, aldrín, dieldrín, endrín, heptacloro, heptacloro epóxido y y-clordano, esta7leciendo concentraciones entre 2;.1 y 469.6 ng/g. Palabras clave: Leche de vaca, persistencia de los plaguicidas, plaguicidas organoclorados, residuos
Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine
Cheryl Lans
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-3-3
Abstract: Trinidad and Tobago is one country consisting of two adjacent islands located just northeast of the Venezuelan coast with a combined area of 5070 km2 [1]. The human population of 1.25 million is multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural and increases at 1% annually. In Trinidad, the major population centres are concentrated along the west coast and along an east-west transportation corridor in the north of the island [1].The multi-ethnic population of Trinidad and Tobago is reflected in its folk medicinal use. Previous research has indicated that the folk medicines used by hunters are derived from ancient Amerindian practices [2]. This paper will continue to explore the cultural origins of Caribbean folk medicine by investigating the contribution of the Chinese to Caribbean folk medicine. Chinese medicine has been described as a complex and holistic system of medical practice with its own philosophy, diagnosis, treatment systems and pharmacology which also includes acupuncture, moxibustion and Qi Gong. However in this paper I will focus on 'Ben Cao' (Herbalism) [3].The Chinese were the first Asian immigrants, arriving before the original East Indians who arrived in 1845. Chinese Tartars (192 men and one woman) were brought to Trinidad in the fall of 1806. These men from Macao, Penang and Canton were brought to cultivate tea but most were dissatisfied with local conditions and returned on the same ship [4,5]. The twenty-three who stayed made a living as entrepreneurs (butchers, shopkeepers, carpenters and market gardeners) and creolised (integrated into the local population).Prominent sugarcane planters believed that the emancipation of Caribbean slaves in 1838 would create a labour shortage. In the 1840s, the British "opened" a labor market of displaced or impoverished peasantry in southern China to fill this shortage and 2,500 mainly-male Chinese were brought legitimately to Trinidad as indentured workers, or were 'shanghaied' (abducted by European traders) [
Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for reproductive problems
Cheryl Lans
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-3-13
Abstract: Thirty respondents, ten of whom were male were interviewed from September 1996 to September 2000. The respondents were obtained by snowball sampling, and were found in thirteen different sites, 12 in Trinidad (Paramin, Talparo, Sangre Grande, Mayaro, Carapichaima, Kernahan, Newlands, Todd's Road, Arima, Guayaguayare, Santa Cruz, Port of Spain and Siparia) and one in Tobago (Mason Hall). Snowball sampling was used because there was no other means of identifying respondents and to cover the entire islands. The validation of the remedies was conducted with a non-experimental method.Plants are used for specific problems of both genders. Clusea rosea, Urena sinuata and Catharanthus roseus are used for unspecified male problems. Richeria grandis and Parinari campestris are used for erectile dysfunction.Ageratum conyzoides, Scoparia dulcis, Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita maxima, Gomphrena globosa and Justicia pectoralis are used for prostate problems.The following plants are used for childbirth and infertility: Mimosa pudica, Ruta graveolens,Abelmoschus moschatus, Chamaesyce hirta, Cola nitida, Ambrosia cumanenesis, Pilea microphylla, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Coleus aromaticus, Laportea aestuans and Vetiveria zizanioides.The following plants are used for menstrual pain and unspecified female complaints:Achyranthes indica, Artemisia absinthium, Brownea latifolia, Eleutherine bulbosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eupatorium macrophyllum, Justicia secunda, Parthenium hysterophorus, Wedelia trilobata, Abelmoschus moschatus, Capraria biflora, Cordia curassavica, Croton gossypifolius, Entada polystachya, Leonotis nepetaefolia, Eryngium foetidum, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata and Ambrosia cumanenesis.Native Caribbean plants have been less studied that those from Africa, India and Europe. Chamaesyce hirta has scientific support but as a diuretic. Other plants with level 3 validity for reproductive issues are: Achyranthes indica, Coleus ar
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