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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 316648 matches for " Ecological function<br>木材腐朽菌 "
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Ecological function of wood-inhabiting fungi in forest ecosystem
木材腐朽菌在森林生态系统中的功能

WEI Yulian,DAI Yucheng,
魏玉莲
,戴玉成

应用生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: Wood-inhabiting fungi are one of the most important parts of forest ecosystem,and play an important role in degrading the wood in forest ecosystem.The major species of these fungi include the groups of Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycota),Discomycetes (Ascomycota) and some imperfect fungi.They have the ability to degrade cellulose,hemicelluloses and lignin of wood.Three type of wood decaying have been found,i.e.,white rot,brown rot and soft rot.Many other organisms of forest ecosystem have symbiosis relationship with wood-decaying fungi.Wood-inhabiting fungi could offer the nutrition for many insects and birds,and spores of many wood-rotting species are spread by some insects.The high biodiversity of wood-decaying fungi is one of the important factors for the health of forest ecosystem.
Hymenochaete (Hymenochaetales) in Hainan
海南锈革菌属研究

HE Shuang-Hui,
何双辉

菌物学报 , 2010,
Abstract: 对海南省的锈革菌属 Hymenochaete进行了初步研究,共发现了该属12个种。其中异常锈革菌H. anomala和薄锈革菌H. minuscula为中国新记录种,竹生锈革菌H. muroiana为大陆新记录种。异常锈革菌具有带结晶的菌丝和囊状体;薄锈革菌子实体薄,黄褐色;竹生锈革菌有“T”形刚毛,生于竹子上。文中对3个新记录种进行了描述,并给出了全部12个种的检索表。
A red list of polypores in China
中国濒危的多孔菌

DAI Yu-Cheng,CUI Bao-Kai,YUAN Hai-Sheng,WEI Yu-Lian,
戴玉成
,崔宝凯,袁海生,魏玉莲

菌物学报 , 2010,
Abstract: Polypores in China were systematically investigated during 1992-2009, and 48 species are considered as rare and threatened fungi based mostly on their living environment. The threatened polypores account for 8% of the known polypores in China, and they occur in 20 provinces or autonomous regions in the country. Most of these polypores are found in virgin forests of nature reserves, and usually grow on fallen trunks or rotten wood, but rarely occur in managed forests. Among 48 threatened polypores, thirty-eight are white rot fungi, nine cause brown rot, and one is mycorrhizal. The general morphology, substrate and ecology of each species are briefly discussed.
A checklist of polypores in China
中国多孔菌名录

DAI Yu-Cheng,
戴玉成

菌物学报 , 2009,
Abstract: The polypores treated in the present list are in wide sense (sensu lato), including the poroid species in Polyporales, Hymenochaetales, Gloeophyllales, Trechisporales, Corticiales, Thelephorales and Russulales, and a few poroid genera of Agaricales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Auriculariales (e.g. Dictyopanus, Favolaschia, Elmerina, Fistulina and Protomerulius). Based on more than 10,000 collected specimens and other poroid specimens of aphyllophoraceus fungi in the main mycological herbaria in China, th...
肉桂醛及其衍生物对木材腐朽菌和霉菌的抑制作用
杨冬梅,王慧,李淑君,袁海舰
- , 2017, DOI: 10.13360/j.issn.2096-1359.2017.01.009
Abstract: 天然存在的肉桂醛具有广谱的抗菌生物活性。为了开发环保、高效的木材防腐防霉剂,通过滤纸片法和处理材室内防腐防霉试验考察了肉桂醛及其3种衍生物对木材的防腐和防霉作用。滤纸片法实验结果表明,肉桂醛对4种供试菌种(即:密粘褶菌、彩绒革盖菌、黑曲霉和桔青霉)均表现出最强的抑菌性能。然而,在密粘褶菌对木材的腐朽试验中,对氯肉桂醛表现出最好的保护性能,在浓度为40 g/L时即达到Ⅰ级耐腐; 肉桂酸表现出优于肉桂醛的保护能力,在浓度为10 g/L时即达到Ⅱ级耐腐,而肉桂醛在20 g/L时方可达到Ⅱ级耐腐。在彩绒革盖菌对木材的腐朽试验中,肉桂醛和肉桂酸在浓度为50 g/L时达到Ⅰ级耐腐。在防霉方面,肉桂醛与对氯肉桂醛对黑曲霉和桔青霉有最好的防霉效果,特别是对于桔青霉,在浓度为68.67 g/L时完全防止了桔青霉的霉变。对于黑曲霉,在同样浓度下,两种化合物处理的木材试样都只是发生了很少的霉变。肉桂醛及其衍生物表现出对木材很好的保护作用,且环境友好,可广泛应用。
Cinnamaldehyde, which naturally exists in the world, has a broad-spectrum antifungal activity. In order to develop an environmentally friendly and effective preservative against wood decay and mould fungi, decay and mold resistant abilities of cinnamaldehyde and its three derivatives were examined by a filter paper disk method and wood block laboratory tests. The result of the filter paper disk method showed that among the four compounds, cinnamaldehyde presented the best antifungal activities against all the four selected fungi, i.e., Gloeophyllum trabeum, Trametes versicolor, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum. In the decay resistance experiment against Gloeophyllum trabeum, 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde showed the best performance and the treated wood could be ranked as Grade Ⅰ of wood decay resistance at the concentration of 40 g/L. Cinnamic acid presented better decay resistance than cinnamaldehyde, and the treated wood could be ranked as Grade Ⅱ of wood decay resistance at the concentration of 10 g/L. The treated wood could not be ranked as Grade Ⅱ until the cinnamaldehyde concentration was up to 20 g/L. In decay resistance experiments against Trametes versicolor, the wood treated with 50 g/L cinnamaldehyde or cinnamic acid could be ranked as Grade Ⅰ. As for mould resistance, cinnamaldehyde and 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde presented the best performance against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum, especially the latter mould fungous. Both cinnamaldehyde and 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde prevented the treated wood from the growth of Penicillium citrinum totally at a concentration of 68.67 g/L. As to Aspergillus niger,at the same concentration, both cinnamaldehyde and 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde presented good resistant abilities with little infected area. Cinnamaldehyde and the derivatives showed high decay and mold resistant abilities, and are environmentally friendly. Therefore, they have great application potential in wood preservation
中国储木及建筑木材腐朽菌(Ⅰ)
戴玉成,徐梅卿,杨忠,蒋明亮
林业科学研究 , 2008,
Abstract: 本文首次系统报道了生长在中国原木、建筑物(包括房屋、桥梁、涵洞、栅栏等木质结构材) 、坑木、枕木、矿柱、电杆、薪材等上的腐朽菌107种。其中24种引起木材褐色腐朽, 83种引起白色腐朽。褐色腐朽的种类主要发生在针叶树木材上,白色腐朽的种类在针叶树和阔叶树木材上都常见。在针叶树原木上常见的木材腐朽菌有黄薄孔菌、红缘拟层孔菌、深褐褶菌、硫磺绚孔菌、冷杉附毛孔菌。在阔叶树原木上常见的有紫褐多孢孔菌、黑管孔菌、一色齿毛菌、红贝俄氏孔菌、硬毛粗毛盖孔菌、皮生锐孔菌、淡黄木层孔菌、鲜红密孔菌、淡黄裂孔菌、毛栓孔菌、锗栓孔菌和云芝栓孔菌等。这些种类来自作者长期的采集、记载和鉴定,全部标本保存在中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所生物标本馆。
中国东北杨树上的木腐菌
戴玉成,范少辉,魏玉莲,徐梅卿
林业科学研究 , 2003,
Abstract: 本文是中国东北地区木腐菌研究结果的一部分,简要论述了中国东北地区杨树上的木材腐朽菌,共报道了生长在杨树或杨树木材及腐木上的担子菌121种。其中多数生长在杨树倒木或朽木上,大多数造成白色腐朽,少数导致褐色腐朽。硬粗毛孔菌Funaliatrogii(Berk.)Bondartsev&Singer和浅黄褐栓菌Trametesochracea(Pers.)Gilb.&Ryvarden等为人工林及行道树上常见种类;中国锐孔菌OxyporussinensisX.L.Zeng和瓦尼木层孔菌Phellinus vaninii Ljub.等种类只发生在杨树原始林或保存完好的天然林分,它们当中有的为稀有种或濒危种类。杨纤孔菌Inonotusrheades(Pers.)Bondartsev&Singer和大孔薄孔菌Antrodia leucaena Y.C.Dai&Niemel 等是杨树上特有种类;杨木层孔菌Phellinustremulae(Bondartsev)Bondartsev&Borisov和树舌灵芝Ganoderma lipsiense(Batsch)G.F.Atk等为杨树上的病原菌。
中国东北林区阔叶树上常见的10种多孔菌培养特性的研究*
池玉杰,潘学仁
菌物学报 , 2001,
Abstract: 描述了中国东北林区10 种阔叶树上常见的多孔菌培养特性。培养特性的研究包括宏观特征和微观特征。宏观特征包括菌落生长速度、颜色、结构、质地及其变化;生长新区特征;培养基的颜色变化、培养物的气味、酚氧化酶的检测结果等。微观特征包括生长新区的菌丝体、气生菌丝体和基内生菌丝体的类型和分隔;担子的形成和发生;厚垣孢子、分生孢子和分生节孢子(粉孢子)的产生及特征;特殊结构如囊壮体和刚毛的有无及其特征;晶体的有无及形状等。
木材腐朽菌在森林生态系统中的功能
魏玉莲,戴玉成
应用生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: 木材腐朽菌是森林生态系统的重要组成部分,在森林生态系统中起着极为重要的降解还原作用,主要包括担子菌门非褶菌目、子囊菌门盘菌纲和半知菌类的部分真菌,能全部或部分降解木材中的木质素、纤维素和半纤维素,其降解机制有3种:白色腐朽、褐色腐朽和软腐朽.木材腐朽菌与生态系统中其它生物关系密切,为很多昆虫、鸟类提供营养,有些昆虫也能使木腐菌得到传播.保护木材腐朽菌的生物多样性是保护森林生态系统、维护生态系统健康的重要因素.
白桦木材抗腐和易腐植株主要化学成分的比较
刘欣,徐晔,王秋玉
北京理工大学学报 , 2010,
Abstract: 采用5种木材腐朽菌分别对300株天然林白桦木样进行木材腐朽处理,选择质量损失率最大和最小的10株白桦组成易腐和抗腐群体,检测其木材中的木质素、纤维素等主要化学成分.结果表明:水分、纤维素、木质素含量低的白桦木材抗白囊耙齿菌腐朽;木质素含量低、苯醇抽出物含量高的白桦木材抗黄伞腐朽;木质素、总酚、总黄酮含量高的白桦木材抗木蹄层孔菌;木质素和总酚含量高的白桦木材抗桦剥管菌腐朽.未发现彩绒革盖菌降解木材成分的偏好性.白桦木材中的1%NaOH抽出物和水分与纤维素含量成显著负相关,易腐群体白桦木材中的水分和纤维
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