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Formulation and stability study of chlorpheniramine maleate transdermal patch
Iman I,Nadia A,Ebtsam M
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: Administration of drugs through skin has received great attention through the last decade. Hence this study aims to formulate an anti-histaminic drug-Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as transdermal patch using different bioadhesive polymers such as ethyl cellulose, cellulose acetate, and polyvinyl pyrrolidon with different plasticizers such as propylene glycol (PG) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400). Patches were prepared though solvent evaporation method, evaluated for their physical and mechanical properties and then subjected to stability study to select the best formulae to be evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The selected formulae were examined for CPM release in phosphate buffer saline pH 5.5 and also tested for CPM permeation through ear rabbit skin. Finally, one formula was evaluated in vivo in comparison with multiple oral doses of commercial CPM oral tablets and results showed that CPM transdermal patch has higher bioavailability than an oral tablet of the same dose, with lower plasma fluctuation and less administration frequency.
On Finslerized Absolute Parallelism spaces
Nabil L. Youssef,Amr M. Sid-Ahmed,Ebtsam H. Taha
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1142/S0219887813500291
Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to construct and investigate a Finsler structure within the framework of a Generalized Absolute Parallelism space (GAP-space). The Finsler structure is obtained from the vector fields forming the parallelization of the GAP-space. The resulting space, which we refer to as a Finslerized Parallelizable space, combines within its geometric structure the simplicity of GAP-geometry and the richness of Finsler geometry, hence is potentially more suitable for applications and especially for describing physical phenomena. A study of the geometry of the two structures and their interrelation is carried out. Five connections are introduced and their torsion and curvature tensors derived. Some special Finslerized Parallelizable spaces are singled out. One of the main reasons to introduce this new space is that both Absolute Parallelism and Finsler geometries have proved effective in the formulation of physical theories, so it is worthy to try to build a more general geometric structure that would share the benefits of both geometries.
Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius
Farid S. Ataya,Dalia Fouad,Ebtsam Al-Olayan,Ajamaluddin Malik
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010879
Abstract: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius ( cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The predicted 3D structure of cSOD1 showed high similarity with the human and bovine CuZnSOD homologues. The Root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) between cSOD1/hSOD1 and cSOD1/bSOD1 superimposed structure pairs were 0.557 and 0.425 A. The Q-score of cSOD1-hSOD1 and cSOD1-bSOD1 were 0.948 and 0.961, respectively.
Study of Duct Characteristics Deduced from Low Latitude Ground Observations of Day-Time Whistler at Jammu  [PDF]
M. Altaf, M. M. Ahmad
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33032
Abstract:

Propagation characteristics of low latitude whistler duct characteristics have been investigated based on day-time measurements at Jammu. The morphogical characteristics of low latitude whistlers are discussed and compared with characteristics of middle and high latitude whistlers. The Max. electron density (Nm) at the height of the ionosphere obtained from whistler dispersion comes out to be higher than that of the background which is in accordance with the characteristics of whistler duct. The equivalent width is found to be close to the satellite observations and the characteristics of whistler duct in low latitude ionosphere are similar to those in middle and high latitude ionosphere. The width of ducts estimated from the diffuseness of the whistler track observed during magnetic storm is found to lie in the range of 50 - 200 Km.

Review Article: Immobilized Molecules Using Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology  [PDF]
Magdy M. M. Elnashar
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2010.11008
Abstract: Immobilized molecules using biomaterials and nanobiotechnology is a very interesting topic that touching almost all aspects of our life. It uses the sciences of biology, chemistry, physics, materials engineering and computer science to develop instruments and products that are at the cutting edge of some of today’s most promising scientific frontiers. In this review article, the author based on his experience in this arena has tried to focus on some of the supports for im-mobilization; the most important molecules to be immobilized such as DNA, cells, enzymes, metals, polysaccharides, etc and their applications in medicine, food, drug, water treatment, energy and even in aerospace. He specified a special section on what is new in the arena of supports and technologies used in enzyme immobilization and finally a recommendation by the author for future work with a special attention to up-to-date references.
Using of the generalized special relativity (GSR) in estimating the neutrino masses to explain the conversion of electron neutrinos  [PDF]
M. H. M. Hilo
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.34044
Abstract: In this work the Generalized Special Relativity (GSR) is utilized to estimate masses of some elementary particles such as, neutrinos. These results are found to be in conformity with experimental and theoretical data. The results obtained may explain some physical phenomena, such as, conversion of neutrinos from type to type when solar neutrino reaches the Earth.
Postischemic Lower Extremity Wounds Treated with and without Negative Pressure Dressing  [PDF]
Naz?mmü?
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.37075
Abstract: Background: Vacuum-assisted dressing is a noninvasive closure system of the wound, which makes localized and controlled negative pressure. Its mechanical tension reduces edema, stimulates granulation tissue formation and angiogenesis, and prepares the wound bed for closure. In this study, a patient has been presented, who suffered from serious lower extremity wounds due to arterial emboli, one of her wounds has been treated with vacuum-assisted dressing and the other with conventional dressing to evaluate the efficacy of vacuum-assisted dressing in acute ischemic wounds. Methods: A 65-year-old female patient was admitted to the emergency clinic, due to complaint of severe pain in her right lower extremity which suggested an acute arterial occlusion. She immediately underwent an embolectomy operation; however, a few days later, severe ischemia on the leg and foot became appearant. All of the necrosis was sharply debrided under sterile conditions in the operating room, and then lower leg wound was covered with vacuum-assisted dressing, also calcaneal wound was dressed with silver sulphadiazine. Results: Eighteen days after the first dressing with negative pressure, distal leg wound became ready for closure, whereas, enough granulation tissue over the calcaneal area developed merely thirty-four days later. Calcaneal wound closed spontaneously within fifty-three days. Conclusions: When dealing with this experience, using the negative pressure dressing in patient with severe lower limb wounds following arterial emboli, accelerates wound healing by means of developing the granulation tissue, and rapidly prepares the wound for closure, so it may reduce the risk of amputation.
Laplace Transform Method for Unsteady Thin Film Flow of a Second Grade Fluid through a Porous Medium  [PDF]
M. Ali, M. Awais
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53017
Abstract:

In this article, we have effectively used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform to study the time-dependent thin film flow of a second grade fluid flowing down an inclined plane through a porous medium. The solution to the governing equation is obtained by using the standard Laplace transform. However, to transform the obtained solutions from Laplace space back to the original space, we have used the Numerical Inversion of Laplace transform. Graphical results have been presented to show the effects of different parameters involved and to show how the fluid flow evolves with time.

An Integral Collocation Approach Based on Legendre Polynomials for Solving Riccati, Logistic and Delay Differential Equations  [PDF]
M. M. Khader, A. M. S. Mahdy, M. M. Shehata
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.515228
Abstract:

In this paper, we propose and analyze some schemes of the integral collocation formulation based on Legendre polynomials. We implement these formulae to solve numerically Riccati, Logistic and delay differential equations with variable coefficients. The properties of the Legendre polynomials are used to reduce the proposed problems to the solution of non-linear system of algebraic equations using Newton iteration method. We give numerical results to satisfy the accuracy and the applicability of the proposed schemes.

ДОСЛ ДЖЕННЯ АНАЛ ТИЧНОГО МЕТОДУ ОЦ НЮВАННЯ ЙМОВ РНОСТ ПОТЕНЦ ЙНО КОНФЛ КТНИХ СИТУАЦ Й В ПОВ ТРЯНОМУ РУС The study of the analytical method of evaluating the probability of potential conflict situations in air traffic Исследование аналитического метода оценки вероятности потенциально конфликтных ситуаций в воздушном движении
В.M. Василь?в
Proceedings of National Aviation University , 2007,
Abstract: Розглянуто застосування запропонованого ран ше методу оц нювання ймов рност потенц йних конфл кт в для системи керування пов тряним рухом. Досл джено властивост методу, наведено проанал зовано результати комп’ютерного моделювання. Application of the method of potential conflicts probability evaluation offered before for air traffic control system is considered. The properties of the method are investigated, results of computer modeling are represented and analyzed. Рассмотрено применение предложенного ранее метода оценки вероятности потенциальных конфликтов для системы управления воздушным движением. Исследованы свойства метода, приведены и проанализированы результаты компьютерного моделирования.
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