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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 118694 matches for " Earl T. Barr "
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Learning Natural Coding Conventions
Miltiadis Allamanis,Earl T. Barr,Christian Bird,Charles Sutton
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Every programmer has a characteristic style, ranging from preferences about identifier naming to preferences about object relationships and design patterns. Coding conventions define a consistent syntactic style, fostering readability and hence maintainability. When collaborating, programmers strive to obey a project's coding conventions. However, one third of reviews of changes contain feedback about coding conventions, indicating that programmers do not always follow them and that project members care deeply about adherence. Unfortunately, programmers are often unaware of coding conventions because inferring them requires a global view, one that aggregates the many local decisions programmers make and identifies emergent consensus on style. We present NATURALIZE, a framework that learns the style of a codebase, and suggests revisions to improve stylistic consistency. NATURALIZE builds on recent work in applying statistical natural language processing to source code. We apply NATURALIZE to suggest natural identifier names and formatting conventions. We present four tools focused on ensuring natural code during development and release management, including code review. NATURALIZE achieves 94% accuracy in its top suggestions for identifier names and can even transfer knowledge about conventions across projects, leveraging a corpus of 10,968 open source projects. We used NATURALIZE to generate 18 patches for 5 open source projects: 14 were accepted.
Casper: Debugging Null Dereferences with Dynamic Causality Traces
Benoit Cornu,Earl T. Barr,Lionel Seinturier,Martin Monperrus
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Fixing a software error requires understanding its root cause. In this paper, we introduce ''causality traces'', crafted execution traces augmented with the information needed to reconstruct the causal chain from the root cause of a bug to an execution error. We propose an approach and a tool, called Casper, for dynamically constructing causality traces for null dereference errors. The core idea of Casper is to inject special values, called ''ghosts'', into the execution stream to construct the causality trace at runtime. We evaluate our contribution by providing and assessing the causality traces of 14 real null dereference bugs collected over six large, popular open-source projects. Over this data set, Casper builds a causality trace in less than 5 seconds.
Detecting Malware with Information Complexity
Nadia Alshahwan,Earl T. Barr,David Clark,George Danezis
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This work focuses on a specific front of the malware detection arms-race, namely the detection of persistent, disk-resident malware. We exploit normalised compression distance (NCD), an information theoretic measure, applied directly to binaries. Given a zoo of labelled malware and benign-ware, we ask whether a suspect program is more similar to our malware or to our benign-ware. Our approach classifies malware with 97.1% accuracy and a false positive rate of 3%. We achieve our results with off-the-shelf compressors and a standard machine learning classifier and without any specialised knowledge. An end-user need only collect a zoo of malware and benign-ware and then can immediately apply our techniques. We apply statistical rigour to our experiments and our selection of data. We demonstrate that accuracy can be optimised by combining NCD with the compressibility rates of the executables. We demonstrate that malware reported within a more narrow time frame of a few days is more homogenous than malware reported over a longer one of two years but that our method still classifies the latter with 95.2% accuracy and a 5% false positive rate. Due to the use of compression, the time and computation cost of our method is non-trivial. We show that simple approximation techniques can improve the time complexity of our approach by up to 63%. We compare our results to the results of applying the 59 anti-malware programs used on the VirusTotal web site to our malware. Our approach does better than any single one of them as well as the 59 used collectively.
A Study of "Wheat" and "Chaff" in Source Code
Martin Velez,Dong Qiu,You Zhou,Earl T. Barr,Zhendong Su
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: Natural language is robust against noise. The meaning of many sentences survives the loss of words, sometimes many of them. Some words in a sentence, however, cannot be lost without changing the meaning of the sentence. We call these words "wheat" and the rest "chaff." The word "not" in the sentence "I do not like rain" is wheat and "do" is chaff. For human understanding of the purpose and behavior of source code, we hypothesize that the same holds. To quantify the extent to which we can separate code into "wheat" and "chaff", we study a large (100M LOC), diverse corpus of real-world projects in Java. Since methods represent natural, likely distinct units of code, we use the, approximately, 9M Java methods in the corpus to approximate a universe of "sentences." We "thresh", or lex, functions, then "winnow" them to extract their wheat by computing the minimal distinguishing subset (MINSET). Our results confirm that programs contain much chaff. On average, MINSETS have 1.56 words (none exceeds 6) and comprise 4% of their methods. Beyond its intrinsic scientific interest, our work offers the first quantitative evidence for recent promising work on keyword-based programming and insight into how to develop powerful, alternative programming systems.
How to exploit local information when distilling entanglement
Earl T. Campbell
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/S0219749910005922
Abstract: Distillation protocols enable generation of high quality entanglement even in the presence of noise. Existing protocols ignore the presence of local information in mixed states produced from some noise sources such as photon loss, amplitude damping or thermalization. We propose new protocols that exploit local information in mixed states. Our protocols converge to higher fidelities in fewer rounds, and when local information is significant one of our protocols consistently improves yields by 10 fold or more. We demonstrate that our protocols can be compacted into an entanglement-pumping scheme, allowing quantum computation in distributed systems with a few qubits per location.
Optimal Entangling Capacity of Dynamical Processes
Earl T. Campbell
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.82.042314
Abstract: We investigate the entangling capacity of dynamical operations when provided with local ancilla. A comparison is made between the entangling capacity with and without the assistance of prior entanglement. An analytic solution is found for the log-negativity entangling capacity of two-qubit gates, which equals the entanglement of the Choi matrix isomorphic to the unitary operator. Surprisingly, the availability of prior entanglement does not affect this result; a property we call resource independence of the entangling capacity. We prove several useful upper-bounds on the entangling capacity that hold for general qudit dynamical operations, and for a whole family of entanglement monotones including log-negativity and log-robustness. The log-robustness entangling capacity is shown to be resource independent for general dynamics. We provide numerical results supporting a conjecture that the log-negativity entangling capacity is resource independence for all two-qudit unitaries.
Distributed quantum information processing with minimal local resources
Earl T. Campbell
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.76.040302
Abstract: We present a protocol for growing graph states, the resource for one-way quantum computing, when the available entanglement mechanism is highly imperfect. The distillation protocol is frugal in its use of ancilla qubits, requiring only a single ancilla qubit when the noise is dominated by one Pauli error, and two for a general noise model. The protocol works with such scarce local resources by never post-selecting on the measurement outcomes of purification rounds. We find that such a strategy causes fidelity to follow a biased random walk, and that a target fidelity is likely to be reached more rapidly than for a comparable post-selecting protocol. An analysis is presented of how imperfect local operations limit the attainable fidelity. For example, a single Pauli error rate of 20% can be distilled down to $\sim 10$ times the imperfection in local operations.
Catalysis and activation of magic states in fault tolerant architectures
Earl T. Campbell
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.032317
Abstract: In many architectures for fault tolerant quantum computing universality is achieved by a combination of Clifford group unitary operators and preparation of suitable nonstabilizer states, the so-called magic states. Universality is possible even for some fairly noisy nonstabilizer states, as distillation can convert many noisy copies into fewer purer magic states. Here we propose novel protocols that exploit multiple species of magic states in surprising ways. These protocols provide examples of previously unobserved phenomena that are analogous to catalysis and activation well known in entanglement theory.
An introduction to one-way quantum computing in distributed architectures
Earl T. Campbell,Joseph Fitzsimons
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/S0219749910006198
Abstract: This review provides a gentle introduction to one-way quantum computing in distributed architectures. One-way quantum computation shows significant promise as a computational model for distributed systems, particularly those architectures which rely on probabilistic entangling operations. We review the theoretical underpinnings of one-way quantum computation and discuss the practical issues related to exploiting the one-way model in distributed architectures.
Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation
Earl T. Campbell,Dan E. Browne
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.030503
Abstract: Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.
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