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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219369 matches for " Eamon C. Tewell "
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Accurate Answers to Reference Queries May Be Provided Less Frequently Than Expected. A Review of: Hernon, P., & McClure, C. (1986). Unobtrusive reference testing: The 55 percent rule. Library Journal, 111(7), 37-41.
Eamon C. Tewell
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2010,
Abstract: Objective – To determine the number of government documents reference questions that are answered correctly by professional library staff. Design – The authors utilized unobtrusive reference testing: reference queries posed to library personnel who were unaware they were being evaluated. As opposed to other designs that require the researcher’s presence in the setting, unobtrusive testing utilizes proxies to administer test questions to the subjects, reducing the possibility of reporter bias. Setting – Twenty-six public and academic libraries participating in the U.S. Government Printing Office Depository Program located in the Western, Southern, and Midwestern United States. The Federal Depository Program consisted of 1400 libraries at the time of the study. One public and one academic library were chosen for each city. Subjects – Reference and government documents librarians. These two staff types were selected in order to compare the accuracy of each group’s responses to the queries. Methods – A set of 15 predetermined factual and bibliographic questions were developed by the authors and administered to library staff respondents by proxies. Government documents were selected as the foundation for the test questions. In selecting federal depository libraries for their sample the authors could ensure all queries may hypothetically be answered using U.S. Government Printing Office documents, as all of the libraries would hold the resources in question.Graduate students enrolled in the University of Arizona and University of Oklahoma library science programs were trained by the authors to serve as proxies. The proxies posed as library users and administered the set of queries at each selected library. Reference librarians and government documents librarians were tested separately, receiving seven and eight questions respectively at each library visited. Over a four-month period a total of 390 questions were posed and their answers recorded. Main Results – The respondents correctly answered 241 of 390 queries (62 percent). Government documents librarians accurately answered 65 percent of questions, while reference librarians successfully responded to 59 percent. Hernon and McClure derived the “55 percent rule” for reference accuracy from these results and previous unobtrusive studies conducted by both the authors and other researchers. This body of research estimates the rate of accurate answers of factual and bibliographic questions to be between 50 and 62 percent.Data regarding the “interview and search process” (I&S), defined as the activities between t
Full-Time Faculty View Information Literacy as Important but Are Unlikely to Incorporate it Into Their Teaching. A Review of: Bury, S. (2011). Faculty attitudes, perceptions and experiences of information literacy: A study across multiple disciplines at York University, Canada. Journal of Information Literacy, 5(1). Retrieved from http://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/PRA-V5-I1-2011-1
Eamon C. Tewell
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Objective – To explore faculty attitudes towards information literacy (IL); in particular,faculty perception of student IL competencies, importance of IL skills and instruction, and ideal means of planning and delivering IL instruction. Design – Online survey questionnaire. Setting – Large public research university located in Toronto, Canada. Subjects – 221 full-time faculty. Methods – The author designed and distributed an online survey to all full-time York University faculty (n=1,451) in March 2007 using Zoomerang software. The survey consisted of between 26 and 36 questions depending on responses selected by respondents, and included both open- and closed-ended questions. The author handcoded the qualitative data and used SPSS to analyze the quantitative data. The survey had 221 usable responses giving a response rate of 15.2%. Main Results – The study revealed a high degree of concern among survey respondents regarding undergraduate students’ information literacy skills, accompanied by a perceived gradual increase in IL abilities corresponding to student year. Faculty ranked each of the Association of College and Research Libraries’ (ACRL) Information Literacy Standards for Higher Education as being extremely important. No ACRL standard ranked below 6 on a scale of 1 to 7, suggesting full agreement with the value of IL proficiency. Of the faculty 78.7% felt that IL education should be a joint collaboration between faculty and librarians. A considerable majority of respondents (81.7%) answered that IL instruction should be required for all students. Far fewer faculty incorporated IL teaching in practice, with 52.9% engaging in IL instruction and 47.1% not incorporating IL instruction at all. Of the faculty who incorporated librarian-led IL sessions into their courses, 85% of faculty perceived a “substantial impact” or “some impact” on their students’ IL competencies. Conclusions – The author concludes that this study adds evidence to the claim that a disconnect exists between faculty beliefs about the importance of IL and their teaching practices. Faculty consistently express concern regarding student IL abilities and support collaborative IL instruction, yet the rate of IL integration within their classes remains low. The results corroborate that faculty perceptions and attitudes towards IL remain relatively consistent when compared with other studies. The author recommends that librarians be flexible regarding IL instruction models and encourage further investigation of faculty development models to achieve wider IL integration. A stronger advoca
LIDAR and SODAR Measurements of Wind Speed and Direction in Upland Terrain for Wind Energy Purposes
Steven Lang,Eamon McKeogh
Remote Sensing , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3091871
Abstract: Detailed knowledge of the wind resource is necessary in the developmental and operational stages of a wind farm site. As wind turbines continue to grow in size, masts for mounting cup anemometers—the accepted standard for resource assessment—have necessarily become much taller, and much more expensive. This limitation has driven the commercialization of two remote sensing (RS) tools for the wind energy industry: The LIDAR and the SODAR, Doppler effect instruments using light and sound, respectively. They are ground-based and can work over hundreds of meters, sufficient for the tallest turbines in, or planned for, production. This study compares wind measurements from two commercial RS instruments against an instrumented mast, in upland (semi-complex) terrain typical of where many wind farms are now being installed worldwide. With appropriate filtering, regression analyses suggest a good correlation between the RS?instruments and mast instruments: The RS instruments generally recorded lower wind?speeds than the cup anemometers, with the LIDAR more accurate and the SODAR more precise.
New Light-Travel Time Models and Orbital Stability Study of the Proposed Planetary System HU Aquarii
Tobias C. Hinse,Jae Woo Lee,Krzysztof Gozdziewski,Nader Haghighipour,Chung-Uk Lee,Eamon M. Scullion
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20283.x
Abstract: In this work we propose a new orbital architecture for the two proposed circumbinary planets around the polar eclipsing binary HU Aquarii. We base the new two-planet, light-travel time model on the result of a Monte Carlo simulation driving a least-squares Levenberg-Marquardt minimisation algorithm on the observed eclipse egress times. Our best-fitting model with $\chi_{r}^2=1.43$ resulted in high final eccentricities for the two companions leading to an unstable orbital configuration. From a large ensemble of initial guesses we examined the distribution of final eccentricities and semi-major axes for different $\chi_{r}^2$ parameter intervals and encountered qualitatively a second population of best-fitting parameters. The main characteristic of this population is described by low-eccentric orbits favouring long-term orbital stability of the system. We present our best-fitting model candidate for the proposed two-planet system and demonstrate orbital stability over one million years using numerical integrations.
Contact Heterogeneity and Phylodynamics: How Contact Networks Shape Parasite Evolutionary Trees
Eamon B. O'Dea,Claus O. Wilke
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/238743
Abstract: The inference of population dynamics from molecular sequence data is becoming an important new method for the surveillance of infectious diseases. Here, we examine how heterogeneity in contact shapes the genealogies of parasitic agents. Using extensive simulations, we find that contact heterogeneity can have a strong effect on how the structure of genealogies reflects epidemiologically relevant quantities such as the proportion of a population that is infected. Comparing the simulations to BEAST reconstructions, we also find that contact heterogeneity can increase the number of sequence isolates required to estimate these quantities over the course of an epidemic. Our results suggest that data about contact-network structure will be required in addition to sequence data for accurate estimation of a parasitic agent's genealogy. We conclude that network models will be important for progress in this area. 1. Introduction Epidemiology is a data-driven field, and it is currently being infused at an increasing rate with molecular sequence data. This new and growing data source has led to a call for multi-level models of the relationship between sequence data and infectious disease dynamics [1, 2], dubbed phylodynamic models. By allowing for additional data to be used and integrated, phylodynamic modeling may lead to improvements in the accuracy and quality of the surveillance of infectious diseases. For example, the number of norovirus outbreaks reported increased in 2002. It was not clear, however, whether the higher reported numbers were a sign of more outbreaks or more frequent reporting of outbreaks. Case-reporting bias does not affect molecular data, however. So coalescent analysis of molecular data [3] provided a valuable and largely independent line of evidence that the increase in outbreaks was real. Of course, coalescent analysis will have its own biases, and here we examine those that result from host heterogeneity in contact. To model heterogeneity in contact, we represent individuals in a population as nodes, and we represent the potential for two hosts to infect each other as an edge that links two nodes. Researchers call the resulting networks contact networks. Contact-network structure necessarily affects the genealogy of any replicating infectious agent that is spreading through a host population. In this paper, we use the term parasite to refer to all such infectious agents, including bacteria and viruses. The genealogy of these parasites must fit inside the tree of infections that forms as the parasite spreads from host to host, and this
A Reappraisal of Online Mathematics Teaching Using LaTeX
Eamon Costello,Seamus Fox,Elaine Walsh
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET) , 2009, DOI: 10.3991/ijet.v4i4.970
Abstract: The mathematics language LaTeX is often seen outside of academic circles as a legacy technology that is awkward to use. MathML - a verbose language designed for data-exchange, and to be written and understood by machines - is sometimes by contrast seen as something that will aid online mathematics and lack of browser support for it bemoaned. However LaTeX can already do many of the things that MathML might promise. LaTeX is here proposed as a language from which small fragments, with concise syntax, can be used by people to easily create and share mathematical expressions online. The capability to embed fragments of LaTeX code in online discussions is described here and its impact on a group of educators and learners evaluated. Here LaTeX is posited as a useful tool for facilitating asynchronous, online, collaborative learning of mathematics.
Amplifying the Impact of Open Access: Wikipedia and the Diffusion of Science
Misha Teplitskiy,Grace Lu,Eamon Duede
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: With the rise of Wikipedia as a first-stop source for scientific knowledge, it is important to compare its representation of that knowledge to that of the academic literature. This article approaches such a comparison through academic references made within the worlds 50 largest Wikipedias. Previous studies have raised concerns that Wikipedia editors may simply use the most easily accessible academic sources rather than sources of the highest academic status. We test this claim by identifying the 250 most heavily used journals in each of 26 research fields (4,721 journals, 19.4M articles in total) indexed by the Scopus database, and modeling whether topic, academic status, and accessibility make articles from these journals more or less likely to be referenced on Wikipedia. We find that, controlling for field and impact factor, the odds that an open access journal is referenced on the English Wikipedia are 47% higher compared to closed access journals. Moreover, in most of the worlds Wikipedias a journals high status (impact factor) and accessibility (open access policy) both greatly increase the probability of referencing. Among the implications of this study is that the chief effect of open access policies may be to significantly amplify the diffusion of science, through an intermediary like Wikipedia, to a broad public audience.
Does Mutational Robustness Inhibit Extinction by Lethal Mutagenesis in Viral Populations?
Eamon B. O'Dea,Thomas E. Keller,Claus O. Wilke
PLOS Computational Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000811
Abstract: Lethal mutagenesis is a promising new antiviral therapy that kills a virus by raising its mutation rate. One potential shortcoming of lethal mutagenesis is that viruses may resist the treatment by evolving genomes with increased robustness to mutations. Here, we investigate to what extent mutational robustness can inhibit extinction by lethal mutagenesis in viruses, using both simple toy models and more biophysically realistic models based on RNA secondary-structure folding. We show that although the evolution of greater robustness may be promoted by increasing the mutation rate of a viral population, such evolution is unlikely to greatly increase the mutation rate required for certain extinction. Using an analytic multi-type branching process model, we investigate whether the evolution of robustness can be relevant on the time scales on which extinction takes place. We find that the evolution of robustness matters only when initial viral population sizes are small and deleterious mutation rates are only slightly above the level at which extinction can occur. The stochastic calculations are in good agreement with simulations of self-replicating RNA sequences that have to fold into a specific secondary structure to reproduce. We conclude that the evolution of mutational robustness is in most cases unlikely to prevent the extinction of viruses by lethal mutagenesis.
Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM21 Positively Regulates Interaction with IRF3 and Hence TRIM21 Activity
Kevin B. Stacey, Eamon Breen, Caroline A. Jefferies
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034041
Abstract: Patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) have elevated type I interferon (IFN) levels which correlate with disease activity and severity. TRIM21, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets the transcription factor IRF3 in order to turn off and limit type I IFN production following detection of viral and bacterial infection by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). However, how the activity of TRIM21 is regulated downstream of TLRs is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that TRIM21 is tyrosine phosphorylated following TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, suggesting that its activity is potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using Netphos, we have identified three key tyrosines that are strongly predicted to be phosphorylated, two of which are conserved between the human and murine forms of TRIM21, at residues 343, 388, and 393, all of which have been mutated from tyrosine to phenylalanine (Y343F, Y388F, and Y393F). We have observed that tyrosine phosphorylation of TRIM21 only occurs in the substrate binding PRY/SPRY domain, and that Y393, and to a lesser extent, Y388 are required for TRIM21 to function as a negative regulator of IFN-β promoter activity. Further studies revealed that mutating Y393 to phenylalanine inhibits the ability of TRIM21 to interact with its substrate, IRF3, thus providing a molecular explanation for the lack of activity of Y393 on the IFN-β promoter. Our data demonstrates a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the activity of TRIM21 downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. Given the pathogenic role of TRIM21 in systemic autoimmunity, these findings have important implications for the development of novel therapeutics.
Complete Renal Artery Embolization in a Comorbid Patient with an Arteriovenous Malformation
Anthony Thayaparan,Tarik Amer,Eamon Mahdi,Omar Aboumarzouk,Owen Hughes
Case Reports in Urology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/856059
Abstract: Renal arteriovenous malformations are uncommon and are rarely a cause for presentation. However, they can occasionally pose life-threatening problems. We present a case of an elderly female who underwent a complete left renal artery embolization, following a difficult presentation complicated by advanced dementia and multiple comorbidities. This is the first documented case of complete renal artery embolisation used to treat a renal AVM. 1. Introduction Renal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are aberrant connections between the renal artery and vein. They may be acquired or congenital in their aetiology [1]. The most common presenting complaint is of visible haematuria. It is AS part of the routine workup for frank haematuria that intrarenal AVMs are diagnosed [2]. Other presentations include hypertension of unknown cause, abdominal pain, and left ventricular hypertrophy [1, 2]. In cases where patients are unstable requiring intervention, the historical treatment has been partial or total nephrectomy with arterial reconstruction [2]. Over time, the range of options has evolved to include conservative and angiographic procedures [2]. We present the only documented case of complete renal artery ablation being used in the acute setting. 2. Case Presentation A frail 76-year-old lady with vascular dementia presented with a five-week history of malaise and persistent gross haematuria. Other than dysuria she had no other lower urinary tract symptoms. Her past medical history consisted of chronic hyponatraemia, advanced vascular dementia, osteoarthritis, and glaucoma. On admission, she looked unwell and had pallor but was haemodynamically stable. Her abdomen was soft and nontender, her lung fields were clear, and her heart sounds normal. Her haemoglobin was 11.9?g/dL and WBC was /L, and she had a grossly normal renal function with urea of 13.4. Her CRP was not performed. The initial working diagnosis was of a urinary tract infection and she was commenced on oral coamoxiclav. She responded well initially but soon deteriorated passing further frank blood necessitating blood transfusion. As part of her haematuria workup, a renal tract ultrasound was performed. This showed a calcific density in the right kidney whilst the left appeared normal. The bladder was noted to contain an adherent mass consistent with clots. A 3-way catheter was sited and regular washouts and irrigation were instated. After passing old clots, the urine promptly cleared but the following day she became septic and was treated aggressively with fluid resuscitation and intravenous coamoxiclav
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