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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2689 matches for " EK Colecraft "
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The nutrition-microcredit synergy: A case for multiple interventions and strategies
GS Marquis, EK Colecraft
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Poor diet quality is the primary determinant of the high prevalence rates of malnutrition in Ghana. In this West African country, young children’s diets primarily consist of cereals and roots which have both low energy and nutrient density and poor bioavailability of micronutrients. A 2008 national survey reported that over one-third of children consumed no nutrient-rich Animal Source Foods (ASF) on the previous day. An intervention to enhance children’s diet and nutritional status was developed based on the assumption that improving knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of caregivers would lead to increased use of ASF for young children only if ASF availability (presence in the communities) and accessibility (families’ ability to obtain ASF through purchase, trade, hunting, or raising animals at home) were also improved. The Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project introduced an integrated approach of microcredit and weekly sessions of nutrition education and entrepreneurship training among rural women to increase the use of ASF in the diets of their 2- to 5-year-old children. Although the project may have not reached the poorest women in the community, the integrated activities benefited many households in diverse ways – directly through increased income and improved productivity that improved purchasing power and made foods available in the home, as well as indirectly through the empowerment of women participants. Women reported increased self-confidence, leadership skills, and social capital. Children’s diets benefited the most when caregivers were engaged in enterprises related to ASF because they facilitated sharing ASF with children and the high profits from these activities increased mothers’ ability to purchase other ASF from the market. Other family members also benefited from the project through women sharing loans for joint economic activities, improving the quality of the diet for the whole family, and sharing new knowledge. Integration of rural bank partners from an early stage of the project helped transfer activities to these permanent institutions to expand and sustain project activities. The ENAM project provided the evidence that an integrated package of microcredit and education can improve household food security and improve the diet and growth of young children living in rural communities.
Dietary intakes and body mass indices of non-pregnant, non-lactating (npnl) women from the Coastal and Guinea savannah zones of Ghana
GY Kobati, A Lartey, GS Marquis, EK Colecraft, LM Butler
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Adequate maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy is important for maternal health and favourable pregnancy outcomes. However, information on the dietary intakes of Non-Pregnant, Non-Lactating (NPNL) women in Ghana is lacking. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to compare the dietary intakes of NPNL women of children aged 2 to 5 years who are either living in the Coastal (n=79) or Guinea Savannah (n=89) zones. Data were collected using various methods namely intervieweradministered socio-demographic questionnaire, 24hr dietary recall records, with data collected on one working and one non-working day within a week, and a 1-week food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index was derived from height and weight measurements. Women in the Coastal Savannah zone had significantly (p=0.05) more formal education (3.9 ± 2.5 years) and earned a higher (p<0.001) weekly income (Gh¢ 6.8 ± 2.7) than women in the Guinea Savannah zone with educational level and incomes of 2.2±1.6 years and Gh¢ 3.9±2.4 respectively. More women in the Coastal zone had significantly (p<0.05) fewer births and were heads of their households. Cereal-based foods were consumed daily by all women during the two-day observation period. Fish was the predominant animal source food in the diet in both zones. Significantly (p<0.05) more women in the Guinea Savannah zone did not meet their Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for protein (81%), vitamin A (94.4%), and vitamin C (72%) compared to women in the Coastal zone (44%, 22%, and 31% respectively).The diets of both groups of women were low in calcium. Generally, women in the Coastal zone had a significantly (p<0.001) higher BMI (24.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2) than their counterparts in the Guinea Savannah zone (21.3± 2.4 kg/m2).The overall quality of dietary intakes and nutritional status of women in the Guinea Savannah zone was poorer than that of Coastal women. Dietary deficiencies are also present in NPNL women in Ghana. Efforts are needed to improve diet quality and to increase access to resources especially for women in the Guinea Savannah zone of Ghana.
Dietary intakes and iron status of vegetarian and non-vegetarian children in selected communities in Accra and cape coast, Ghana
K Osei-Boadi, A Lartey, GS Marquis, EK Colecraft
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: There is a scarcity of information on dietary intake and iron status of Ghanaian children raised on vegetarian diets. A cross-sectional study design was used to compare the diets and iron status of vegetarian children between the ages of 9 months and 11 years (n= 26) with matched controls, non-vegetarian children (n=26) of similar ages and same sex and living within the same communities in Accra and Cape Coast, Ghana. Dietary information was collected using 24-hr food recall and 12-hr home observation. Haemoglobin, plasma ferritin, C-reactive protein, and Transferrin Receptor (TfR) concentrations were determined on finger prick (haemoglobin) and venous blood samples collected during the study. Based on the 24-hr food recall, vegetarian children’s diets were devoid of vitamin B12whereas non-vegetarian children’s diets were not (0.0 ± 0.0 mg vs. 1.5 ± 1.8 mg, p<0.001). The dietary intake based on 12-hr home observation showed similar results. However, vegetarians had significantly higher intake of dietary fibre (17.1 ± 11.9 g vs. 8.4 ± 6.2 g, p= 0.002), thiamine (1.1 ± 0.8 mg vs. 0.5 ± 0.3 mg, p= 0.001) and vitamin A (1702 ± 1887 Retinol Equivalent (RE)vs. 671 ± 691 RE, p= 0.010) than non-vegetarian children. Dietary diversity based on nine food groups was similar between groups (5.8 ±1.0score). Plasma ferritin was higher for non-vegetarian children compared to the vegetarians (59.2± 48.2 ng/mL vs. 34.1± 25.8ng/ml, p= 0.012) but there was no group difference in plasma TfR. The prevalence of anaemia was about 25% in both groups. Typical diets of Ghanaian children lack variety and both vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets are insufficient to support adequate iron status. Iron-rich foods such as meat or supplements are needed. There is urgent need for immediate vitamin B12 supplementation for all vegetarian children and a general need for nutrition education to diversify all children’s diets.
Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural communities in Winneba and Techiman municipalities, Ghana
EB Micah, EK Colecraft, A Lartey, R Aryeetey, GS Marquis
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to 5-years old in rural Ghana, the prevalence of SF consumption by young children and the contribution SF make to children’s energy, nutrient and Animal Source Food (ASF) intakes were assessed. A simple random sample of 172 caregiver-child pairs residing in the ENAM intervention communities in Winneba and Techiman municipalities participated in this study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview caregivers about SF purchased for their 2- to 5-years old children in the previous week. During two non-consecutive 12-hour home observations, all foods consumed by a subsample of the children (n=45) were weighed. Energy and nutrient content of weighed foods were estimated using the Ghanaian food composition table. About 80% of caregivers purchased SF for their child at least once that previous week. Most (76%) SF purchased were grain-based and were purchased as complete meals. The children’s total ASF intake was 69.9 ± 11.0 g; quantity of ASF consumed was similar but their sources of ASF differed between the two municipalities. In Techiman, SF contributed 36% of the ASF consumed over the two observation days compared to 4.2% in Winneba (P=0.003). Overall, SF contributed 35% of energy, 43% of vitamin A, 20% of vitamin B12, 30% of zinc, 34% of iron, and 54% of calcium consumed by children. The contribution of SF to young children’s dietary intakes, especially their ASF intakes and hence micronutrient intakes, may improve overall dietary quality. This study provides evidence that, SF is an important part of children’s diets in rural Ghana and could be an important target for food-based interventions to enhance nutrition in young children.
Microcredit–nutrition education link: A case study analysis of ghanaian women’s experiences in income generation and family care
LM Butler, GY Kobati, NA Anyidoho, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, O Sakyi-Dawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, part of the Global Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program (GLCRSP), integrated a microcredit and savings program with entrepreneurial and nutrition education to strengthen women’s income- generation activities with the intent of increasing women’s (caregivers)abilities to purchase more Animal Source Foods (ASF) for family meals. The model stressed the integration of research, community development and capacity strengthening and the full participation of partners. The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of how the microcredit, entrepreneurship and nutrition education program impacted the daily lives of the women who participated in the interventions. Three questions were addressed: What factors lead to success in a microcredit and nutrition education program? What are the obstacles to women’s successful participation and what strategies are employed to overcome these obstacles? What are the lessons learned for future programs? The qualitative analysis was based on case studies of 12 women considered by their peers to be ‘successful’ ENAM participants, and six case studies of women considered to be ‘less successful’ ENAM participants. The qualitative methodology complimented knowledge gained through quantitative investigations as reported by other authors in this supplement. Data were collected through focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and observations. The findings suggested that the greatest benefit to participants from the ENAM experience was its translation into opportunities for obtaining microcredit, which in turn, helped increase women’s business success. Women who were doing well in business before the ENAM interventions did even better as a result of their participation in the ENAM project. Successful women employed multiple strategies to overcome business challenges. Anecdotal evidence suggested that the microcredit-education link in this particular situation did positively impact women’s lives with respect to their small businesses, their personal development, and the health of their families.
Microfinance with education in rural ghana: Men’s perception of household level impact
LL Hagan, R Aryeetey, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, AC Nti, AO Danquah
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Microcredit schemes have been shown to enhance women’s Income Generation Activities (IGA), household food security, and child nutrition. However, spouses or Male Household Heads (MHH) can influence how women’s loans are invested and how incomes ensuing from the investments are expended. This study describes how MHH perceived and experienced the participation of female caregivers from their household in the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project. The ENAM project was designed as an integrated intervention providing microcredit, entrepreneurship and nutrition education to women in rural communities in Ghana. Eighty-five MHH of ENAM project caregivers in two regions of Ghana were interviewed about their awareness of the microcredit and education intervention, their involvement in the IGA that the caregivers’ loans were invested in, and their perceptions of the impact of the project on the caregivers’ IGA as well as household and child nutrition. The majority of MHH indicated that they had been consulted by the caregivers about the decision to participate in the ENAM project. The most common reasons given for consenting to the caregivers’ decision to participate in the program were expectations that the caregiver would receive business capital (30.6%), education on optimal child feeding (36.5%), and income to enable caregivers to contribute more to household expenses (31.8%). With respect to the project’s impact, MHH perceived that the caregivers’ project participation had a positive impact on their business practices, particularly with respect to improved customer relations. The MHH perceived that caregivers’ incomes increased because of their participation in ENAM as evidenced by regular income savings and increased contributions to household food and non-food expenditures. However, MHH reported decreases in their own contributions to almost all household expenditure categories in response to the perceived increase in caregivers’ incomes. The MHH also perceived improvements in home meal quality. In summary, MHH credited the ENAM project with improved caregiver’s incomes and increased share of household expenses. However, this outcome resulted in unanticipated declines in MHH contribution to household expenses. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of empowering women through social experiments on households.
Participation in communal day care centre feeding programs is associated with higher diet quantity but not quality among rural Ghanaian children
KB Harding, GS Marquis, EK Colecraft, A Lartey, O Sakyi-Dawson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Communal School Feeding Programs (SFP) are based on local foods brought by children from home which are cooked and shared at school. These programs may be a sustainable food-based strategy for improving children’s diets in low-resource areas. The objective of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend Day Care Centres (DCC) with communal SFP to children who do not attend any DCC or school in rural Ghana. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect dietary and other household information for 104 DCC and 89 non-DCC children aged two to five years living in two communities. In addition, the DCC lunches (ingredients and servings of each food preparation) were weighed. The Day Care Centres’ lunch was higher in energy (by 64 kcal; p<0.001), but lower in calcium (by 18 mg; p=0.002), iron (by 1.3 mg; p<0.001) and zinc (by 0.2 mg; p=0.046) than the non-DCC lunch. DCC children ate more times in a day (4.2 ± 0.8 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, p<0.001), had greater dietary diversity (7.2 ± 0.6 vs. 6.7 ± 1.0 food groups, p<0.001) and had higher daily intakes of energy (1140 ± 320 vs. 878 ± 240 kcal; p<0.001), calcium (282 ± 139 vs. 244 ± 118 mg; p=0.048), iron (12.4 ± 6.4 vs. 10.7 ± 4.7 mg; p=0.048) and zinc (0.40 ± 0.15 vs. 0.35 ± 0.11 mg; p=0.019) than non-DCC children. However, after controlling for total energy intake and other dietary, health and sociodemographic variables, daily iron and zinc intakes were lower in the DCC compared to the non-DCC group. Participation in the communal SFP was associated with higher quantity but not quality of children’s diets. Communal SFP offer an opportunity to address specific population’s micronutrient needs, using interventions to improve dietary quality such as point-of-use fortification, commercially fortified foods, or processed animal source food products.
Relationship between caregivers’ income generation activities and their children’s animal source food intake
AK Christian, A Lartey, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, O Sakyi-Dawson, B Ahunu, LM Butler
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project provided financial and technical support for caregivers’ Income Generation Activities (IGA) with the aim of increasing their access to Animal Source Foods (ASF) for improved child nutrition. Using baseline data from the ENAM project, this study assessed the relationship between the type of caregivers’ IGA -whether it is related to ASF [ASF-R] or unrelated [ASF-U] - and the quantity and diversity of ASF consumed by their children. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and children’s ASF consumption in the past week from 530 caregivers of children 2-to5 years old in 12 communities in three agro-ecological zones of Ghana. A weighed food record of children’s dietary intakes was also completed during two 12-hour home observations on a randomly selected sample of 117 children. Approximately 6% (n=32) of caregivers were not engaged in any IGA. Of the caregivers who were involved in an IGA (n=498), approximately one-third of them were engaged in an ASF-R IGA, such as selling smoked fish, selling eggs and the selling cooked food that included ASF. Caregivers (67%) were engaged in ASF-U IGA, such as crop farming, petty trading in non ASF items and artisanal work. The quantity and diversity of ASF consumed by the children did not differ (p=0.988 and p=0.593, respectively) by the type of caregiver IGA. However, after accounting for agro-ecological zone, being involved in an ASF-R IGA positively predicted children’s ASF diversity (p<0.001). The number of children in the household negatively predicted children’s ASF diversity (p=0.011) whereas high/medium household wealth status tended to be positively associated with ASF diversity (p=0.064).The study suggested that there is need to promote ASF-R IGA among caregivers to increase the ability to purchase more varied and nutritious food items for improving children’s growth.
Enhancing backyard poultry enterprise performance in the techiman area: A value chain analysis
CK Asem-Bansah, O Sakyi-Dawson, EE Ackah-Nyamike, EK Colecraft, GS Marquis
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Backyard Poultry (BP) production is widespread among rural households in Ghana and provides an opportunity for small scale enterprise development to contribute to poverty alleviation. Traditionally, efforts to improve poultry production activities have emphasized the technical aspects of production while neglecting the social and organizational processes that underlie BP enterprises. A value chain framework was used to qualitatively assess BP enterprises in two communities in the Techiman Municipality of the Brong Ahafo Region in Ghana. The main purpose of the study was to understand how the activities and relationships among actors along the BP value chain influence BP enterprise performance and its implications for development of the industry. Community key informants defined a BP enterprise as ownership of at least ten post vulnerability age chickens (defined as ability to roost on trees to escape predators and disease). All identified BP farmers in the communities were classified as ‘high’ and ‘low’ enterprise performers based on flock size of ‘post- vulnerability age chickens’. The study participants included a purposive sample of ‘low’ (n=10) and ‘high’ (n=10) performing BP farmers from each community as well as service providers and support institutions in the BP value chain identified through snowball sampling. Qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Content analysis was used to summarize themes and patterns from the interview transcripts and to compare high and low performing BP enterprises based on the identified activities and relationships. Higher BP enterprise performance was associated with stronger inter- and intra-actor integration of activities in the various functions of the value chain and higher investment of resources in the activities of the value chain. Additionally, opportunities for import substitution to meet the high national demand for chicken meat were identified. Sustainable improvements in the BP sector must involve social, relational, organizational, as well as technical innovation.
Planning, design and implementation of the enhancing child nutrition through animal source food management (ENAM) project
EK Colecraft, GS Marquis, O Sakyi-Dawson, A Lartey, LM Butler, B Ahunu, MB Reddy, HH Jensen, E Huff-Lonergan, E Canacoo
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The Global-Livestock Collaborative Research Support Program’s (GL-CRSP) Child Nutrition Project, a controlled feeding trial in rural Kenya, demonstrated the importance of Animal Source Foods (ASF) for children’s micronutrient status and cognitive development. These findings prompted research efforts to understand the constraints to ASF in children’s diets in Africa so as to design targeted interventions to improve the ASF quality of children’s diets. The Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Management (ENAM) project (2004-2009) emanated from participatory formative research that identified six principal constraints to the inclusion of Animal Source Foods (ASF) in children’s diets in Ghana, including low income of caregivers, poor producer-consumer linkages, inadequate nutrition knowledge and skills of extension staff and caregivers, cultural beliefs, and inequitable household food distribution. To address these constraints, the ENAM project undertook a multidisciplinary community development, research and capacity building initiative with the goal of augmenting caregivers’ access to and use of ASF in children’s diets. Participatory processes were used to implement an integrated microcredit, entrepreneurship and nutrition education intervention with 181 caregivers of children 2- to5-years old in six rural communities across three agro-ecological zones (Guinea Savannah, Forest-Savannah Transitional and Coastal Savannah) of Ghana. Six matched communities from the same ecological zones served as comparison sites. Quantitative methods that included surveys, child anthropometry, and dietary assessment as well as qualitative case studies were used to assess the effect of the intervention on household, caregiver and child outcomes of interest. This paper presents the key features of the planning, design and implementation of the community intervention and the research processes undertaken to assess the project’s impacts. The ENAM project model presents a unique approach for addressing caregivers’ income and knowledge barriers to improve child nutrition in rural Ghana and may be a promising intervention model for scale-up in Ghana and other African countries.
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