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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 120397 matches for " EG Wang "
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From pharmaco-therapy to pharmaco-prevention: trends in prescribing to older adults in Ontario, Canada, 1997-2006
Jana M Bajcar, Li Wang, Rahim Moineddin, Jason X Nie, C Tracy, Ross EG Upshur
BMC Family Practice , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-11-75
Abstract: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study to examine 10-year prescribing trends among family physicians providing care to patients aged 65+ in Ontario, Canada.Both crude number of prescription claims and prescription rates (i.e., claims per person) increased dramatically over the 10-year study period. The greatest change was in prescribing patterns for females aged 85+. Dramatic increases were observed in the prescribing of preventive medications, such as those to prevent osteoporosis (+2,347%) and lipid-lowering agents (+697%). And lastly, the number of unique classes of medications prescribed to older persons has increased, with the proportion of older patients prescribed more than 10 classes of medications almost tripling during the study period.Prescribing to older adults by family physicians increased substantially during the study period. This raises important concerns regarding quality of care, patient safety, and cost sustainability. It is evident that further research is urgently needed on the health outcomes (both beneficial and harmful) associated with these dramatic increases in prescribing rates.The developed world is experiencing a demographic transition evidenced by population aging. Individuals are living longer and accumulating a greater burden of chronic diseases and, as a consequence, are utilizing healthcare services at greater rates [1,2]. These trends are expected to increase further as the "baby-boom" generation advances toward later life.One of the standard interventions in chronic disease management is prescription medication. Medications were historically employed chiefly as treatments to alleviate symptoms; however, in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, medications have been increasingly utilized as preventive agents to modify and/or reduce health risks.Most chronic disease management and medication prescription occurs in primary care by family physicians. Although data are available for overall medication use for all
Trends in health services utilization, medication use, and health conditions among older adults: a 2-year retrospective chart review in a primary care practice
Ketan Vegda, Jason X Nie, Li Wang, C Shawn Tracy, Rahim Moineddin, Ross EG Upshur
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-217
Abstract: A cross-sectional chart audit over a 2-year study period was conducted in the academic family practice clinic of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. All patients 65 years and older (n = 2450) were included. Main outcome measures included the number of family physician visits, specialist visits, emergency room visits, surgical admissions, diagnostic test days, inpatient hospital admissions, health conditions, and medications.Older patients (80-84 and 85+ age-group) had significantly more family physician visits (average of 4.4 visits per person per year), emergency room visits (average of 0.22 ER visits per year per patient), diagnostic days (average of 5.1 test days per person per year), health conditions (average of 7.7 per patient), and medications average of 8.2 medications per person). Gender differences were also observed: females had significantly more family physician visits and number of medications, while men had more specialist visits, emergency room visits, and surgical admissions. There were no gender differences for inpatient hospital admissions and number of health conditions. With the exception of the 85+ age group, we found greater intra-group variability with advancing age.The data present a map of greater interaction with and dependency on the health care system with advancing age. The magnitudes are substantial and indicate high demands on patients and families, on professional health care providers, and on the health care system itself. There is the need to create and evaluate innovative models of care of multiple chronic conditions in the late life course.The aging of the baby-boom generation poses a serious challenge to healthcare providers and policy planners. It is projected that on a global level between 2000 and 2030, the ≥65 year old population will increase from 6.9% to 12.0% [1]. The development of disease-modifying therapies enables individuals to survive longer, but with higher prevalence of multiple chronic
Measuring change in health status of older adults at the population level: The transition probability model
Rahim Moineddin, Jason X Nie, Li Wang, C Shawn Tracy, Ross EG Upshur
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-306
Abstract: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of all Ontario residents aged 65+ eligible for public healthcare coverage from January 1998-December 2006. The main outcome measure was total number of utilization events. The total is computed by summing, on a per annum basis, the number of family physician visits, specialist visits, Emergency Department visits, drug claims, lab claims, X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and inpatient admissions. Three categories of utilization were created: low, moderate, and high.There is heterogeneity in health services utilization across the late lifespan. Utilization increased consistently in the 9-year study period. The probability of remaining at the high utilization category when the person was in the high category the previous year was more than 0.70 for both males and females and for all age groups. Overall healthcare utilization increases more rapidly among the high users compared to the low users. There was negligible probability for moving from high to low utilization category. Probability of death increased exponentially as age increased. Older adults in the low utilization category had the lowest probability of death. The number of male nonagenarians increased more rapidly than female nonagenarians.There are measurable and identifiable differences in the patterns of health services utilization among older adults. This data will permit clinicians and policy makers to tailor interventions appropriate to the risk class of patients.There is a demographic transition occurring in the developed world. An aging population creates new demands on health services [1]. Health service utilization increases, on average, across the life course, particularly in the late life course years [2,3]. It is expected that the baby boom generation will result in a large cohort of aging individuals with different health services utilization patterns than previous generations.Debate exists in the health services literature concerning the rol
SPUTTERING BEHAVIOUR OF IRON SILICIDES UNDER LOW ENERGY Ar~+ ION BOMBARDMENT
SPUTTERING BEHAVIOUR OF IRON SILICIDES UNDER LOWENERGY Ar~ ION BOMBARDMENT

ZX Cao,EG Wang,YX Ne,
Z.X. Cao
,E.G. Wang and YX. Ne

金属学报(英文版) , 1999,
Abstract: Surface compositions of Fe3Si, FeSi and FeSi2 under 0.1 to 5ke V Ar bombaniment have been investigated by using AES method, and the results indicate that the sudece compositions depend strongly on ion enerpy and sample bulk compositions. While in FeSi and FeSi2 only Fe enrichment in the selvage has been observed, in Fe3Si it is Si enriched when the ion enerpy is higher than 31OeV Competition between preferential sputtering and radiation enhanced segmpation is quoted to eoplain this phenomenon.
History of the discovery of the malaria parasites and their vectors
Francis EG Cox
Parasites & Vectors , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-5
Abstract: Malaria is an ancient disease and references to what was almost certainly malaria occur in a Chinese document from about 2700 BC, clay tablets from Mesopotamia from 2000 BC, Egyptian papyri from 1570 BC and Hindu texts as far back as the sixth century BC. Such historical records must be regarded with caution but moving into later centuries we are beginning to step onto firmer ground. The early Greeks, including Homer in about 850 BC, Empedocles of Agrigentum in about 550 BC and Hippocrates in about 400 BC, were well aware of the characteristic poor health, malarial fevers and enlarged spleens seen in people living in marshy places. For over 2500 years the idea that malaria fevers were caused by miasmas rising from swamps persisted and it is widely held that the word malaria comes from the Italian mal'aria meaning spoiled air although this has been disputed. With the discovery of bacteria by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek in 1676, and the incrimination of microorganisms as causes of infectious diseases and the development of the germ theory of infection by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch in 1878-1879, the search for the cause of malaria intensified. Scientific studies only became possible after the discovery of the parasites themselves by Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran in 1880 and the incrimination of mosquitoes as the vectors, first for avian malaria by Ronald Ross in 1897 and then for human malaria by the Italian scientists Giovanni Battista Grassi, Amico Bignami, Giuseppe Bastianelli, Angelo Celli, Camillo Golgi and Ettore Marchiafava between 1898 and 1900. Excellent histories of this disease include those by Celli [1], Stephens [2], Scott [3], Russell [4], Foster [5], Garnham [6,7], Harrison [8], Bruce-Chwatt [9], Desowitz [10], McGregor [11], Poser & Bruyn [12] and Schlagenhauf [13].In order to understand the historical events it is necessary to summarise briefly our current state of knowledge. Malaria is caused by infection with five species of Plasmodium the life cycles
Clinical Presentation and Aetiology of Hypertension in Young Adults in Nnewi South East Nigeria
CU Nwaneli, EG Omejua
Afrimedic Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Hypertension is known to occur in young people. It often starts in childhood and continues in adulthood. It is usually asymptomatic but occasionally may cause symptoms when severe or complicated by end organ damage. In majority of cases, no cause is found and this is referred to as essential hypertension. However, a secondary cause is often suspected in young people. Objective: The objective of this study is to ascertain the clinical presentation of hypertension in young adults and identify secondary causes in medical out patient department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all hypertensive patients between 18 and 30 years of age seen at the medical outpatient clinic over a 5-year period from August 2004 to July 2009. The records of these patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: There were 91 patients comprising of 43 males and 48 females. The mean age at diagnosis of hypertension was 25.2 years .Headache was the most common symptom and was seen in 20.3%. Other symptoms in order of frequency include leg swelling, palpitation, generalized body swelling, chest pain, blurring of vision, shortness of breath, and dizziness. Eighteen (19.8%) patients were asymptomatic. Secondary causes were identified in 36 (39.6%) patients. Renal disease was the major cause of secondary hypertension and accounted for 69% of secondary cases. Conclusion: Hypertension occurs in young adults and may present with non specific symptoms such as headache, dizziness, palpitation and symptoms of the underlying secondary cause. Renal disease appears to be responsible for majority of the secondary hypertension.
The Peculiarities and Challenges of the Metabolic Syndrome in Sub- Saharan Africans
EG Omejua, SN Chukwudebe
Afrimedic Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Most of sub-Saharan Africa is currently undergoing rapid demographic, epidemiologic and socio-economic transformation. Persistent high rates of communicable diseases with escalating incidence and prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been termed “double burden of disease”. This scenario signals an impending crisis for the healthcare systems and economies of already resource-constrained countries of Africa.
A 10-year review of outcome of management of tetanus in adults at a Nigerian tertiary hospital
OA Chukwubike, EG Asekomeh
Annals of African Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Background : Tetanus remains one of the major public health hazards of the developing world. Previous studies in Nigeria indicate that mortality ranged from 26% to 60%. Mortality is much lower in the developed world because of the availability of facilities for intensive care of cases, unlike in most developing countries. Aim : To report our experience with the management of adult tetanus at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over the past 10 years (1996-2005). Methods : Data of all patients aged 16 years and above managed for tetanus in the medical wards between January 1996 and December 2005 were retrieved from their case records and analyzed. Results : Eighty-six patients were managed for tetanus (50 males and 36 females), constituting about 1% of all medical admissions over the 10-year period. Students, civil servants and commercial motorcyclists formed the major groups at risk. The commonest portal of entry was lower limb injuries (54%). Case fatality rate (CFR) was 42.9%, with a statistically significant higher CFR found among patients above 40 years of age (P= .000), patients with incubation period shorter than 7 days (P= .04), those with a shorter duration of hospitalization (P= .000) and those administered higher average daily diazepam doses (P= .044). Complications such as aspiration pneumonitis, laryngospasm and respiratory failure were major causes of mortality. Conclusion : Case fatality rate of tetanus has remained consistently high at our center. Factors that were significantly associated with high mortality included older age, age above 40 years , incubation period of less than 7 days and higher degree of sedation with diazepam. It is recommended that preventive immunization against tetanus be given to all Nigerians with secondary vaccination at adulthood.
Bacterial Meningitis among children in Federal medical centre
EA Odedina, EG Emumwen
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: No African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology Vol. 9 (3) 2008: pp. 152-156
The Effects of Form and Orientation on Energy Performance of Residential Buildings in Ghana
C Koranteng, EG Abaitey
Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) , 2010,
Abstract: The form and orientation of a building can have an effect on energy performance. The difficulty has been to find the most energy efficient form-aspect ratio. In this paper, a volume with differ-ent aspect ratios has been used to investigate the effect on energy performance (cooling load). The volume used is of the same construction and an hourly dynamic simulation programme was used for the analysis. It was evident that the square form was the most energy efficient whiles elongated forms used much energy. However, since spaces could warm up when oriented to-wards the east and west, the authors further recommend a detailed look into the function of spaces in design schemes and the use of simulation for design alternatives.
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