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Identification and Understanding of Pre-term Birth at Kintampo Municipal Hospital: A Qualitative Cross-sectional Study
JJ Parga, EA Udofia, D Punguyire
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2011,
Abstract: Up to 42% of nearly 10 million under five deaths occur in neonates with prematurity being a principal cause. This paper presents the outcome of a cross sectional qualitative study conducted among 14 hospital staff engaged in infant care in Kintampo, Ghana. Confidential interviews were used to evaluate their knowledge and practice of preterm care. Critical steps in caring for normal and preterm infants were ranked as adequate, satisfactory or inadequate if 75% or more, 50% to 74%, or less than 50% of the health workers completed them respectively. For term infants, adequate care was provided in terms of cleaning and wrapping, weighing, and initiating early feeds. Knowledge and practice were inadequate in relation to preterm care. Educational interventions emphasizing preterm care are recommended as an essential package for rural health workers. A newborn assessment tool was designed to address the gap in data collection identified during the study.
Awareness, use and main source of information on preventive health examinations: A survey of childbearing women in Uyo, Nigeria
EA Udofia, CD Akwaowo, US Ekanem
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: The study determined awareness, use and the main source of information about preventive health examinations among 387 childbearing women attending three health facilities in Uyo, Nigeria. Respondents were consenting women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the two months preceding the survey. Respondents were interviewed using structured questionnaires during child welfare clinic visits at each facility. Awareness about pap smears and breast self examination was 14.2% and 35.3% respectively. Testing rates were highest for blood pressure checks, HIV and blood sugar and lowest for Pap smears and mammograms. Health workers were the main informants on preventive tests. Awareness and secondary education enhanced women’s uptake of screening services across levels of health care. Secondary education as a minimum and intensified awareness creation about preventive health examinations through media, school based programs, durbars and public health campaigns are vital to the health and well being of women and children. (Afr J Reprod Health 2012; 16[4]: 149-161).
Birth and Emergency Planning: A Cross Sectional Survey of Postnatal Women at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana
EA Udofia, SA Obed, BNL Calys-Tagoe, KP Nimo
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2013,
Abstract: Birth and emergency planning encourages early decision making, helps overcome barriers to skilled maternity care and reduces preventable maternal and newborn deaths. A facility based postnatal survey of 483 childbearing women in Accra, Ghana determined birth and emergency planning steps, awareness of obstetric danger signs, reported maternal and newborn complications and birth outcome based on length of hospital stay. Supervised antenatal care and delivery were nearly universal. Overall, 62% had a birth plan, 74% had adequate knowledge of danger signs, while 64% and 37% reported maternal and newborn complications respectively. Accompaniment by a birth companion and saving money were considered the most useful planning steps. Knowledge of danger signs was associated with birth and emergency planning, and birth and emergency planning was associated with reported birth outcome. Birth and emergency planning as a critical component of antenatal care can influence birth outcomes and should be extended to all pregnant women. Résumé La planification des naissances et d'urgence encourage la prise de décision rapide, aide à surmonter les obstacles aux soins de maternité qualifiés et réduit les décès maternels et néonatals évitables. Une enquête post-natale qui a été basée sur l’établissement, et auprès des 483 femmes en age de procréer à Accra, au Ghana a déterminé les étapes de planification des naissances et d'urgence, la sensibilisation des signes de danger obstétrical, a rapporté des complications maternelles et néonatales et les résultats des naissances selon la durée du séjour à l'h pital. Les soins prénatals et l'accouchement surveillés étaient presque universels. Dans l'ensemble, 62% avaient un plan de naissance, 74% avaient une connaissance adéquate des signes de danger, tandis que 64% et 37% ont déclaré des complications maternelles et néonatales, respectivement. Le fait d’être accompagné par un compagnon de naissance et d’économiser de l'argent ont été considérés comme les étapes de planification les plus utiles. La connaissance des signes de danger a été associée à la naissance et à la planification d'urgence et la planification des naissances et d'urgence a été associée à des résultats des naissances déclarées. La planification des naissances et d'urgence comme un élément essentiel des soins prénatals peuvent influer sur les résultats de grossesses et devrait être mis a la portée de toutes les femmes enceintes.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depression among General Outpatients in a Tertiary Institution in Kano, North-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Auwal Sani Salihu, Owoidoho Udofia
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2016.63028
Abstract: Background: Depression is common psychiatric disorder among general outpatients. Prevalence of depression and associated factors among this population has been studied in some parts of Nigeria. However, few if any were conducted in the most populous geopolitical zone of Nigeria. Materials & Method: This study determines the prevalence of depression and associated factors among general outpatients. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. 402 of the 410 participants recruited for the study completed the study. Diagnosis of depression was confirmed using SCAN (Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry) ver. 2.1. Severity of depression was rated using HDRS (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Result: Two hundred were subsequently diagnosed depressed using SCAN out of 213 who scored HADS cutoff point, given the prevalence of 49.8%. The prevalence of subtypes of depression was: Mild 26.9%, moderate 20.4% and severe 2.5%. A statistically significant association was found between depression and some socio-demographic factors which include age (p = 0.001, X2 = 11.46), gender (p = 0.001, X2 = 20.58)), marital status (p = 0.001, X2 = 11.16), educational status (p = 0.001, X2 = 10.8) and chronic medical conditions (p = 0.001, X2 = 11.77). Depressed outpatient is more likely to be over 40 yrs, female, married, having low level of education and suffering from chronic medical condition(s). However, there was no significant association between depression and employment status, family history of mental illness and substance use in this study. Conclusion: This study found high prevalence of depression among general outpatients. It is associated with age, marital status educational level and chronic medical conditions. General practitioners should lookout for depression especially among patients with the associated socio-demographic factors. Some easy-to-use screening tools like PHQ-2 should be included in the routine assessment of outpatients in Family Medicine departments. Task-sharing strategy as enshrined in mental health gap (mhGAP) document should be implemented to improve detection of depression at primary care level.
The History and Shaping of Caribbean Literature
Julia Udofia
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.11634/232907811301304
Abstract: The abrupt a beginninga of the history of the Caribbean, coupled with the brutal mode of occupation and violence among the colonizing forces has led many scholars to conclude that the area is a historylessa and unlikely to proceed further than its crude and violent beginnings. This paper examines this peculiar history and its attendant effect on the shaping and criticism of Caribbean literature. Since Caribbean literature is also, to some extent, a response to history, the paper also highlights the major individual Caribbean writersa responses to the history of this place. Being mainly library-based, the research relies on such critical materials as articles, reviews, books and interviews published on the literature of this place. Works in the area of history also help to shed light on the historical realities of this place. In the end, it is found out that as a result of the debilitating history of this area, much of the criticism of the literature of this place is often a jaundiceda . However, it is believed that despite this stereotyped criticism and despite the assertion that history exerts a definitive influence on the creative imagination, the Caribbean man can live down the ravages of history and transcend his alien milieu.
The Resilience of Aspiration: The Novelty of the Mystic Masseur
Julia Udofia
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.11634/232907811301387
Abstract: Recent criticism of V. S. Naipaul's The Mystic Masseur has tended to see this writer as presenting pessimistic visions of the Caribbean man and his environment. As an artistic mediator of his locale and historical experience, the argument seems to have been that the unrelieved gloom of his circumstances, the apparent absence of any controlling moral centre makes the only logical possible realistic portraiture absurd, depressing and hopeless. However, this paper challenges this stereotyped criticism and the objective is to show that Naipaul is an optimistic reformer rather than “a prophet of doom” .Being a literary research, the work is mainly library-based. First, V.S. Naipaul’s The Mystic Masseur which is the primary text in this study has been rigorously examined and as many relevant critical works as could be found have been used to sharpen the focus of the arguments. In the end, it is found out that Naipaul is, indeed, an optimistic visionary whose vision aims to transform apparent hopelessness to hope and to point to the inevitable light at the end of the tunnel as demonstrated through the fortunes of the central character in the novel, and in the major technique – irony - employed by the writer in the work.
Stakeholders’ Practices and Perspectives on Solid Medical Waste Management: A Community Based Study in Accra, Ghana  [PDF]
Emilia A. Udofia, Julius Fobil, Gabriel Gulis
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.913081
Abstract: Solid medical waste (SMW) is hazardous and requires specific treatment prior to final disposal. Limited information addresses the management of SMW in non-traditional settings such as in households, traditional birth attendants’ (TBAs) homes and chemical seller (CS) shops. A descriptive, exploratory study was conducted to identify major disposal practices and perceived hazards associated with SMW and explore their views regarding segregation as a potential management option. Twenty-nine household members, 10 TBAs and 8 CS who volunteered to participate in the study were involved in 6 focus group discussions (FGDs). Additionally, five key informants in private sector waste management companies were interviewed. FGDs were audio recorded, transcribed and translated, manually coded into themes and sub-themes using an iterative approach, and integrated with data from the interviews. In households, medicines were discarded by dosage forms with solid forms discarded in the household bin, while syrups were mostly emptied into drains. TBAs buried material used for delivery in clients’ compounds and CS tended to burn expired medicines or discard them with general waste. Participants perceived the following as hazards associated with SMW: infection transmission, penetrative injury, poisoning and aesthetic nuisance. Despite this awareness, they reported barriers to source segregation as a potential management option. Barriers included implied consumer costs, lack of supportive logistics and operational knowledge, and possible injury. Reported methods of disposing SMW supported earlier studies and could be potentially hazardous if not addressed. Provision of storage facilities, supportive logistics and public sensitization might encourage source segregation as a potential management option for SMW in the community.
Psychometric assessment of the Wagnild and Young's resilience scale in Kano, Nigeria
Tajudeen Abiola, Owoidoho Udofia
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-509
Abstract: The RS, RS-14, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and two screening questions on experience of recent and upcoming distress were administered to 70 clinical students who consented to participate after a major professional examination. Internal consistency and convergent validity were assessed. The participants mean age was 22.50 years (SD = 0.60). The mean score of RS and RS-14 were 130.23 (SD = 17.08) and 74.17 (SD = 10.14) respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the RS was 0.87 and that of the RS-14 was 0.81. The mean RS score by gender was 132.04 (SD = 19.08) and 126.52 (SD = 11.50) for males and females respectively and the difference was significant (t = 2.50; p = 0.012). The correlation of RS with RS-14 (r = 0.97; p = 0.000), the HADS depression (r = -0.28; p = 0.017) and anxiety (r = -0.26; p = 0.028) subscales, were significant. The corresponding t-test values for the means of RS and RS-14 scores for both cases and non-cases as determined by HADS, were significant at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 for the depression and anxiety subscales respectively. The difference between RS means of those who experienced distress (38/125.69) to those that did not (32/134.05) from the recent clinical examination was also significant (t = 2.01; p = 0.045).The study confirms that the RS and RS-14 may be potentially useful instruments to measure resilience in Nigerians.The promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing of populations and communities is an emerging sphere that includes research, policy development, community action and program activity[1]. This according to World Health Organization in a growing global policy focus is to shift the mental health policy and practice from the sole emphasis on services for those suffering from mental illness to the prevention of mental health problems and the promotion of positive mental health[2]. Focusing on concepts such as wellbeing and its promotion redirects health care to recognize the needs of those with and wit
Perception of People about Shelterbelts in Kaita Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria
SI Udofia, ES Udo
African Research Review , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out to determine the perception of people about the role of shelterbelts in checking the incidence of windstorm on buildings, crops, livestock and humans before and after shelterbelts establishment in Kaita Local Government Area (LGA) of Katsina State. A two-stage random sampling technique was adopted to select 300 households from six randomly selected villages in the LGA. Data on respondents’ perception of incidence of windstorm before and after shelterbelts establishment were collected using structured questionnaires, analyzed by ANOVA and tested at 5% significance level to determine whether the belts reduced the incidence of windstorm or not. There were significant reductions in the incidence of windstorm on buildings, crops and humans (p 0.05). However, there was no significant reduction in the incidence of windstorm on livestock (p 0.05), apparently because of the restrictions resulting from protective measures in the shelterbelts, which denied livestock access to fodder.
Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from oil sludge environment
MA Ekpo, US Udofia
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected for the degradation test. The microbial counts used as index during the degradation process for each of the organisms ranged from 1.8 to 6.4 x105 cfu/g for P. aeruginosa, 1.5 to 5.2 x 105 cfu/g for M. varians and 1.3 to 4.7 x 105 cfu/g for B. subtilis. P. aeruginosa degraded 97.2% of the oil introduced into the medium followed by M. varians with 85.7% degradation. The least was B. substilis with 72.3% degradation of the oil. P. aeruginosa was found to have the highest rate of degradation.
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