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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 447997 matches for " E.S. Swai "
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Prevalence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in crossbred breeding bulls kept on zero-grazed smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania
E.S. Swai,J. Hulsebosch,W. Van der Heijden
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i4.431
Abstract: A survey to demonstrate the presence or absence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in cross-bred breeding bulls kept under smallholding dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania was carried out during the period of January-June 1996. Sheath washings, swabs and preputial scrapings were collected from 58 randomly selected bulls. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was demonstrated in 3/58 (5.1 %) and Tritrichomonas foetus in 0/58 (0 %) of all bulls tested. Bull-level variables of level of taurine genes (62.5 % taurine genes, F2; 75 % taurine genes, F3) and age were not significantly associated with campylobacteriosis (P > 0.05). The result of the study identifies Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerelias as the agent of enzootic infertility in smallholder herds and suggests that may be a significant problem.
Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga Regions of Tanzania
E.S. Swai,N.P. French,E.D. Karimuribo,J.L. Fitzpatrick
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i1.136
Abstract: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.
Cross-sectional estimation of Babesia bovis antibody prevalence in cattle in two contrasting dairying areas in Tanzania
E.S. Swai,E.D. Karimuribo,N.P. French,N.H. Ogden
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v71i3.262
Abstract: The crude prevalence of antibodies to Babesia bovis infection in cattle was estimated by serology using indirect ELISA during the period January to April, 1999. Sera were obtained from 1 395 dairy cattle (of all ages, sexes and breeds) on smallholder farms, the majority being kept under a zero grazing regime. The crude prevalence of antibodies to Babesia bovis was 6 % for Tanga and 12% for Iringa. The forces of infection based on the age sero-prevalence profile, were estimated at six for Iringa and four for Tanga per 100 cattle years-risk, respectively. Using random effect logistic regression as the analytical method, the factors (variables) of age, source of animals and geographic location were hypothesised to be associated with sero-positivity of Babesia bovis in the two regions.
Investigation of a syndrome characterised by passage of red urine in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania : clinical communication
E.D. Karimuribo,E.S. Swai,P.K. Kyakaisho
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v79i2.250
Abstract: A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3 % and 46.3 %, respectively and there was no significant difference between 'case' and 'control' farms (P > 0.05), hence the occurrence of urination of clotted blood syndrome in Amani was not explained. However, bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) was found to be ubiquitous in the area, and also found to be widespread in all areas used as sources of animal fodder. Given the presence and distribution of bracken ferns and clinical signs and post-mortem lesions described by informants, chronic bracken-fern poisoning is more likely to be associated with the syndrome affecting animals in the study area. However, further investigation is required to confirm this observation so that appropriate control strategies can be devised.
Seroprevalence of Babesia bigeminain smallholder dairy cattle in Tanzania and associated risk factors
E.S. Swai,E.D. Karimuribo,N.P. French,J.L. Fitzpatrick
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v78i1.280
Abstract: Variations in the seroprevalence of antibody to Babesia bigemina infection by farm and animal level risk factors were investigated for 2 contrasting regions of Tanga and Iringa in Tanzania. Tanga is situated in the eastern part of the country and has typical tropical coast climate while Iringa is situated in the Southern Highlands and has a tropical highland climate. Two hundred farms from each region were selected using simple random sampling procedure and visited once between January 1999 and April 1999. Blood samples were collected from 1329 smallholder dairy animals on selected farms for harvesting serum which was subsequently used for serodiagnosis of B. bigemina using an indirect enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 1329 sera samples screened, 34.9 % were positive for B. bigemina. The prevalence was higher in Iringa Region [43 %, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 39.5-47.3] than in Tanga Region (27 %, CI = 23.6-30.5). Using a logistic binomial regression model as an analytical method for predicting the likelihood of animal seropositivity, we found (in both regions) that the risk of positive reaction varied with the animal's age, history of grazing and geographical location. Seroprevalence increased with age (b=0.01 and 0.01 per year of age, P<0.005 in Tanga and Iringa, respectively). Animals located in Lushoto and Iringa urban district were associated with increased risk of seropositivity [Odds ratio (OR)=4.24, P=0.001, for Lushoto, and OR=1.81, P=0.040, for Iringa Urban, respectively). Animals grazed 3 months prior to sampling had higher odds for seropositivity than zero/semi-grazed, despite farmer-reported high frequency of tick control (OR = 2.71, P = 0.0087, for Tanga, and OR = 4.53, P = 0.001, for Iringa). Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, B. bigemina infection is widespread in many smallholder dairy farms and endemic stability with respect to this disease has not yet been attained, but the observed levels are sufficiently high to ensure that clinical disease would be a risk.
Risk factors for smallholder dairy cattle mortality in Tanzania
E.S. Swai,E.D. Karimuribo,D.M. Kambarage
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v81i4.155
Abstract: A retrospective cross-sectional study of mortality was conducted on smallholder dairy farms in 2 separate regions (Iringa and Tanga) of Tanzania during the period of January to April 1999. A total of 1789 cattle from 400 randomly sampled smallholder dairy farms (200 each from Iringa and Tanga regions) were included in the study. These animals contributed a total risk period of 690.4 and 653.95 years for Tanga and Iringa, respectively. The overall mortality rates were estimated to be 8.5 and 14.2 per 100 cattle years risk for Tanga and Iringa regions, respectively; 57.7 % of the reported deaths were of young stock less than 12 months old; 45 % of reported young stock deaths (≤12 months old) were due to tick-borne diseases, mainly East Coast Fever (ECF) and anaplasmosis. Disease events including ECF were reported to occur in all months of the year. Survival analysis using Cox proportional hazard models indicated that, in both regions, death rate and risk was higher in young stock less than 12 months than in older animals (relative risk RR=4.92, P <0.001 for Iringa; RR = 5.03 P = 0.005 for Tanga). In the Tanga region reported mortality rates were significantly higher for male animals (RR = 3.66, P = 0.001) and F2 compared with F1 animals (RR=3.04, P=0.003). In the Iringa region, reported mortality rates were lower for cattle on farms where the owner had attended a dairy development project training course (RR = 0.47, P = 0.012). Farms located in Iringa urban district and Pangani were associated with higher risk (mortality risk 21 % for Iringa urban and 34 % for Pangani). Our findings suggest that timely health and management interventions on these factors are necessary to alleviate losses from disease and emphasise that understanding variation in mortality risk within a population can enhance early response to potential outbreaks, reducing losses.
Intestinal Parasitic Infections of Camels in the Agro and Pastoral Areas of Northern Tanzania
E.S. Swai,W. Moshy,D. Mshanga,J. Lutatina,S. Bwanga
Veterinary Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/vr.2011.34.38
Abstract: The prevalence of faecal intestinal parasite eggs and species spectrum was studied in relation to host and management variables in camels in the northern Tanzania. A total of 193 camels of all age and sex were examined between June and August 2010. Collected faecal samples were processed by sedimentation and floatation methods and then examined for helminth eggs. Coprological examination revealed that 62.7% (n = 121) of the camels excreted helminth eggs in their faeces. Eleven types of helminth/protozoan parasites eggs/oocyst encountered in descending order of prevalence were Strongylus sp. 89.2%, Trichostrongylus sp. 27.3, coccidia 9.9, Strongyloides sp. 6.6, Anaplocephala sp. 3.3, Oxyuris sp. 2.5, Dictyocaulus sp. 2.5, Gastrodiscus sp. 2.5, Parascaris sp. 1.65, Trichonema sp. 0.83 and Triodontophorus sp. 0.83%. Single (64%) and concurrent infections with two, three and four parasites were recorded in 25.6, 8.26 and 1.65%, respectively of the cases. All the factors except source, body condition score and health status affected significantly (at least p<0.05) the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite infections. The high prevalence and wide spectrum observed in the present study suggests that helminth infection are widespread at the farms/herds examined and may be a constraint to economic camel production in the country and there is need to institute control measures.
Preliminary application and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of bovine theileriosis and trypanosomosis in Tanzania : research communication
O.M.M. Thekisoe,J.D. Omolo,E.S. Swai,K. Hayashida
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i4.119
Abstract: The sensitivity of LAMP, PCR and microscopy to detect Theileria spp. and Trypanosoma congolense in field-derived bovine blood samples from Tanzania was evaluated and compared. No parasites were detected by microscopy. Furthermore, no bovine Theileria spp. were detected by LAMP and PCR from all the 24 samples collected from Arusha. Four and one out of 24 samples were positive for Theileria congolense infection by LAMP and PCR respectively while, 18 and nine out of 40 samples from Dar es Salaam were positive by LAMP and PCR for Theileria spp. Infection, respectively. Although all samples from Dar es Salaam were negative for Trypanosoma congolense infections by PCR, 12 out of 40 samples were LAMP positive. Whilst PCR is an established gene amplification method for the detection of Theileria and trypanosome parasites, this study introduces LAMP as an alternative molecular diagnostic tool that could be used in large-scale epidemiological surveys.
Retrospective study on sero-epidemiology of peste des petits ruminants before its official confirmation in northern Tanzania in 2008
E.D. Karimuribo,,P. M. Loomu,,L.S.B. Mellau,E.S. Swai
Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: A retrospective sero-epidemiological investigation of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was carried out in Ngorongoro district, situated in northern part of Tanzania and bordering Kenya. The study involved collection of field information from 101 respondents who own goats and sheep in four villages which had experienced a ‘rinderpest-like’ syndrome in domestic small ruminants between first suspected cases of PPR in 1995 and official confirmation of the disease in Tanzania in 2008. A total number of 198 serum samples from goats and sheep collected in 1998 and 2004 for different research projects or suspected disease investigation were retrieved from the Veterinary Investigation centre (VIC) Arusha and subjected to competitive ELISA test for detecting antibodies to PPR virus. Findings of this study suggest that PPR was in northern Tanzania at least four years before official confirmation and reporting based on clinico-pathological grounds, local field-based reports from livestock field officers and District Veterinary Officer. The seroprevalence of PPR from 198 serum samples analysed was 12.6% with the serum samples collected from suspected PPR cases showing significantly (p=0.000) higher seroprevalence (71.4%) than that in samples collected for investigation of other diseases (5.7%). Interviewed farmers were aware of PPR including clear description of clinical signs of the disease. Although farmers were aware of efforts made to control the disease, only 32% of them had their animals vaccinated against PPR. The low vaccination coverage suggests continued prevalence of PPR in the study area. It is concluded that there is limited capacity with respect to veterinary disease surveillance, reporting and control of transboundary and emerging diseases which need to be addressed in the country.
The prevalence of serum antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium infection in ranch cattle in Tanzania : a cross-sectional study
E.S. Swai,P.F. Mtui,A.K. Chang'a,G.E. Machange
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v79i2.247
Abstract: Serum samples collected in a cross-sectional survey of grazing cattle on Manyara Ranch, Monduli district, Tanzania, were tested by indirect major antigenic protein 1 fragment B (MAP 1-B) ELISA to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium and to assess ranch-level risk factors for heartwater. Heartwater-exposed cattle were widespread on the ranch and overall seroprevalence was 50.3 % (95% CI, 44.9 -55.6), enough to indicate an endemically unstable situation. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was used to identify risk factors associated with seropositivity. Two factors appeared to increase the herd's risk for contracting heartwater. Seroprevalence increased significantly with age (β= 0.19 per year of age, P < 0.001) and animals carrying ticks of any species were associated with an increased risk of infection with E. ruminantium (Odds ratio, OR = 3.3, P < 0.001). The force of infection based on the age seroprevalence profile was estimated at 18 per 100 cattle year-risk. The current tick control measures on the ranch were associated with a decreased risk of infection with E.ruminantium (OR=0.25 for no dipping and OR=0.31 for low dipping, P < 0.001). Six tick species were identified; in order of frequency these were: Ambylomma variegatum 59.9 %, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi 13.9 %, Rhipicephalus pulchellus 12.5 %, Hyalomma truncatum 7.03 % and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus 6.07 %. The least encountered tick was Rhipicephalus simus, which accounted for 0.38 %. The cattle seemed well adapted to their environment and capable of resisting the tick burden under this extensive wildlife / livestock grazing and interaction system.
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