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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 285947 matches for " E.F. Donkin "
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Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis
J. Karzis,E.F. Donkin,I.M. Petzer
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i4.114
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP) and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH)], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH) and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac)] in goats with clinical mastitis. Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h) with (67 h) or without (48 h) the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h) than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h) and without (36 h) the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows. A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows : WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time) + 22.11 (udder pathology) - 13.6 (floccules) - 0.00649 (milk yield). Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7 053 x 103 to 7 948 x 103 cells per m without isolations of bacteria and between 6 476 x 103 and 8 479 x 103 cells per m with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT) and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation.
Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : effect of stage of lactation, parity and milk volume on withdrawal periods, and the effect of treatment on milk compositional quality
J. Karzis,E.F. Donkin,I.M. Petzer
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i3.127
Abstract: The length of the antibiotic withdrawal period after intramammary treatment was influenced by the milk yield of dairy goats during this trial. Shorter withdrawal periods were seen in relatively high yielding dairy goats (production above 1.5 per day) compared to low producers (less than 1.3 per day). High yielding goats treated with Curaclox LC (Norbrook [Pharmacia AH]) had a withdrawal period of 42 h, while low yielding goats, treated with the same product, had a withdrawal period of 74 h. The recommended withdrawal period for Curaclox LC for use in cattle is 72 h. Relatively high yielding goats treated with Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) had a significantly shorter withdrawal period (37 h) than that recommended for use in cattle (96 h). Low yielding goats treated with Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) had a significantly longer (95 h) withdrawal period than that recommended for use in cattle (60 h). Withdrawal periods were also influenced by stage of lactation and parity. There was a moderate positive correlation between lactation number and withdrawal period, as measured by TRIS (R2 = 0.621), and a moderate negative correlation between stage of lactation and withdrawal period (R2 = -0.669). In Trials 1, 2 and 3 combined there was a moderate negative correlation between withdrawal period and volume (R2 = -0.511) and a strong positive correlation between withdrawal period and lactation number (R2 = 0.720). The differences in percentage milk fat, protein and lactose before, during and after treatment were not statistically significant except in Trial 3 (Curaclox LC and Rilexine 200 LC) where protein and lactose differed significantly. In Trial 2 (Spectrazol Milking Cow) milk fat percentages differed significantly between treatment and control groups as did protein percentages in Trial 3. These differences are however, not biologically meaningful.
Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics compared to recommended withdrawal periods for cows
J. Karzis,E.F. Donkin,I.M. Petzer
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v74i3.124
Abstract: Intramammary antibiotics are registered and tested for use in dairy cattle. This study investigated withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics (Curaclox LC [Norbrook Pharmacia AH]), Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) and Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac]) in dairy goats and compared them to withdrawal periods recommended for use in cattle. Three trials were carried out in two different herds. The withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in eight relatively low producing Saanen goats were 74.3 h (+ 19.21) measured by Thermo-Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS), 90.0 h (+ 16.97) measured by colour dye, 99.4 h (+ 9.07) for cloxacillin measured by Parallux Beta Lactam Assay test (IDEXX distributors), and 92.6 h (+ 11.41) for ampicillin measured by Parallux. The withdrawal period for Curaclox LC recommended for use in cattle (72 h) was significantly shorter than the withdrawal periods as measured by colour dye (P < 0.001), Parallux testing for cloxacillin (P < 0.001) and ampicillin (P = 0.003). There was a significant difference in withdrawal periods as measured by TRIS (P = 0.009) and colour dye (P = 0.036). The mean withdrawal periods measured on 12 relatively high producing Saanen and Saanen-Toggenburg crossbreed dairy goats measured by TRIS, colour dye and Parallux for ampicillin and cloxacillin were, however, shorter at 42.0 h (+ 7.077), 64.5 h (+ 60.26), 77.3 h (+ 13.56) and 70.7 h (+ 12.65), respectively. These withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC were significantly longer than the withdrawal periods recommended for cattle as measured by TRIS (P < 0.001) and colour dye (P < 0.001). The combined withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in the two trials as measured by TRIS, colour dye, Parallux testing for Cloxacillin and Ampicillin were 58.64h (+ 24.31), 75.8 h (+ 17.70), 87.0 h (+ 16.10) and 80.3 h (+ 16.23), respectively. The withdrawal period, when data of the two trials were combined, measured by TRIS (P < 0.001) was significantly longer than the withdrawal period recommended for use in cattle. The mean withdrawal period as measured by TRIS for Spectrazol Milking Cow for seven relatively low producing Saanen dairy goats was 95.3 h (+ 17.23). This was significantly (P < 0.001) longer than the withdrawal period recommended for use in cattle (60 h) for Spectrazol Milking Cow. The mean withdrawal period as measured by TRIS for Rilexine 200 LC for 20 relatively high producing Saanen and Saanen-Toggenburg crossbreed dairy goats was 36.9 h (+ 9.943) and was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter than the withdrawal period as recommended f
Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle
I.M. Petzer,E.F. Donkin,E. Du Preez,J. Karzis
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v75i3.101
Abstract: This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP) of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA) and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health) in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS) test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h) was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253). There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583) between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456). Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414) and composite (R2 = 0.262) milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008) and udder half samples (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054) and a weak negative correlation between milk yield and stage of lactation (R2 = -0.379).
Value of tests for evaluating udder health in dairy goats: somatic cell counts, California Milk Cell Test and electrical conductivity
I.M. Petzer,E.F. Donkin,E. Du Preez,J. Karzis
Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v75i4.104
Abstract: The value of electric conductivity (EC), California Milk Cell Test (CMCT) and somatic cell count (SCC) as diagnostic tools was investigated in dairy goats. Conductivity colour reading correlated with SCC. Milk samples with conductivity colour red had significantly higher SCC than those with conductivity colours green and orange (P < 0.001). There were moderate positive correlations between CMCT (R2 = 0.470), and conductivity score and CMCT and conductivity colour readings (R2 = 0.597). Conductivity scores were significantly (P < 0.001) higher during and after intra-mammary treatment with Cloxamast LC and conductivity colours were significantly different between treatment and control groups (P < 0.001). There was a weak positive correlation between conductivity colour and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.317) and a moderately positive correlation between conductivity score and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.523). A moderately negative correlation was shown between milk yield and conductivity score (R2 = -0.426) and between milk yield and conductivity colour (R2 = -0.433). Moderate positive correlations were present between CMCT and SCC (R2 = 0.689) and between CMCT and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.459). CMCT ratings were significantly different (P < 0.001) for the intramammary treatment groups. CMCT ratings for infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.008) were significantly different; as were those for infected and non-infected udder halves and for left and right udder halves separately (P = 0.010). CMCT ratings for milk samples with SCC above and below 750 x 103 cells per m were significantly different (P < 0.001) as well as for milk from treated and control udder halves with SCC below or above 750 x 103 cells per m (P < 0.001). CMCT was found to be more accurate for indicating the absence of mastitis than for diagnosing it. There were significant differences in log SCC between treatment and control groups, during and after treatment. Infected udder halves had significantly higher log SCC than non-infected udder halves before and after treatment, but not during treatment. There was a moderate positive correlation between stage of lactation and SCC (R2 = 0.438).
Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems
J.K. Kyozaire,C.M. Veary,I-M. Petzer,E.F. Donkin
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v76i2.400
Abstract: In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive). A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270) were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %), compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive), Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative), were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU)/m ) compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/m ) or handmilking (48 000 CFU/m ). No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC) and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.
Out-of-season breeding of milk goats - the effect of light treatment, melatonin and breed : research communication
E.R. Du Preez,E.F. Donkin,P.A. Boyazoglu,G.H. Rautenbach
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v72i4.657
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectivity of melatonin in addition to light treatment (exposure to 2 hours of light during the night = a long-day photoperiod) to modify the breeding season of Saanen and cross-bred milk goats and to compare the difference between the breeds. Twenty-two Saanen and 22 cross-bred does were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 (controls) received no treatment, Group 2 received light treatment for 37 days and Group 3 received light treatment plus melatonin implants after the light treatment. After a further 35 days the 3 groups were brought together and a billy goat that had also been exposed to the extra light at night, had received a melatonin implant and had been isolated from the does during the treatment period, was introduced to the does for natural mating. Ultrasound scanning was used to diagnose pregnancy and all the pregnant goats kidded. Significantly more Saanen does compared to cross-bred does (P = 0.018) became pregnant and kidded after natural mating, when the group that received melatonin as well as light treatment was compared to the group that received light treatment only. Compared to light treatment only, the addition of melatonin to light treatment improved (P = 0.0028) conception after natural mating, in both the Saanen and the cross-bred does.
A thyroid-related endocrine emergency in pregnancy
E.F Delport
Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa , 2009,
Abstract: A 28-year-old woman presented with a thyroid storm while pregnant. Thyroid storm in pregnancy is a rare, life threatening endocrinological emergency. The diagnosis and management can be challenging. Even with early aggressive therapy the maternal mortality is still high and adverse effects on the pregnancy and fetus are common.
Treatment of childhood Diarrhoea : What mothers do
E.F. Ugochukwu
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2002,
Abstract: Igbo mothers residing in Enugu Urban were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to find out what treatments were given during episodes of diarrhoea in their five year olds. Use of home remedies was first-line treatment. Ninety-seven percent of mothers were aware of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and 86% had used salt sugar solution (SSS). About 23%of mothers could not describe the correct reconstitution of SSS and only 28.4% would give sufficient quantities of SSS to avert dehydration. Antidiarrhoeal drugs were used by 28.3% of mothers. Over a third of mothers practised withdrawal of certain foods and fluid restriction during diarrhea while 48% knew about feeding extra meals after a diarrhoeal illness to allow for catch-up growth. Educated mothers had a better understanding of the management of childhood diarrhoea than their less educated counterparts. Emphasis needs to be laid on demonstrations of SSS preparation by health personnel to mothers. The staff on duty should supervise SSS administration by mothers while in health facilities and more education given on the purpose of SSS use, the quantity administered and correct reconstitution. Key Words: Mothers, childhood diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy, salt sugar solution, feeding [Nig J Clinical Practice Vol.5(1) 2002: 64-68]
Cell Phone Usage and Travel Behaviour in Ondo State, Nigeria
E.F. Ogunbodede
Journal of Mobile Communication , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jmcomm.2010.68.74
Abstract: The study examines the state of the practice of the cell phone usage in Ondo State and its effects on travel behaviour of six hundred respondents who were purposively selected from six major towns. This was because controversies surrounded the potentials of cell phone usage as a means of reducing inter-urban travels than when one is using automobiles. Therefore, questions relating to socio-economic background of respondents, effect of cell phone usage on physical travels as well as how it affects pattern of travel of respondents were asked. Findings revealed that people prefer making interaction using their mobile phones than embarking on physical travels. Weekly and seasonal travels have been reduced, while calls have grown astronomically. This has made commuters to spend more on buying recharge cards to enable them make more contacts rather than embark on physical contacts. The cell phone usage has therefore afforded the consumers the opportunity to interact with friends, relations, workers and neighbours without necessarily embarking on any journeys. This mode of contact according to respondents has reduced the frequency of commercial vehicles on the road as well as the frequency of accident occuring on the roads. However, unreliable network of one GSM or the other and the importance attached to calls has made people to patronize more than one GSM (network) in order to link the world at any point in time. This has exerted additional strains on the resources (disposable income) income of the people of Ondo State.
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