Abstract:
This research aimed to find preventing alternative of avian influenza (AI) disease in broiler chicken by increasing body immune. Lymphocyte T would directly react to antigen presented to the cell surface by antigen presenting cell (APC). Th-CD4 interaction functioned to maintain Th-APC bond intact during specific antigen activation. Fatty acid in virgin coconut oil (VCO) was potential as immunostimulant, which therefore could increase chicken immunity through the increase of lymphocyte T and Th-CD4. This research used 40 one-day-old broiler chickens. The method applied was Completely Randomized Factorial Design in which the first factor was two levels of vaccine, namely groups of AI vaccinated and unvaccinated. The second factor was four levels of VCO namely 0, 5, 10, 15 mL/kg feed. Day Old Chick (DOC) were divided into eight treatment groups and repeated five times. Feed and water were given ad libitum for four weeks. The result showed that the number of lymphocyte and Th-CD4 in chickens given 10 mL per kg feed and vaccinated with AI was higher than that in chickens given VCO without AI vaccine.

Abstract:
The recently reported nickel carbide superconductor, body centered tetragonal $I4/mmm$ Th$_2$NiC$_2$ with T$_c$ = 8.5 K increasing to 11.2 K upon alloying Th with Sc, is found to have very fine structure in its electronic spectrum, according to density functional based first principles calculations. The filled Ni 3d band complex is hybridized with C $2p$ and Th character to and through the Fermi level ($E_f$), and a sharply structured density of states arises only when spin-orbit coupling is included, which splits a zone-center degeneracy leaving a very flat band edge lying at the Fermi level. The flat part of the band corresponds to an effective mass $m^*_{z} \rightarrow \infty$ with large and negative $m^*_{x}=m^*_{y}$. Although the region over which the effective mass characterization applies is less than 1% of the zone volume, it yet supplies of the order of half the states at (or just above) the Fermi level. The observed increase of T$_c$ by hole-doping is accounted for if the reference as-synthesized sample is minutely hole-doped, which decreases the Fermi level density of states and will provide some stabilization. In this scenario, electron doping will increase the Fermi level density of states and the superconducting critical temperature. Vibrational properties are presented, and enough coupling to the C-Ni-C stretch mode at 70 meV is obtained to imply that superconductivity is electron-phonon mediated.

Abstract:
This monograph describes a Riemannian geometric reduction approach to the three-body problem. The fundamental theorems are presented in the introductory part, whereas their proofs are provided in later chapters where specific topics are analyzed in more detail. The basic idea is to reduce the kinematic and dynamics of mass triangles to the congruence moduli space and the shape space, representing SO(3)-congruence and similarity classes respectively.In particular, the Euler equations for mass triangle motions are worked out, generalizing the classical Euler equations for rigid body motions. The last chapters are devoted to the study of Newtonian triple collision motions, in the above geometric setting, and their shape curves are analyzed in special cases.

Abstract:
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become a reference standard for the measure-ment of cardiac volumes, function, and mass. This study aims to reconstruct three dimen-sional modeling of the left ventricle (LV) in pa-tients with heart failure (HF) using CMRtools and thereby derive the LV functional indices. CMR images were acquired in 41 subjects (6 females) with heart failure (HF) and 12 normal controls (4 females). Five comparisons were made (i) nor-mal and dilated heart failure subjects, (ii) male and female normal heart, (iii) male and female dilated heart, (iv) male normal and dilated heart failure and (v) female normal and dilated heart failure. In HF, a significant higher values of EDV (320 刡 79 vs. 126 刡 22 ml, P&amp;amp;amp;lt;0.0001), ESV (255 刡 68 vs. 54 刡 12 ml, P&amp;amp;amp;lt;0.00001) and lower values of EF (20 刡 7 vs. 58 刡 5 %) were found compared that of normal control. There were significant difference on LV EDV and ESV between sex in both normal and HF subjects.

Abstract:
Superconductors with low superfluid density can be described by XY models. In such models the scale of the transition temperature T_c is largely set by the zero temperature phase stiffness (helicity modulus), a long-wavelength property of the system: T_c = A Upsilon(0). However, the constant A is a non-universal number, depending on dimensionality and the degree of inhomogeneity. In this Letter, we discuss strategies for maximizing A for 2D XY models, that is, how to maximize the transition temperature with respect to the zero temperature, long wavelength properties. We find that a framework type of inhomogeneity can increase the transition temperature significantly. For comparison, we present similar results for Ising models.

Abstract:
To gain insight into the mechanism of charge-ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2M$^{n+}$ $\rightarrow$ M$^{(n+1)+}$ + M$^{(n-1)+}$, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO$_2$ and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze cationic occupations of actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, hence no charge transfer), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least inn many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians is discussed.

Abstract:
We present an efficient algorithm for calculating the properties of Ising models in two dimensions, directly in the spin basis, without the need for mapping to fermion or dimer models. The algorithm gives numerically exact results for the partition function and correlation functions at a single temperature on any planar network of N Ising spins in O(N^{3/2}) time or less. The method can handle continuous or discrete bond disorder and is especially efficient in the case of bond or site dilution, where it executes in O(L^2 ln L) time near the percolation threshold. We demonstrate its feasibility on the ferromagnetic Ising model and the +/- J random-bond Ising model (RBIM) and discuss the regime of applicability in cases of full frustration such as the Ising antiferromagnet on a triangular lattice.

Mucinous metaplasia of the squamous epithelium of the glans penis is very rarely seen in the setting of Zoon’s balanitis. We report a case of 40 year old male with a past medical history of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, status-post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling 6 years prior to evaluation, complicated by oral and cutaneous chronic graft-versus-host disease. Mucinous metaplasia was confirmed by PAS and Mucin stains, and plasmacytosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry for CD138 and MUM1 markers. Kappa and Lambda immunostains revealed a polyclonal pattern. The etiology of zoon’s balanitis as well as the significance of mucinous metaplasia in these setting are unclear and need to be further investigated.

Abstract:
We present Faraday Rotation Measure (RM) properties of seven active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with the NRAO VLA at three epochs in 2012-2014. Data was taken at 1.4, 2.2, 5.0, 8.2, 15.4, 22.4, 33.5 and 43.1 GHz quasi simultaneously in full polarization mode. For the first time RMs were calculated in a range of wavelengths covering more than one order of magnitude: from 21 cm up to 6 mm. We measured RM for each source and showed a tendency to increase its value toward high frequencies according to the law |RM|~f^a with a=1.6+/-0.1. For 0710+439, we observed an increase over the frequency range of 4 orders of magnitude and measured one of the highest RM ever, (-89+/-1)*10^3 rad/m^2. Analysis of different epochs shows variations of the value and the sign of RM on short and long time-scales. This may be caused by changing physical conditions in the compact regions of the AGN jets, e.g. strength of magnetic field, particle density and so on.

Abstract:
Recently, we developed and implemented the bond propagation algorithm for calculating the partition function and correlation functions of random bond Ising models in two dimensions. The algorithm is the fastest available for calculating these quantities near the percolation threshold. In this paper, we show how to extend the bond propagation algorithm to directly calculate thermodynamic functions by applying the algorithm to derivatives of the partition function, and we derive explicit expressions for this transformation. We also discuss variations of the original bond propagation procedure within the larger context of Y-Delta-Y-reducibility and discuss the relation of this class of algorithm to other algorithms developed for Ising systems. We conclude with a discussion on the outlook for applying similar algorithms to other models.