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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167590 matches for " E. Taufik "
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Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi
E. Taufik
Media Peternakan , 2005,
Abstract: This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1), L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2), L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3) and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4)) and stored at low temperatures (refrigerator) for 0, 7 and 14 days. The observed variables were viscosity, total lactic acid bacteria, total Bifidobacterium bifidum and organoleptic properties (color, aroma, taste and firmness). The result showed that combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly (P>0.05) viscosity and total Bificobacterium bifidum of dadih at H-0 (before storage), but affect significantly (P<0.05) total lactic acid bacteria. The characteristics of dadih during 14 days of storage in low temperature showed that combinations of starter did not significantly affect viscosity but storage time affect significantly (P<0.05). Total Bificobacterium bifidum was not affected significantly by either starter combination or storage time.Total lactic acid bacteria was significantly affected (P<0.05) by storage time and very significantly affected (P<0.01) by starter combinations. A4 starter combination (L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum) has the most preference modus value for firmness, color, flavor and aroma according to panelist test result. Among those four organoleptic parameters, only aroma was affected significantly by starter combination.
Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: Karakteristik Kimiawi
E. Taufik
Media Peternakan , 2004,
Abstract: This experiment was designed to improve quality of dadih in a process which was more controlled. The use of cow milk was to replace buffalo milk utilization due to its availability was very limited; the use of probiotic starter combination was to conduct fermentation process of dadih more controlled, and the specific characteristics of dadih could be measured. Therefore the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the best starter concentration that will be used in fermentation process of dadih and to investigate chemical characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combination of probiotic starter bacteria (L. plantarum (A1), L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2), L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3) and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4)) and stored at low temperatures for 0, 7 and 14 days. The results showed that the best starter concentration was 3% with similar comparison among starters and the combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly moisture, protein, fat, ash contents, pH and titratable acidity of dadih at H-0 (before storage). The characteristics of dadih after storing for 14 days at low temperature showed that combinations of starter affected significantly pH and titratable acidity (P<0.01). However these variables were not affected by storage time. Protein, moisture and fat contents were not affected by starter combinations and storage time; ash content was affect significantly by storage time but not by starter combination. It is concluded that all dadih produced by different starter combinations have no significant differences in chemical characteristics, but dadih produced by starter combination A4 has more advantages in probiotic content.
Oligosaccharides in Milk: Their Benefits and Future Utilization
T. Urashima,E. Taufik
Media Peternakan , 2010,
Abstract: The percentage of carbohydrate in the milk/colostrum of the mammalian is range from trace to over 10%, of which disaccharide lactose (Gal(β1-4)Glc) is usually constitutes the major part. Apart from the lactose (Gal(β1-4)Glc; Gal, D-galactose; Glc, D-glucose), the rest of carbohydrate components is composed of variety of sugars, commonly named as milk oligosaccharides. Human mature milk and colostrum contain 12 ~ 13 g/l and 22 ~ 24 g/l of oligosaccharides, respectively. In contrast, bovine colostrum contains more than 1 g/l oligosaccharides and this concentration rapidly decreases after 48 hr post partum. Most of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are resistant to digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Therefore they can reach the infant colon, where they can act as prebiotics that stimulate the growth of beneficial microorganisms such as various species of Bifidobacterium. They can also act as receptor analogues that inhibit the attachment of pathogenic microorganisms to the infant’s colonic mucosa. A small part of the milk oligosaccharides is absorbed intact into the circulation and it has been hypothesized that these may act as immunomodulators. Generally, the bovine milk oligosaccharides are believed not to be absorbed by human adults or infants, thus making them available to be utilized as prebiotics or anti-infection materials. The colostrum of cows and other domestic farm animals is a potential source of free oligosaccharides, and oligosaccharides isolated from these natural sources can be utilized as functional foods or animal feedstuffs on the industrial scale.
Microbiological Quality of Raw Goat Milk in Bogor, Indonesia
E. Taufik,G. Hildebrandt,J. N. Kleer,T. I. Wirjantoro
Media Peternakan , 2011,
Abstract: Milk samples were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria, which were TPC, coliforms, coagulase positive Staphylococci (CPS), and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to the prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median values of indicator bacterial counts from overall udder-half milk samples were 3.74, 0.70, 1.70, and 2.52 log cfu/ml and from bulk milk samples were 5.69, 2.98, 3.66 and 3.32 log cfu/ml for TPC, coliforms, CPS, and CNS, respectively. None of the median values of overall udder-half milk samples exceeded the maximum limit of the standards for all indicator bacteria. However, in the bulk milk samples only the median value of TPC below the maximum limit of the standards. Overall prevalence of coliforms, CPS and CNS from udder-half milk samples were 46.3%, 37.7%, and 66.0%, respectively, and from bulk milk samples were 86.7%, 76.7%, and 86.7%, respectively. Saanen crossbreed, fifth parity and udders with inflammation were found to be risk factors. This study results indicated that the hygienic practices in the dairy goat farms are still need to be increased. To increase the hygienic level of the milk, the identified significant risk factors must be controlled.
Contamination Level of Staphylococcus spp. in Raw Goat Milk and Associated Risk Factors
E. Taufik,G. Hildebrandt,J. N. Kleer,T. I. Wirjantoro
Media Peternakan , 2008,
Abstract: This study was aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in raw goat milk by using Staphylococcus spp. as indicator bacteria, and also to evaluate the potential risk factors associated with them. Information regarding potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire. The conventional bacteriological method for bacterial isolation and the indirect test (California Mastitis Test (CMT)) for determining udder inflammation status were employed. A sample size of 300 udder halves milk samples from three commercial dairy goat farms in the Bogor District, West Java Province, Indonesia were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median value of indicator bacterial count from overall udder-half milk samples was 3.00 log cfu/ml. The indicator bacterial count from udder-half milk samples was significantly different (P<0.05) among farms. Overall prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. was 78.7%. As one of potential risk factors, udder inflammation status was found to be risk factor for Staphylococcus spp. contamination in milk. Udders with inflammation had significant association and a higher chance of having contaminated samples by Staphylococcus spp. as compared to udders without inflammation. Additionally, according to these study results, CMT can be used as an effective, reliable, cheap and “farm and farmer friendly test” for screening test of intramammary infection (IMI) or sub clinical mastitis in dairy goats.
FILSAFAT JOHN RAWLS TENTANG TEORI KEADILAN
Muhammad Taufik
Mukaddimah : Jurnal Studi Islam , 2013,
Abstract: The article discusses John Rawls’s (1921-2002) contribution to the theory of justice. Justice in nature is an abstract concept and philosophers have continuously tried to formulate the concept for the purpose of justice in operational level. Rawls’s theory put heavily on the freedom and the limitation to the freedom is applicable for the sake of common good. Artikel ini mengulas teori John Rawls (1921-2002) mengenai keadilan. Keadilan merupakan konsep yang abstrak dan tidak sedikit filosof telah berupaya keras merumuskan arti operasional konsep tersebut, termasuk John Rawls. Keadilan dalam filsafat John Rawls bertumpu pada asas maksimalisasi kemerdekaan. Pembatasan terhadap kemerdekaan ini hanya untuk kepentingan kemerdekaan itu sendiri dan hanya berlaku jika bertujuan untuk kemaslahatan umum
OFDM System Implementation in DSP Platform TMS320C6678  [PDF]
Rafael Masashi Fukuda, Taufik Abr?o
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2016.411003
Abstract: The Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system is already used in commercial applications and is capable to deal with Intersymbolic Interference (ISI) caused by multipath channels. This system gained popularity after the application of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and its inverse (IFFT) to modulate the signal in many subcarriers. This paper discusses implementation aspects of an OFDM system; such system is characterized by considering real constraints, including the memory consumption and the processing time. The OFDM modulator, channel samples and OFDM demodulator were implemented entirely in the DSP TMS320C6678 platform. As a proof-of-concept, a 256-QAM OFDM BER performance is compared with theoretical values. Moreover, the memory size is not demanding, consuming very few resources. It was observed a very high number of DSP clock cycles needed for the OFDM signal modulation, corresponding to more than 4 times the number used in demodulating the signal.
Wireless Cooperative Networks: Protocols, Topologies and Performance
álvaro Ricieri Castro e Souza,Mario Lemes Proen?a Jr,Taufik Abr?o
Semina : Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas , 2011,
Abstract: This work analyzes the most common wireless cooperative network protocols, verifying potentialities and performance relative to the non cooperative methodology, also techniques that can maximize the performance, such as combining signal rules and relay selection. Furthermore, considerations are provided for the computational complexity of topologies, combining techniques and protocols of cooperative networks.
Energy and Spectral Efficiencies Trade-off with Filter Optimization in Multiple Access Interference-Aware
álvaro R. C. Souza,Taufik Abr?o,Lucas H. Sampaio,Paul Jean E. Jeszensky
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: This work analyzes the optimized deployment of two resources scarcely available in mobile multiple access systems, i.e., spectrum and energy, as well as the impact of filter optimization in the system performance. Taking in perspective the two conflicting metrics, throughput maximization and power consumption minimization, the distributed energy efficiency (EE) cost function is formulated. Furthermore, the best energy-spectral efficiencies (EE-SE) trade-off is achieved when each node allocates exactly the power necessary to attain the best SINR response, which guarantees the maximal EE. To demonstrate the validity of our analysis, two low-complexity energy-spectral efficient algorithms, based on distributed instantaneous SINR level are developed, and the impact of single and multiuser detection filters on the EE-SE trade-off is analyzed.
Input Parameters Optimization in Swarm DS-CDMA Multiuser Detectors
Taufik Abr?o,Leonardo D. Oliveira,Bruno A. Angelico,Paul Jean E. Jeszensky
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, the uplink direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) multiuser detection problem (MuD) is studied into heuristic perspective, named particle swarm optimization (PSO). Regarding different system improvements for future technologies, such as high-order modulation and diversity exploitation, a complete parameter optimization procedure for the PSO applied to MuD problem is provided, which represents the major contribution of this paper. Furthermore, the performance of the PSO-MuD is briefly analyzed via Monte-Carlo simulations. Simulation results show that, after convergence, the performance reached by the PSO-MuD is much better than the conventional detector, and somewhat close to the single user bound (SuB). Rayleigh flat channel is initially considered, but the results are further extend to diversity (time and spatial) channels.
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