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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167620 matches for " E. Tagaris "
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Air quality over Europe: modeling gaseous and particulate pollutants and the effect of precursor emissions
E. Tagaris,R. E. P. Sotiropoulou,N. Gounaris,S. Andronopoulos
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-6681-2013
Abstract: Air quality over Europe using Models-3 (i.e. CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modeling system is performed for winter (i.e. January, 2006) and summer (i.e. July, 2006) months with the 2006 TNO gridded anthropogenic emissions database. Higher ozone concentrations are illustrated in southern Europe while higher NO2 concentrations are simulated over western Europe. Elevated SO2 concentrations are simulated over eastern Europe while elevated PM2.5 levels are simulated over eastern and western Europe. Results suggest that NO2 and PM2.5 are underpredicted, SO2 is overpredicted while Max8hrO3 is overpredicted for low concentrations and is underpredicted for the higher ones. Speciated PM2.5 components suggest that NO3 is dominant during winter in western Europe and in a few eastern countries due to the high NO2 concentrations. During summer NO3 is dominant only in regions with elevated NH3 emissions. For the rest of the domain SO4 is dominant. Low OC concentrations are simulated mainly due to the uncertain representation of SOA formation. The difference between observed and predicted concentrations for each country is assessed for the gaseous and particulate pollutants. The simultaneous precursor emissions change applying scaling factors on NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions based on the observed/predicted ratio for each country seems to statistically enhance model performance (in gaseous pollutants the improvement in root mean square is up to 5.6 ppbV, in the index of agreement is up to 0.3 and in the mean absolute error is up to 4.2 ppbV while the related values in PM2.5 are 4.5 μg m 3, 0.2 and 3.5 μg m 3, respectively).
The role of climate and emission changes in future air quality over southern Canada and northern Mexico
E. Tagaris,K.-J. Liao,K. Manomaiphiboon,S. He
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Potential impacts of global climate and emissions changes on regional air quality over southern (western and eastern) Canada and northern Mexico are examined by comparing future summers' (i.e., 2049–2051) average regional O3 and PM2.5 concentrations with historic concentrations (i.e., 2000–2002 summers). Air quality modeling was conducted using CMAQ and meteorology downscaled from the GISS-GCM using MM5. Emissions for North America are found using US EPA, Mexican and Canadian inventories and projected emissions following CAIR and IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Higher temperatures for all sub-regions and regional changes in mixing height, insolation and precipitation are forecast in the 2049–2051 period. Future emissions are calculated to be lower over both Canadian sub-regions, but higher over northern Mexico. Global climate change, alone, is predicted to affect PM2.5 concentrations more than O3: M8hO3 concentrations are estimated to be slightly different in all examined sub-regions while PM2.5 concentrations are estimated to be higher over both Canadian sub-regions (8% over western and 3% over eastern) but 11% lower over northern Mexico. Climate change combined with the projected emissions lead to greater change in pollutant concentrations: M8hO3 concentrations are simulated to be 6% lower over western Canada and 8% lower over eastern Canada while PM2.5 concentrations are simulated to be 5% lower over western Canada and 11% lower over eastern Canada. Although future emissions over northern Mexico are projected higher, pollutant concentrations are simulated to be lower due to US emissions reductions. Global climate change combined with the projected emissions will decrease M8hO3 4% and PM2.5 17% over northern Mexico.
Quantification of impact of climate uncertainty on regional air quality
K.-J. Liao,E. Tagaris,K. Manomaiphiboon,C. Wang
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Impacts of uncertain climate forecasts on future regional air quality are investigated using downscaled MM5 meteorological fields from the NASA GISS and MIT IGSM global climate models and the CMAQ model in 2050 in the continental US. Three future climate scenarios: high-extreme, low-extreme and base, are developed for regional air quality simulations. GISS, with the IPCC A1B scenario, is used for the base case. IGSM results, in the form of probabilistic distributions, are used to perturb the base case climate to provide 0.5th and 99.5th percentile climate scenarios. Impacts of the extreme climate scenarios on concentrations of summertime fourth-highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone are predicted to be up to 10 ppbv (about one-eighth of the current NAAQS of ozone) in some urban areas, though average differences in ozone concentrations are about 1–2 ppbv on a regional basis. Differences between the extreme and base scenarios in annualized PM2.5 levels are very location dependent and predicted to range between 1.0 and +1.5 μg m 3. Future annualized PM2.5 is less sensitive to the extreme climate scenarios than summertime peak ozone since precipitation scavenging is only slightly affected by the extreme climate scenarios examined. Relative abundances of biogenic VOC and anthropogenic NOx lead to the areas that are most responsive to climate change. Such areas may find that climate change can significantly offset air quality improvements from emissions reductions, particularly during the most severe episodes.
The role of climate and emission changes in future air quality over southern Canada and northern Mexico
E. Tagaris, K.-J. Liao, K. Manomaiphiboon, S. He, J.-H. Woo, P. Amar,A. G. Russell
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2008,
Abstract: Potential impacts of global climate and emissions changes on regional air quality over southern (western and eastern) Canada and northern Mexico are examined by comparing future summers' (i.e., 2049–2051) average regional O3 and PM2.5 concentrations with historic concentrations (i.e., 2000–2002 summers). Air quality modeling was conducted using CMAQ and meteorology downscaled from the GISS-GCM using MM5. Emissions for North America are found using US EPA, Mexican and Canadian inventories and projected emissions following CAIR and IPCC A1B emissions scenario. Higher temperatures for all sub-regions and regional changes in mixing height, insolation and precipitation are forecast in the 2049-2051 period. Future emissions are calculated to be lower over both Canadian sub-regions, but higher over northern Mexico. Global climate change, alone, is predicted to affect PM2.5 concentrations more than O3 for the projections used in this study: average daily maximum eight (8) hour O3 (M8hO3) concentrations are estimated to be slightly different in all examined sub-regions while average PM2.5 concentrations are estimated to be higher over both Canadian sub-regions (8% over western and 3% over eastern) but 11% lower over northern Mexico. More days are forecast where M8hO3 concentrations are over 75 ppb in all examined sub-regions but the number of days where PM2.5 concentration will be over 15 μg/m3 is projected higher only over western Canada. Climate change combined with the projected emissions lead to greater change in pollutant concentrations: average M8hO3 concentrations are simulated to be 6% lower over western Canada and 8% lower over eastern Canada while average PM2.5 concentrations are simulated to be 5% lower over western Canada and 11% lower over eastern Canada. Although future emissions over northern Mexico are projected higher, pollutant concentrations are simulated to be lower due to US emissions reductions. Global climate change combined with the projected emissions will decrease average M8hO3 4% and PM2.5 17% over northern Mexico. Significant reductions in the number of days where M8hO3 concentrations are over 75 ppb and PM2.5 concentration over 15 μg/m3 are also projected with a significant reduction in peak values.
Quantification of the impact of climate uncertainty on regional air quality
K.-J. Liao, E. Tagaris, K. Manomaiphiboon, C. Wang, J.-H. Woo, P. Amar, S. He,A. G. Russell
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: Uncertainties in calculated impacts of climate forecasts on future regional air quality are investigated using downscaled MM5 meteorological fields from the NASA GISS and MIT IGSM global models and the CMAQ model in 2050 in the continental US. Differences between three future scenarios: high-extreme, low-extreme and base case, are used for quantifying effects of climate uncertainty on regional air quality. GISS, with the IPCC A1B scenario, is used for the base case simulations. IGSM results, in the form of probabilistic distributions, are used to perturb the base case climate to provide the high- and low-extreme scenarios. Impacts of the extreme climate scenarios on concentrations of summertime fourth-highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone are predicted to be up to 10 ppbV (about one-seventh of the current US ozone standard of 75 ppbV) in urban areas of the Northeast, Midwest and Texas due to impacts of meteorological changes, especially temperature and humidity, on the photochemistry of tropospheric ozone formation and increases in biogenic VOC emissions, though the differences in average peak ozone concentrations are about 1–2 ppbV on a regional basis. Differences between the extreme and base scenarios in annualized PM2.5 levels are very location dependent and predicted to range between 1.0 and +1.5 μg m 3. Future annualized PM2.5 is less sensitive to the extreme climate scenarios than summertime peak ozone since precipitation scavenging is only slightly affected by the extreme climate scenarios examined. Relative abundances of biogenic VOC and anthropogenic NOx lead to the areas that are most responsive to climate change. Overall, planned controls for decreasing regional ozone and PM2.5 levels will continue to be effective in the future under the extreme climate scenarios. However, the impact of climate uncertainties may be substantial in some urban areas and should be included in assessing future regional air quality and emission control requirements.
Sensitivity of Air Pollution-Induced Premature Mortality to Precursor Emissions under the Influence of Climate Change
Efthimios Tagaris,Kuo-Jen Liao,Anthony J. DeLucia,Leland Deck,Praveen Amar,Armistead G. Russell
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7052222
Abstract: The relative contributions of PM 2.5 and ozone precursor emissions to air pollution-related premature mortality modulated by climate change are estimated for the U.S. using sensitivities of air pollutants to precursor emissions and health outcomes for 2001 and 2050. Result suggests that states with high emission rates and significant premature mortality increases induced by PM 2.5 will substantially benefit in the future from SO 2, anthropogenic NO X and NH 3 emissions reductions while states with premature mortality increases induced by O 3 will benefit mainly from anthropogenic NO X emissions reduction. Much of the increase in premature mortality expected from climate change-induced pollutant increases can be offset by targeting a specific precursor emission in most states based on the modeling approach followed here.
Role of the H1 haplotype of microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene in Greek patients with Parkinson's disease
Nikolaos Refenes, Juliane Bolbrinker, Georgios Tagaris, Antonio Orlacchio, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Reinhold Kreutz
BMC Neurology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-9-26
Abstract: We analysed MAPT haplotypes in cohorts of 122 patients and 123 controls of Greek origin, respectively. SNP genotyping was performed with Taqman assays and genotyping results were confirmed by sequencing.The presence of the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with PD (odds ratio for H1H1 vs. H1H2 and H2H2: 1.566; 95% CI: 1.137–2.157; P = 0.006) and remained so after adjustment for sex. Further analysis of H1 sub-haplotypes with three single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs242562, rs2435207 and rs3785883) demonstrated no significant association with PD.Our data support the overall genetic role of MAPT and the H1 haplotype for PD susceptibility in Greek patients. However, the previously supported association of H1 sub-haplotypes with PD could not be confirmed in our study.Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder that becomes more prevalent with advanced age and represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease (AD) [1]. PD is characterized by four cardinal symptoms: resting tremor, bradykinesia, muscle rigidity and postural instability [2]. The degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons causes symptoms of PD and one of the main neuropathological features of the disease consists of intracellular proteinaceous inclusions called Lewy bodies [3]. Aggregation and fibrillization of the α-synuclein protein, which is the main component of Lewy bodies, represent key events in the pathogenesis of PD,[4] and the disease is classified as an α-synucleinopathy.In addition, a disease mechanism based on the protein tau has been proposed in PD [5,6]. Tau proteins are a group of phosphorylated neuronal microtubule-associated proteins that bind to microtubules and promote microtubule assembly and stabilization. They are expressed in neurons and they are particularly abundant in axons [7]. Due to the proposed interactions of α-synuclein and tau protein and their abnormal intracellular aggregation in neurodegenerative
Cluster Model of Formation of Subnuclear and Subatomic Objects  [PDF]
E. E. Lin
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.53018
Abstract:

The paper describes the development results on one-dimensional (1D) asymptotic model of the formation kinetics for the objects (clusters) of subnuclear (quark) and subatomic (nuclear) matters. A concept of the objects distribution density wave φ(a, t) in space of sizes a lies in the basis for analytical description of the processes under consideration. The proposed formalism makes it possible to describe in an adequate way the final outcomes of the well-known catastrophic phenomena in the world of elementary particles. Mass characteristics of different processes of approach to equilibrium in nuclear reactions are calculated.

The Gene as Natural Nanomaterial for Treatment of Diseases  [PDF]
E. E. Escultura
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2017.71003
Abstract: As an application of the grand unified theory (GUT) to medicine, this paper introduces two natural nanomaterials—the gene and electromagnetic wave. They are involved in the proposed treatment of genetic and infectious diseases. It introduces the superstring as the fundamental building block of matter and the basic constituent of dark matter, one of the two fundamental states of matter. It also introduces the primum, unit of visible or ordinary matter, the other fundamental state of matter. They are convertible to each other by the action of basic cosmic or electromagnetic waves. Eleven biological laws define biology as a biological and physical theory. The gene is the primitive ingredient of living things and, therefore, the beginning of biological life and the virus the simplest living thing. Treatment ranges from genetic modification and alteration to remove undesirable symptom through genetic sterilization to stop the spread of the disease and outright destruction of the disease. Genetic sterilization and outright destruction apply also to infectious diseases. The paper concludes with a blueprint for research and development of appropriate technologies for the treatment.
Extensions of the Constructivist Real Number System  [PDF]
E. E. Escultura
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2018.88044
Abstract: The paper reviews the most consequential defects and rectification of traditional mathematics and its foundations. While this work is only the tip of the iceberg, so to speak, it gives us a totally different picture of mathematics from what we have known for a long time. This journey started with two teasers posted in SciMath in 1997: 1) The equation 1 = 0.99… does not make sense. 2) The concept \"\"?does not exist. The first statement sparked a debate that raged over a decade. Both statements generated a series of publications that continues to grow to this day. Among the new findings are: 3) There does not exist nondenumerable set. 4) There does not exist non-measurable set. 5) Cantor’s diagonal method is flawed. 6) The real numbers are discrete and countable. 7) Formal logic does not apply to mathematics. The unfinished debate between logicism, intuitionism-constructivism and formalism is resolved. The resolution is the constructivist foundations of mathematics with a summary of all the rectification undertaken in 2015, 2016 and in this paper. The extensions of the constructivist real number system include the complex vector plane and transcendental functions. Two important results in the 2015 are noted: The solution and resolution of Hilbert’s 23 problems that includes the resolution of Fermat’s last theorem and proof Goldbach’s conjecture.
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