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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167641 matches for " E. Sreekumar "
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Immunomodulatory Effect of Recombinant Chicken Interferon-gamma (rchIFN-γ) on Specific and Non-specific Immune Responses in Chicken Vaccinated Against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)
Basavaraj Binjawadagi,Y. Hari Babu,E. Sreekumar
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: Present study was undertaken to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of recombinant chicken interferon -gamma (rchIFN-γ) on specific and non-specific immune responses in chicken vaccinated against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV). A total of 180 day old layer chicks (BV-300) were divided into three groups. Test Group I (TG-I) (64 chicks) was injected with 5 microgram/chick subcutaneously of rchIFN-γ along with ND vaccinations (LaSota and R2B strains), Test Group II (TG-II) (64 chicks) was injected with same dose and route of rchIFN-γ 6 h after ND vaccinations on both occasions, whereas, third group remained as vaccinated control group (52 chicks). Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test and Migration Inhibition (MI) in percentages estimated by Leukocyte Migration Inhibition Test (LMIT) were conducted to evaluate humoral and cell mediated immune responses respectively. Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay was conducted to evaluate the non-specific immune response by estimating the Phagocytic Index (PI) in percentages. The test results revealed that, significantly (p< 0.05) increased specific (humoral and cell mediated) and non-specific immune responses were recorded in the groups treated with rchIFN-γ i.e., higher results when given along with the vaccine and highest results when given 6 h after vaccinations. The results advocated that, rchIFN-γ may be used as an immunopotentiator in chicken vaccinated against NDV.
Genomic Organization and Promoter Characterization of RANTES, MIP-1 like and MCP-Like CC Chemokines of Domestic Duck (Anas platyrhynchos)
D.S. Arathy,E. Sreekumar
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2009,
Abstract: The duck immunology is gaining more interest in recent years since ducks have been identified as “Trojan horse ” of highly pathogenic avian influenza. In the present study, we characterize the gene and promoter regions of three CC chemokines from domestic duck. Analysis of the gene revealed significant similarity with chicken and mammalian chemokine genes with three coding exon and two intron pattern. Though the exons are highly conserved with respect to corresponding chicken chemokine genes, introns revealed low identity. Promoter regions of duck RANTES and MCP-like chemokines were amplified by Genome walking method. Analysis of the 500 bp upstream nucleotide sequences of ATG (translational start site) of RANTES and MCP-like chemokine revealed a number of putative binding sites for transcription factors. Comparative analysis of RANTES promoter with human and chicken sequences revealed conserved TATA box, NFkB binding site and transcription start site. The predicted transcription start site and TATA box are also conserved in duck and chicken MCP-like chemokine sequences. The present study shows that the over all organization of gene and putative transcription factor binding sites in the promoter regions of these three chemokines were conserved with respect to chicken and human sequences indicating these molecules of innate immune system is conserved in the process of evolution.
Montmorillonite K10 Clay Catalyzed One Pot Synthesis of 2,4,6-Tri Substituted Pyridine under Solvent Free Condition  [PDF]
Vellayan Kannan, Krishnapillai Sreekumar
Modern Research in Catalysis (MRC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/mrc.2013.22007
Abstract:

Montmorillonite K10 catalyzed synthesis of 2,4,6 triaryl pyridine under solvent free condition is described. Montmorillonite effectively catalyzed the reaction in good to excellent yields. Using this solid catalyst, the reactions could be carried out in a short period of time with very good yield of triaryl pyridines, up to 97% under solvent free condition. This catalyst could be recycled very easily, which makes this methodology environmentally benign. The catalyst is active over three cycles.

Caerulomycin A—An Antifungal Compound Isolated from Marine Actinomycetes  [PDF]
Vaibhav Ambavane, Pradipta Tokdar, Rajashri Parab, E. S. Sreekumar, Girish Mahajan, Prabhu Dutt Mishra, Lisette D’Souza, Prafull Ranadive
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2014.49063
Abstract:

Actinomycetes have been prolific sources of novel secondary metabolites with a range of biological activities that may ultimately find application as therapeutic compounds. Hence several drug discovery companies are engaged in isolation of novel bioactive metabolites from these microbial sources. Antibiotics form the major class of such bioactive metabolites and have been widely used for treating infectious diseases. One of the most critical problems in clinical practice is the increase of prevalence of drug resistant strains, especially azole resistance among fungi. Due to this, there is a constant need for development of new antifungal antibiotics having novel scaffolds and/or mechanism of action. In our in-house screening program in the quest of novel and superior antifungal compounds, an actinomycetes strain PM0525875 was isolated from a marine invertebrate. The extracts of this microbe showed potent in-vitro antifungal activity against drug resistant fungal strains. The antifungal active peak from the extract obtained by shake flask fermentation was identified by chromatographic and other analytical techniques during bioactivity guided isolation. Later the fermentation conditions were optimized in 30 L fermentor for the production of sufficient amount antifungal compound for complete structural characterization. Consequently the fermented broth extract was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, to isolate the active principle using different preparative chromatographic techniques followed by its characterization. The active principle was characterized to be Caerulomycin A. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compound was found in the range of 0.39 - 1.56 μg/ml against pathogenic fungal test strains. The phylogenetic analysis of producer strain using 16S rRNA sequence showed closest match with Actinoalloateichus cyanogriseus. Herewith we report the isolation of Caerulomycin A from marine invertebrate-associated Actinoalloteichus sp. using optimized medium and fermentation

SCIENCE, RELIGION AND ETHICS: THE RELIGIOUS ETHICAL BASIS OF INDIAN SCIENCE OF MEDICINE
Nellickappilly,Sreekumar;
Acta bioethica , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2010000100005
Abstract: it is often said that in ayurveda, the indian science of medicine, the scientific concerns are muddled up with religious and metaphysical convictions. this paper reies to show how while retaining the experiential route of science intact, ayurveda shares certain imporant concerns with religion and philosophy in india. it affirms that this ultimately has helped ayurveda successfully avoiding the problems associated with multiple ontologies--owing to a separation of science from values. thsi paper will examine some important religious assumptions that play vital role in the conception and practice of the science of ayurveda and how such approaches contributed in developing and integraing a strong code of medical ethics into the practice of medicine. the first section of the paper will bring out the experiential route of ayurveda. the second section examines the concepts of disease and health/wellbeing in ayurveda, in order to bring tout the ethical outlook ingrained in it. the thirs section will analyse some fundamental postulates fo indian ethics and attempts to show that with the vedic conception of rita -cosmic moral order- ayurveda uniquely defines itself as a way of physical, mental and ethical living, which aims at a very comprehensive notion of wellbeing.
SCIENCE, RELIGION AND ETHICS: THE RELIGIOUS ETHICAL BASIS OF INDIAN SCIENCE OF MEDICINE CIENCIA, RELIGIóN Y éTICA: LOS FUNDAMENTOS éTICOS RELIGIOSOS DE LA CIENCIA MéDICA INDIA CIêNCIA, RELIGI O E éTICA: OS FUNDAMENTOS éTICOS RELIGIOSOS DA CIêNCIA MéDICA INDIANA
Sreekumar Nellickappilly
Acta Bioethica , 2010,
Abstract: It is often said that in Ayurveda, the Indian science of medicine, the scientific concerns are muddled up with religious and metaphysical convictions. This paper reies to show how while retaining the experiential route of science intact, Ayurveda shares certain imporant concerns with religion and philosophy in India. It affirms that this ultimately has helped Ayurveda successfully avoiding the problems associated with multiple ontologies--owing to a separation of science from values. Thsi paper will examine some important religious assumptions that play vital role in the conception and practice of the science of Ayurveda and how such approaches contributed in developing and integraing a strong code of medical ethics into the practice of medicine. The first section of the paper will bring out the experiential route of Ayurveda. The second section examines the concepts of disease and health/wellbeing in Ayurveda, in order to bring tout the ethical outlook ingrained in it. The thirs section will analyse some fundamental postulates fo Indian ethics and attempts to show that with the Vedic conception of Rita -cosmic moral order- Ayurveda uniquely defines itself as a way of physical, mental and ethical living, which aims at a very comprehensive notion of wellbeing. Se dice a menudo que en Ayurveda, en la ciencia de la medicina India, se encuentran entremezcladas las preocupaciones científicas con convicciones religiosas y metafísicas. Este artículo trata de mostrar que, manteniendo intacta la ruta experimental de la ciencia, Ayurveda comparte ciertas preocupaciones importantes de la religión y la filosofía en la India. Afirma que esto definitivamente ha ayudado a Ayurveda a evitar con éxito problemas asociados con ontologías múltiples, debido a la separación de la ciencia con los valores. Examina algunos presupuestos religiosos importantes que juegan un papel vital en la concepción y práctica de la ciencia de Ayurveda y cómo tales aproximaciones contribuyeron a desarrollar e integrar un fuerte código de ética médica en la práctica de la medicina. La primera sección del artículo presenta la ruta experiencial de Ayurveda. La segunda, los conceptos de enfermedad y salud/bienestar en Ayurveda para extraer los aspectos éticos integrados. La tercera analiza algunos postulados fundamentales de la ética India y trata de mostrar que, con la concepción Védica de Rita -orden moral cósmico-, Ayurveda se define de forma única como un modo de vida físico, mental y ético, que apunta a una noción comprensiva del bienestar. Afirma-se com frequência que, na Ayurveda, a ciência
EGRET Observations of the Extragalactic Gamma Ray Emission
P. Sreekumar
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/305222
Abstract: The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E$>$30 MeV) carried out by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions with the local interstellar gas and radiation as well an almost uniformly distributed component that is generally believed to originate outside the Galaxy. Through a careful study and removal of the Galactic diffuse emission, the flux, spectrum and uniformity of the extragalactic emission is deduced. The analysis indicates that the extragalactic emission is well described by a power law photon spectrum with an index of -(2.10+-0.03) in the 30 MeV to 100 GeV energy range. No large scale spatial anisotropy or changes in the energy spectrum are observed in the deduced extragalactic emission. The most likely explanation for the origin of this extragalactic high-energy gamma-ray emission is that it arises primarily from unresolved gamma-ray-emitting blazars.
Modeling of gene regulatory networks: A review  [PDF]
Nedumparambathmarath Vijesh, Swarup Kumar Chakrabarti, Janardanan Sreekumar
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.62A027
Abstract:

Gene regulatory networks play an important role the molecular mechanism underlying biological processes. Modeling of these networks is an important challenge to be addressed in the post genomic era. Several methods have been proposed for estimating gene networks from gene expression data. Computational methods for development of network models and analysis of their functionality have proved to be valuable tools in bioinformatics applications. In this paper we tried to review the different methods for reconstructing gene regulatory networks.

Parameter Optimization of Amalgamated Al2O3-40% TiO2 Atmospheric Plasma Spray Coating on SS304 Substrate Using TLBO Algorithm  [PDF]
Thankam Sreekumar Rajesh, Ravipudi Venkata Rao
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2016.63009
Abstract: SS304 is a commercial grade stainless steel which is used for various engineering applications like shafts, guides, jigs, fixtures, etc. Ceramic coating of the wear areas of such parts is a regular practice which significantly enhances the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF). The final coating quality depends mainly on the coating thickness, surface roughness and hardness which ultimately decides the life. This paper presents an experimental study to effectively optimize the Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS) process input parameters of Al2O3-40% TiO2 ceramic coatings to get the best quality of coating on commercial SS304 substrate. The experiments are conducted with a three-level L18 Orthogonal Array (OA) Design of Experiments (DoE). Critical input parameters considered are: spray nozzle distance, substrate rotating speed, current of the arc, carrier gas flow and coating powder flow rate. The surface roughness, coating thickness and hardness are considered as the output parameters. Mathematical models are generated using regression analysis for individual output parameters. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is applied to generate weights for the individual objective functions and a combined objective function is generated. An advanced optimization method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization algorithm (TLBO), is applied to the combined objective function to optimize the values of input parameters to get the best output parameters and confirmation tests are conducted based on that. The significant effects of spray parameters on surface roughness, coating thickness and coating hardness are studied in detail.
An Experimental Investigation into the Amalgamated Al2O3-40% TiO2 Atmospheric Plasma Spray Coating Process on EN24 Substrate and Parameter Optimization Using TLBO  [PDF]
Thankam Sreekumar Rajesh, Ravipudi Venkata Rao
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.46007
Abstract:
Surface coating is a critical procedure in the case of maintenance engineering. Ceramic coating of the wear areas is of the best practice which substantially enhances the Mean Time between Failure (MTBF). EN24 is a commercial grade alloy which is used for various industrial applications like sleeves, nuts, bolts, shafts, etc. EN24 is having comparatively low corrosion resistance, and ceramic coating of the wear and corroding areas of such parts is a best followed practice which highly improves the frequent failures. The coating quality mainly depends on the coating thickness, surface roughness and coating hardness which finally decides the operability. This paper describes an experimental investigation to effectively optimize the Atmospheric Plasma Spray process input parameters of Al2O3-40% TiO2 coatings to get the best quality of coating on EN24 alloy steel substrate. The experiments are conducted with an Orthogonal Array (OA) design of experiments (DoE). In the current experiment, critical input parameters are considered and some of the vital output parameters are monitored accordingly and separate mathematical models are generated using regression analysis. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to generate weights for the individual objective functions and based on that, a combined objective function is made. An advanced optimization method, Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization algorithm (TLBO), is practically utilized to the combined objective function to optimize the values of input parameters to get the best output parameters. Confirmation tests are also conducted and their output results are compared with predicted values obtained through mathematical models. The dominating effects of Al2O3-40% TiO2 spray parameters on output parameters: surface roughness, coating thickness and coating hardness are discussed in detail. It is concluded that the input parameters variation directly affects the characteristics of output parameters and any number of input as well as output parameters can be easily optimized using the current approach.
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