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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 175948 matches for " E. Smith "
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Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools: An explorative study
E Smith
South African Journal of Education , 2006,
Abstract: The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study, including an internet-based search, and empirical research were undertaken. In the empirical study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 135 educational managers in the Nelson Mandela Metropole. To investigate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables, 12 null hypotheses were tested by means of statistical methods such as analysis of variance and correlation coefficients. The empirical results revealed highly significant relationships or differences between the variables. It is recommended that empowerment should be carefully managed and not used as a quick-fix solution to solve the problems in education. Empowerment should filter down through the school system from department level to the level of individual learner. Practical guidelines are provided and educational policy implications highlighted for implementation of empowerment in schools.
Changes in Diatom Biodiversity in Lake Sinclair, Baldwin County, Georgia, USA  [PDF]
Marká E. Smith, Kalina M. Manoylov
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.57074

The effects of increased water temperature on algal community composition were investigated in Lake Sinclair, Baldwin County, Georgia, USA. The lake received waste cooling water from a coal burning power plant. Discharges of recycled lake water were, on average, 15°C ± 1.5°C (and up to 23°C) warmer than typical ambient temperatures. Seasonal changes in algal composition were observed, and the warmer sample site had a greater diversity of diatom species year round independent of changes in temperature. Thermal pollution created a high percent dissimilarity between diatoms at the warmer site and the remainder of the lake. Species turnover observed in natural samples was not detected for the warmer site. Anthropogenic thermal pollution was implicated as the factor inducing changes in the natural algal community composition, which may impact other trophic levels and ultimately the overall ecology of Lake Sinclair.

Do BIG1-98 and ZOFAST demand a change in guidelines for endocrine therapy?
Ian E Smith
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2437
Abstract: These results were entirely compatible with the other major upfront adjuvant aromatase inhibitor trial, the 'Arimidex', Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial. This was a three-arm trial in which tamoxifen treatment for 5 years was compared with anastrozole treatment for 5 years and compared with the combination of the two treatments. This trial likewise showed a DFS advantage in favour of anastrozole, with a hazard ratio of 0.83 and a 4-year absolute disease-free survival difference of 2.4% [2].Neither the BIG1-98 trial or the ATAC trial showed any significant overall survival benefit at first analysis.In the BIG1-98 trial update, 4,922 patients were included in the tamoxifen versus letrozole monotherapy comparison [3]. With a median follow-up of 76 months, letrozole treatment continued to show a statistically significant DFS advantage over tamoxifen therapy, with a hazard ratio of 0.88. In the intent-to treat overall survival analysis there was a very strong trend in favour of letrozole over tamoxifen that did not quite reach statistical significance, with a hazard ratio of 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.02). These results were confounded, however, by 25% of patients initially randomised to tamoxifen treatment electing to crossover to letrozole treatment in 2005 when the initial results were announced. Most of these patients crossed over in years 3 to 5 with a median duration of letrozole treatment after crossover of 18 months. This led to a bias against letrozole because other data (see below) have shown that a switch from tamoxifen to an aromatase inhibitor after around 2 years is associated with an improved DFS.In a censored analysis to allow for this bias, the overall survival ratio was significantly in favour of letrozole with a hazard ratio of 0.81 (25% confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.94). The true figure for overall survival difference probably lies between these two analyses and would almost certainly show a significant survival benefit fo
Debate: tailored targeted therapy for all - a realistic and worthwhile objective? Introduction to Session 2
Ian E Smith
Breast Cancer Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/bcr2425
Abstract: Dr Per L?nning spoke in favour. He made the point that tailormade therapy should not be confused with implementing simple prognostic or predictive factors that in general do not define direct biological targets but rather should implement biological parameters revealing a variable statistical correlation to outcome. He discussed that breast cancers have recently been separated into five distinct classes based on gene expression profiles: luminal A, luminal B, HER2, basal class, and, finally, so-called normal breast-like tumours. Dr L?nning argued that the identification of oestrogen receptor as a predictive marker has made endocrine therapy in breast cancer the ultimate targeted or tailored cancer therapy. Over the past decade, tailored therapy with the use of anti-HER2 strategies has revolutionised treatment for around 20% of cancer patients. The introduction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors has improved the process of tailoring treatment for patients carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 defect tumours, and probably also for many additional patients carrying triple-negative tumours. His argument was that the results achieved up to now suggest that tailored therapy for most if not all breast cancer patients in need of systemic treatments is a realistic approach in the near future.Dr Kathy Pritchard then spoke against the motion. She likewise acknowledged the role of oestrogen receptor and HER2 in targeted therapy, and further discussed gene expression arrays such as OncotypeDX for targeting treatment. She went on to caution against so-called predictive factors for specific chemotherapies including HER2 and topoisomerase IIα, demonstrating that their role so far is uncertain given the inconsistency of individual studies addressing the issue. She concluded that neither of these markers were ready for use and that methodologic issues remained, including lack of reproducibility of measurements, publication bias and lack of power of individual studies. She agreed that the m
Spectral entropy and haemodynamic response to surgery during sevoflurane anaesthesia
FJ Smith, E Dannhauser
Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia and Analgesia , 2006,
The approach to regional planning in Natal
E. Thorrington-Smith
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1965, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v33i2.1353
Abstract: Limitations on the development of regional planning in the Republic are no longer due to lack of public interest or the availability of funds, but rather to a tragic shortage of men and women trained to undertake the work. While being conscious and most appreciative of the great honour and kindness extended to me by the University of Potchefstroom in inviting me to address so distinguished a company today, may I also say what a great pleasure it is to be present at the inauguration of an Institute for Regional Planning which will have as one of its main objects, the training of regional planners to help meet South Africa’s needs.
List of Rarer Moths Taken in Sherborn, MASS.
E. J. Smith
Psyche , 1907, DOI: 10.1155/1907/64394
New Species of Tachinid (Diptera) From New England
Harrison E. Smith
Psyche , 1915, DOI: 10.1155/1915/10341
Five New Species of North AmericanTachinid
Harrison E. Smith
Psyche , 1917, DOI: 10.1155/1917/89159
Notes on New England Tachinid , With theDescription of One New Genus and Two NewSpecies
Harrison E. Smith
Psyche , 1917, DOI: 10.1155/1917/91575
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