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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 448347 matches for " E. S. Cross "
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Bevacizumab Related Hypertension and Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome in Gynecologic Malignancies: A case Control Study  [PDF]
Sarah N. Cross, Elena S. Ratner, Dan A. Silasi, Alessandro D. Santin, Masoud Azodi, Thomas J. Rutherford, Peter E. Schwartz
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.22028
Abstract: Background: Bevacizumab is increasingly being used in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies, but has significant side-effects including hypertension and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPLS), which must be recognized by the gynecologic oncologist. Methods: A 26-month institutional retrospective review of bevacizumab in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. Patients were grouped according to whether they had bevacizumab-related hypertension (defined as at least a grade one hypertensive toxicity) or not. There were no differences in patient demographics between the groups. Risk factors for developing bevacizumab-related hypertension were assessed using t-tests, Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher’s exact test. Results: Our group has treated 45 patients with bevacizumab. Fifteen (33%) patients had a pre-existing diagnosis of hypertension, 12 (80%) of whom had at least one elevated blood pressure during treatment. The 30 (67%) patients who did not have a pre-existing diagnosis of hypertension still had a high incidence of bevacizumab-related elevated blood pressure (14, 47%). The majority of patients (26, 58%) had at least one therapy cycle complicated by hypertension. Patients who experienced bevacizumab-related hypertension were significantly more likely than not to have a history of hypertension (odds ratio of 4.6, 95% CI 1.1-19.6). There was a 4.4% incidence of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. Patients with age equal to or greater than 75 years, stage IV disease, and creatinine elevations greater than or equal to 1.4 mg/dL were significantly more likely to develop bevacizumab-related hypertension. Other factors such as numbers of prior chemotherapies, cycles of bevacizumab, BMI, cancer site, and histology were not significantly associated with bevacizumab-related hypertension. Conclusions: Hypertension is a problem for patients on bevacizumab whether or not they have a pre-existing diagnosis. However, those with a history of hypertension were significantly more likely to have bevacizumab-related hypertension.
Origin of the high piezoelectric response in PbZr(1-x)TixO3
R. Guo,L. E. Cross,S-E. Park,B. Noheda,D. E. Cox,G. Shirane
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.5423
Abstract: High resolution x-ray powder diffraction measurements on poled PbZr(1-x)TixO3 (PZT) ceramic samples close to the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary (the so-called morphotropic phase boundary, MPB) have shown that for both rhombohedral and tetragonal compositions, the piezoelectric elongation of the unit cell does not occur along the polar directions but along those directions associated with the monoclinic distortion. This work provides the first direct evidence for the origin of the very high piezoelectricity in PZT.
Polarization rotation via a monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric 92%PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-8%PbTiO3
B. Noheda,D. E. Cox,G. Shirane,S-E. Park,L. E. Cross,Z. Zhong
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3891
Abstract: The origin of ultrahigh piezoelectricity in the relaxor ferroelectric PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 was studied with an electric field applied along the [001] direction. The zero-field rhombohedral R phase starts to follow the direct polarization path to tetragonal symmetry via an intermediate monoclinic M phase, but then jumps irreversibly to an alternate path involving a different type of monoclinic distortion. Details of the structure and domain configuration of this novel phase are described. This result suggests that there is a nearby R-M phase boundary as found in the Pb(Ti,Zr)O3 system.
CCN activation experiments with adipic acid: effect of particle phase and adipic acid coatings on soluble and insoluble particles
S. S. Hings,W. C. Wrobel,E. S. Cross,D. R. Worsnop
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Slightly soluble atmospherically relevant organic compounds, such as adipic acid, may influence particle CCN activity and therefore cloud formation. The 11 published experimental studies on the CCN activity of adipic acid particles are not consistent with each other nor do they in most cases agree with the K hler theory. The CCN activity of adipic acid aerosol particles was studied over a significantly wider range of conditions than in any previous single study. The work spans the conditions of the previous studies and also provides alternate methods for producing wet and dry adipic acid particles without the need to produce them by atomization of aqueous solutions. The CCN effect of adipic acid coatings on both soluble and insoluble particles has also been studied. The CCN activation of the small (dm<150 nm) initially dry particles is subject to a deliquescence barrier, while for the larger particles the activation follows the K hler curve. Adipic acid particles prepared in a wet state follow the K hler curve over the full range of particle diameters studied. The experiments suggest that the scatter in the previously published CCN measurements is most likely due to the difficulty of producing uncontaminated adipic acid particles by atomization of solutions and possibly also due to uncertainties in the calibration of the instruments. The addition of a hydrophilic soluble compound to dry adipic acid eliminates the effect of particle phase, that is, the effect of the deliquescence barrier to CCN activation. An adipic acid coating on hydrophobic soot yields a CCN active particle. For the relatively small soot particles (dcore=88 and 102 nm) the CCN activity of the coated particles approaches the deliquescence line of adipic acid, suggesting that the total size of the particle determines CCN activation and the soot core acts as a scaffold.
The Reproductive Biology of the Softshell Clam, Mya arenaria, in Ireland, and the Possible Impacts of Climate Variability
M. E. Cross,S. Lynch,A. Whitaker,R. M. O'Riordan,S. C. Culloty
Journal of Marine Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/908163
Abstract: Little is known about the biology of the softshell clam in Europe, despite it being identified as a potential species to culture for food in the future. Monthly samples of the softshell clam, Mya arenaria, were collected intertidally from Co. Wexford, Ireland, over a period of sixteen months. The mean weight of sampled individuals was 7 4 ± 4 . 9 ?g and mean length was 8 . 2 ± 0 . 2 ?cm. Histological examination revealed a female-to-male ratio of 1?:?1.15. In 2010, M. arenaria at this site matured over the summer months, with both sexes either ripe or spawning by August. A single spawning event was recorded in 2010, completed by November. Two unusually cold winters, followed by a warmer-than-average spring, appear to have affected M. arenaria gametogenesis in this area, potentially affecting the time of spawning, fertilisation success, and recruitment of this species. No hermaphrodites were observed in the samples collected, nor were any pathogens observed. Timing of development and spawning is compared with the coasts of eastern North America and with other European coasts. 1. Introduction The softshell clam, Mya arenaria, is widely distributed in coastal and intertidal soft substrates in boreal waters and is often a dominant species in benthic communities [1]. Mya arenaria currently occupies a wide geographical range in the northern hemisphere, on the east and west coasts of North America, where it is commercially important for fisheries and aquaculture [2, 3]. In 2008 alone, the National Marine Fisheries Service of USA reported approximately 1.73 million kg of M. arenaria harvested, worth in excess of €16 million [4]. The present European distribution of M. arenaria ranges from Northern Norway to Portugal, including the Black Sea [5–7], with recent reports of its introduction to the Mediterranean Sea [4]. Mya arenaria is rarely collected for food or bait in European waters, but it is an ecologically important food source for fish such as plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichtys flesus) [6], shrimp, sandworms, crabs, and wading birds such as oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and curlew (Numenius arquata) [8]. Due to the softshell clams’ ability to survive and reproduce in a variety of differing areas such as mud and gravel, it could be an ideal species to culture in European waters in the future. Mya arenaria are widespread around all Irish and British coasts [9, 10], but little information is currently available on reproductive biology in these areas. Previous work in the United States has revealed that the sexes of M. arenaria
Fair Plan 6: Quo Vadis the 80%-Emission-Reduction-By-2050 Plan?  [PDF]
Michael E. Schlesinger, Michael Ring, Emily Cross
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2015.52009
Abstract: In our Fair Plan 5 paper, we compared the CO2 emissions of the 80%-Emission-Reduction-By-2050 (80/50) Plan with the CO2 emissions of our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate. We found that the 80/50 Plan reduced CO2 emissions more rapidly than necessary to achieve the principal objective of the Fair Plan: to keep Global Warming (GW) within the 2 (3.6) limit adopted by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) “to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”. Here, we ask the “What If” question: “What would the GW of the 80/50 Plan be post 2100 if its CO2 emissions post 2100 were kept at their 2100 value?” We find that although the GW of the 80/50 Plan decreases slightly over part of the 21st century, it does not remain constant thereafter. Rather, the GW of the 80/50 Plan begins to increase in 2088, exceeds that of the Fair Plan beginning in 2230, exceeds the 2 (3.6) limit of the UNFCCC in 2596, and ends the millennium at 2.7 (4.8). Thus, not only does the 80/50 Plan phase out humanity’s CO2 emissions faster than necessary to fulfill the UNFCCC constraint, it also fails that constraint if its CO2 emissions post 2100 are kept at their 2100 value. Accordingly, we believe that the Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate is superior to the 80/50 Plan.
Bacillus anthracis-derived edema toxin (ET) counter-regulates movement of neutrophils and macromolecules through the endothelial paracellular pathway
Chinh Nguyen, Chiguang Feng, Min Zhan, Alan S Cross, Simeon E Goldblum
BMC Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-2
Abstract: Pretreatment of human microvascular endothelial cell(EC)s of the lung (HMVEC-L) with ET decreased interleukin (IL)-8-driven transendothelial migration (TEM) of PMNs with a maximal reduction of nearly 60%. This effect required the presence of both EF and PA. Conversely, ET did not diminish PMN chemotaxis in an EC-free system. Pretreatment of subconfluent HMVEC-Ls decreased transendothelial 14 C-albumin flux by ~ 50% compared to medium controls. Coadministration of ET with either tumor necrosis factor-α or bacterial lipopolysaccharide, each at 100 ng/mL, attenuated the increase of transendothelial 14 C-albumin flux caused by either agent alone. The inhibitory effect of ET on TEM paralleled increases in protein kinase A (PKA) activity, but could not be blocked by inhibition of PKA with either H-89 or KT-5720. Finally, we were unable to replicate the ET effect with either forskolin or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, two agents known to increase cAMP.We conclude that ET decreases IL-8-driven TEM of PMNs across HMVEC-L monolayers independent of cAMP/PKA activity.Anthrax refers to those clinical syndromes caused by the spore-forming, Gram-positive organism, Bacillus anthracis [1]. Classically, anthrax presents as one of three syndromes: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and pulmonary [1]. Pulmonary anthrax is among the most feared of infectious diseases; once clinical symptoms have developed, mortality remains high even with appropriate treatment. Much of the pathogenesis of anthrax is currently attributed to two toxins, each of which is produced from two of three proteins synthesized by the bacillary form of the organism: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF) [1]. PA combines with either LF to form lethal toxin (LT), or with EF to form edema toxin (ET) [1]. LT received its name as it was thought to be the principal virulence determinant responsible for the most deleterious sequelae of anthrax infection [1]. ET was so named as it caused localized edema
Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer
E. S. Cross,T. B. Onasch,M. Canagaratna,J. T. Jayne
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: We present the first single particle results obtained using an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The instrument was operated as a standard AMS from 12–30 March, acquiring average chemical composition and size distributions for the ambient aerosol, and in single particle mode from 27–30 March. Over a 75-h sampling period, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically triggered, saved, and analyzed. The correlated optical and chemical detection allowed detailed examination of single particle collection and quantification within the LS-ToF-AMS. The single particle data enabled the mixing states of the ambient aerosol to be characterized within the context of the size-resolved ensemble chemical information. The particulate mixing states were examined as a function of sampling time and most of the particles were found to be internal mixtures containing many of the organic and inorganic species identified in the ensemble analysis. The single particle mass spectra were deconvolved, using techniques developed for ensemble AMS data analysis, into HOA, OOA, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, and NH4Cl fractions. Average single particle mass and chemistry measurements are shown to be in agreement with ensemble MS and PTOF measurements. While a significant fraction of ambient particles were internal mixtures of varying degrees, single particle measurements of chemical composition allowed the identification of time periods during which the ambient ensemble was externally mixed. In some cases the chemical composition of the particles suggested a likely source. Throughout the full sampling period, the ambient ensemble was an external mixture of combustion-generated HOA particles from local sources (e.g. traffic), with number concentrations peaking during morning rush hour (04:00–08:00 LT) each day, and more processed particles of mixed composition from nonspecific sources. From 09:00–12:00 LT all particles within the ambient ensemble, including the locally produced HOA particles, became coated with NH4NO3 due to photochemical production of HNO3. The number concentration of externally mixed HOA particles remained low during daylight hours. Throughout the afternoon the OOA component dominated the organic fraction of the single particles, likely due to secondary organic aerosol formation and condensation. Single particle mass fractions of (
Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft
E. S. Cross,J. F. Hunter,A. J. Carrasquillo,J. P. Franklin
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/acpd-13-8065-2013
Abstract: A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10–20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.
Single particle characterization using a light scattering module coupled to a time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer
E. S. Cross,T. B. Onasch,M. Canagaratna,J. T. Jayne
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2009,
Abstract: We present the first single particle results obtained with an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer coupled with a light scattering module (LS-ToF-AMS). The instrument was deployed at the T1 ground site approximately 40 km northeast of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area as part of the MILAGRO field study in March of 2006. The LS-ToF-AMS acquires both ensemble average and single particle data. Over a 75-h sampling period from 27–30 March 2006, 12 853 single particle mass spectra were optically-triggered and saved. The single particles were classified based on observed vaporization histories and measured chemical compositions. The single particle data is shown to provide insights on internal AMS collection efficiencies and ambient mixing state information that augments the ensemble data. Detection of correlated light scattering and chemical ion signals allowed for a detailed examination of the vaporization/ionization process for single particles measured with the AMS instrument. Three particle vaporization event types were identified as a fraction of the total number of particles detected: (1) 23% with prompt vaporization, (2) 26% with delayed vaporization, and (3) 51% characterized as null. Internal consistency checks show that average single particle nonrefractory mass and chemical composition measurements were in reasonable agreement with ensemble measurements and suggest that delayed and null vaporization events are the dominant source of the nonunit collection efficiency of the AMS. Taken together, the simultaneous prompt single particle and aerosol ensemble measurements offer insight into the mixing state and atmospheric transformations of ambient aerosol particles.
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