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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167683 matches for " E. Nakar "
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New results on the temporal structure of GRBs
E. Nakar,T. Piran
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/10853853_94
Abstract: We analyze the temporal structure of long ((T_{90}>2sec)) and short ((T_{90}<2sec)) BATSE bursts. We find that: (i) In many short bursts (\delta t_{min}/T\ll 1) (where (\delta t_{min}) is the shortest pulse). This indicates that short bursts arise, like long ones, in internal shocks. (ii) In long bursts there is an excess of long intervals between pulses (relative to a lognormal distribution). This excess can be explained by the existence of \emph{quiescent times}, long periods with no signal above the background that arise, most likely, from periods with no source activity. The lognormal distribution of the intervals (excluding the \emph{quiescent times}) is similar and correlated with the distribution of the pulses width, in agreement with the predictions of the internal shock model.
GRBs Light Curves - Another Clue on the Inner Engine
E. Nakar,T. Piran
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/341748
Abstract: The nature of the `inner engine' that accelerate and collimate the relativistic flow at the cores of GRBs is the most interesting current puzzle concerning GRBs. Numerical simulations have shown that the internal shocks' light curve reflects the activity of this inner engine. Using a simple analytic toy model we clarify the relations between the observed $ \gamma $-rays light curve and the inner engine's activity and the dependence of the light curves on the inner engine's parameters. This simple model also explains the observed similarity between the observed distributions of pulses widths and the intervals between pulses and the correlation between the width of a pulse and the length of the preceding interval. Our analysis suggests that the variability in the wind's Lorentz factors arises due to a modulation of the mass injected into a constant energy flow.
The multi-messenger picture of compact object encounters: binary mergers versus dynamical collisions
S. Rosswog,T. Piran,E. Nakar
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts708
Abstract: We explore the multi-messenger signatures of encounters between two neutron stars and between a neutron star and a stellar-mass black hole. We focus on the differences between gravitational wave driven binary mergers and dynamical collisions that occur, for example, in globular clusters. For both types of encounters we compare the gravitational wave and neutrino emission properties. We also calculate fallback rates and analyze the properties of the dynamically ejected matter. Last but not least we address the electromagnetic transients that accompany each type of encounter. The canonical nsns merger case ejects more than 1% of a solar mass of extremely neutron-rich ($Y_e\sim 0.03$) material, an amount that is consistent with double neutron star mergers being a major source of r-process in the galaxy. nsbh collisions eject very large amounts of matter ($\sim 0.15$ \msun) which seriously constrains their admissible occurrence rates. The compact object collision rate must therefore be less, likely much less, than 10% of the nsns merger rate. The radioactively decaying ejecta produce optical-UV "macronova" which, for the canonical merger case, peak after $\sim 0.4$ days with a luminosity of $\sim 10^{42}$ erg/s. nsns (nsbh) collisions reach up to 3 (7) times larger peak luminosities. The dynamic ejecta deposit a kinetic energy comparable to a supernova in the ambient medium. The canonical merger case releases approximately $2 \times 10^{50}$ erg, the most extreme (but likely rare) cases deposit kinetic energies of up to $10^{52}$ erg. The deceleration of this mildly relativistic material by the ambient medium produces long lasting radio flares. A canonical ns$^2$ merger at the detection horizon of advanced LIGO/Virgo produces a radio flare that peaks on a time scale of one year with a flux of $\sim$0.1 mJy at 1.4 GHz.
The Electromagnetic Signals of Compact Binary Mergers
T. Piran,E. Nakar,S. Rosswog
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt037
Abstract: Compact binary mergers are prime sources of gravitational waves, targeted by current and next generation detectors. The question "what is the observable electromagnetic (EM) signature of a compact binary merger?" is an intriguing one with crucial consequences to the quest for gravitational waves. We present a large set of numerical simulations that focus on the electromagnetic signals that emerge from the dynamically ejected sub-relativistic material. These outflows produce on a time scale of a day macronovae - short-lived IR to UV signals powered by radioactive decay. The interaction of this outflow with the surrounding matter inevitably leads to a long-lasting remnant. The expected radio signals of these remnants last longer than a year, when the sub-relativistic ejecta dominate the emission. We discuss their detectability in 1.4 GHz and 150 MHz and compare it with the detectability of short GRBs' orphan afterglows (which are produced by a different component of this outflow). Mergers with characteristics similar to those of the Galactic neutron star binary population (similar masses and typical circum-merger Galactic disk density of ~1cm^-3) taking place at the detection horizon of advanced GW detectors (300 Mpc) yield 1.4 GHz [150 MHz] signals of ~50 [300] microJy. The signal on time scales of weeks, is dominated by the mildly and/or ultra-relativistic outflow, which is not accounted for by our simulations, and is expected to be even brighter. Upcoming all sky surveys are expected to detect a few dozen, and possibly more, merger remnants at any given time thereby providing robust lower limits to the mergers rate even before the advanced GW detectorsbecome operational. Macronovae from the same distance peak in the IR to UV range at an observed magnitude that may be as bright as 22-23 about 10 hours after the merger but dimmer, redder and longer if the opacity is larger.
Limits on the GeV Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts
P. Beniamini,D. Guetta,E. Nakar,T. Piran
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.19259.x
Abstract: The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board of the Fermi satellite detected emission above 30 MeV only in a small fraction of the long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) at 8 keV - 10 MeV. Those bursts that were detected by the LAT were among the brightest GBM bursts. We examine a sample of the most luminous GBM bursts with no LAT detection and obtain upper limits on their high energy fluence. We find an average upper limit of LAT/GBM fluence ratio of 0.13 for GeV fluence during $T_{90}$ and an average upper limit ratio of 0.45 for GeV fluence during the first 600 seconds after the trigger. These ratios strongly constrain various emission models and in particular rule out SSC models for the prompt emission. In about a third of both LAT detected and LAT non-detected bursts, we find that the extrapolation of the MeV range Band spectrum to the GeV range is larger than the observed GeV fluence (or its upper limit). While this excess is not highly significant for any specific burst, the overall excess in a large fraction of the bursts suggests a decline in the high energy spectral slope in at least some of these bursts. Possibly an evidence for the long sought after pair creation limit.
A unified picture for low-luminosity and long gamma-ray bursts based on the extended progenitor of llgrb 060218/SN 2006aj
Ehud Nakar
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/172
Abstract: The relation between long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and low-luminosity GRBs (llgrbs) is a long standing puzzle -- on the one hand their high energy emission properties are fundamentally different, implying a different gamma-ray source, yet both are associated with similar supernovae of the same peculiar type (broad-line Ic), pointing at a similar progenitor and a similar explosion mechanism. Here we analyze the multi-wavelength data of the particularly well-observed SN 2006aj, associated with llgrb 060218, finding that its progenitor star is sheathed in an extended ($>100R_\odot$), low-mass ($\sim 0.01M_\odot$) envelope. This progenitor structure implies that the gamma-ray emission in this llgrb is generated by a mildly relativistic shock breakout. It also suggests a unified picture for llgrbs and LGRBs, where the key difference is the existence of an extended low-mass envelope in llgrbs and its absence in LGRBs. The same engine, which launches a relativistic jet, can drive the two explosions, but, while in LGRBs the ultra-relativistic jet emerges from the bare progenitor star and produces the observed gamma-rays, in llgrbs the extended envelope smothers the jet and prevents the generation of a large gamma-ray luminosity. Instead, the jet deposits all its energy in the envelope, driving a mildly relativistic shock that upon breakout produces a llgrb. In addition for giving a unified view of the two phenomena, this model provides a natural explanation to many observed properties of llgrbs. It also implies that llgrbs are a viable source of the observed extra-galactic diffuse neutrino flux and that they are promising sources for future gravitational wave detectors.
What do we know about gamma-ray bursts?
Ehud Nakar
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Decades of improving data and extensive theoretical research have led to a popular model of gamma-ray bursts. According to this model, a catastrophic event in a stellar system results in the formation of a compact central engine, which releases a fraction of a solar rest-mass energy within seconds in the form of ultra-relativistic jets. Dissipation of the jets energy leads first to prompt gamma-ray emission and later to a long lasting afterglow. Here I summarize the introduction that I gave to the debate "where do we stand?" in the conference "The Shocking Universe" held in Venice. This is a very brief summary of my view of the facts that we are (almost) certain about, models that are popular but may need rethinking, and main open questions.
A Revised View of the Transient Radio Sky
D. A. Frail,S. R. Kulkarni,E. O. Ofek,G. C. Bower,E. Nakar
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/747/1/70
Abstract: We report on a re-analysis of archival data from the Very Large Array for a sample of ten long duration radio transients reported by Bower and others. These transients have an implied all-sky rate that would make them the most common radio transient in the sky and yet most have no quiescent counterparts at other wavelengths and therefore no known progenitor (other than Galactic neutron stars). We find that more than half of these transients are due to rare data artifacts. The remaining sources have lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than initially reported by 1 to 1.5-sigma. This lowering of SNR matters greatly since the sources are at the threshold. We are unable to decisively account for the differences. By two orthogonal criteria one source appears to be a good detection. Thus the rate of long duration radio transients without optical counterparts is, at best, comparable to that of the class of recently discovered Swift J1644+57 nuclear radio transients. We revisit the known and expected classes of long duration radio transients and conclude that the dynamic radio sky remains a rich area for further exploration. Informed by the experience of past searches for radio transients, we suggest that future surveys pay closer attention to rare data errors and ensure that a wealth of sensitive multi-wavelength data be available in advance of the radio observations and that the radio searches should have assured follow-up resources.
On The External Shock Synchrotron Model for GRBs' GeV Emission
Tsvi Piran,Ehud Nakar
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/718/2/L63
Abstract: The dominant component of the (100 MeV - 50 GeV) GRB emission detected by LAT starts with a delay relative to the prompt soft (sub-MeV) gamma-rays and lasts long after the soft component fades. This has lead to the intriguing suggestion that this high energy emission is generated via synchrotron emission of relativistic electrons accelerated by the external shock. Moreover, the limits on the MeV afterglow emission lead to the suggestion that, at least in bright GeV bursts the field is not amplified beyond compression in the shock. We show here that considerations of confinement (within the decelerating shock), efficiency and cooling of the emitting electrons constrain, within this model, the magnetic fields that arise in both the upstream (circum burst) and downstream (ejecta) regions, allowing us to obtain a direct handle on their values. The well known limit on the maximal synchrotron emission, when combined with the blast wave evolution, implies that late photons (arriving more than ~100 s after the burst) with energies higher than ~ 10GeV do not arise naturally from external shock synchrotron and almost certainly have a different origin. Finally, even a modest seed flux (a few mJy) at IR-optical would quench, via Inverse Compton cooling, the GeV emission unless the magnetic field is significantly amplified behind the shock. An observation of a burst with simultaneous IR-optical and GeV emission will rule out this model.
Strategy updating rules and strategy distributions in dynamical multiagent systems
Shahar Hod,Ehud Nakar
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.026115
Abstract: In the evolutionary version of the minority game, agents update their strategies (gene-value $p$) in order to improve their performance. Motivated by recent intriguing results obtained for prize-to-fine ratios which are smaller than unity, we explore the system's dynamics with a strategy updating rule of the form $p \to p \pm \delta p$ ($0 \leq p \leq 1$). We find that the strategy distribution depends strongly on the values of the prize-to-fine ratio $R$, the length scale $\delta p$, and the type of boundary condition used. We show that these parameters determine the amplitude and frequency of the the temporal oscillations observed in the gene space. These regular oscillations are shown to be the main factor which determines the strategy distribution of the population. In addition, we find that agents characterized by $p={1 \over 2}$ (a coin-tossing strategy) have the best chances of survival at asymptotically long times, regardless of the value of $\delta p$ and the boundary conditions used.
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