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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167601 matches for " E. Kokubo "
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Frequency Range Dependent TE10 to TE40 Metallic Waveguide Mode Converter  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kokubo
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.37046
Abstract: Dielectric rod arrays in a metallic waveguide alter the propagation modes and group velocities of electromagnetic waves. We focus on TE10-to-TE20 mode converters and investigate the variation in their behavior with frequency. In this investigation, a mode converter is proposed that passes the TE10 mode at frequencies lower than 2fc, and converts the TE10 mode into the TE40 mode for frequencies higher than 2fc, which is achieved by a combination of TE10-TE20 mode converters.
Simple Method to Change the Magnetic Resonant Frequencies of Short Wire Pairs  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kokubo
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.54026

Short wire pairs are simple metamaterial structures. This structure includes a dielectric substrate with metal strips on both sides, of which the electric and magnetic resonant frequencies can be controlled by adjusting the length of the metallic wires. However, to vary the magnetic resonant frequency requires a change in the length of the strip and another patterned photomask. In this investigation, a simple method is introduced that requires only one patterned photomask by shifting the position of faced wire pairs up and down.

Merging Criteria for Giant Impacts of Protoplanets
H. Genda,E. Kokubo,S. Ida
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/137
Abstract: At the final stage of terrestrial planet formation, known as the giant impact stage, a few tens of Mars-sized protoplanets collide with one another to form terrestrial planets. Almost all previous studies on the orbital and accretional evolution of protoplanets in this stage have been based on the assumption of perfect accretion, where two colliding protoplanets always merge. However, recent impact simulations have shown that collisions among protoplanets are not always merging events, that is, two colliding protoplanets sometimes move apart after the collision (hit-and-run collision). As a first step towards studying the effects of such imperfect accretion of protoplanets on terrestrial planet formation, we investigated the merging criteria for collisions of rocky protoplanets. Using the smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) method, we performed more than 1000 simulations of giant impacts with various parameter sets, such as the mass ratio of protoplanets, $\gamma$, the total mass of two protoplanets, $M_{\rm T}$, the impact angle, $\theta$, and the impact velocity, $v_{\rm imp}$. We investigated the critical impact velocity, $v_{\rm cr}$, at the transition between merging and hit-and-run collisions. We found that the normalized critical impact velocity, $v_{\rm cr}/v_{\rm esc}$, depends on $\gamma$ and $\theta$, but does not depend on $M_{\rm T}$, where $v_{\rm esc}$ is the two-body escape velocity. We derived a simple formula for $v_{\rm cr}/v_{\rm esc}$ as a function of $\gamma$ and $\theta$, and applied it to the giant impact events obtained by \textit{N}-body calculations in the previous studies. We found that 40% of these events should not be merging events.
A dynamical study on the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets II: The super Earth HD 40307 g
R. Brasser,S. Ida,E. Kokubo
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu555
Abstract: HARPS and it Kepler results indicate that half of solar-type stars host planets with periods P<100 d and masses M < 30 M_E. These super Earth systems are compact and dynamically cold. Here we investigate the stability of the super Earth system around the K-dwarf HD40307. It could host up to six planets, with one in the habitable zone. We analyse the system's stability using numerical simulations from initial conditions within the observational uncertainties. The most stable solution deviates 3.1 sigma from the published value, with planets e and f not in resonance and planets b and c apsidally aligned. We study the habitability of the outer planet through the yearly-averaged insolation and black-body temperature at the pole. Both undergo large variations because of its high eccentricity and are much more intense than on Earth. The insolation variations are precession dominated with periods of 40 kyr and 102 kyr for precession and obliquity if the rotation period is 3 d. A rotation period of about 1.5 d could cause extreme obliquity variations because of capture in a Cassini state. For faster rotation rates the periods converge to 10 kyr and 20 kyr. The large uncertainty in the precession period does not change the overall outcome.
A dynamical study on the habitability of terrestrial exoplanets I: Tidally evolved planet-satellite pairs
R. Brasser,S. Ida,E. Kokubo
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sts151
Abstract: We investigate the obliquity and spin period of Earth-Moon like systems after 4.5 Gyr of tidal evolution with various satellite masses and initial planetary obliquity and discuss their relations to the habitability of the planet. We find three possible outcomes: either i) the system is still evolving, ii) the system is double synchronous or iii) the satellite has collided with the planet. The transition between case i) and ii) is abrupt and occurs at slightly larger satellite mass ($m_s \sim 0.02m_p$) than the lunar mass. We suggest that cases ii) and iii) are less habitable than case i). Using results from models of giant impacts and satellite accretion, we found that the systems that mimic our own with rotation period $12 < P_p < 48$ h and current planetary obliquity $\varepsilon_p < 40^\circ$ or $\varepsilon_p > 140^\circ$ only represent 14% of the possible outcomes. Elser et al. (2011) conclude that the probability of a terrestrial planet having a heavy satellite is 13%. Combining these results suggests that the probability of ending up with a system such as our own is of the order of 2%.
Warm Debris Disks Produced by Giant Impacts During Terrestrial Planet Formation
H. Genda,H. Kobayashi,E. Kokubo
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/810/2/136
Abstract: In our solar system, Mars-sized protoplanets frequently collided with each other during the last stage of terrestrial planet formation called the giant impact stage. Giant impacts eject a large amount of material from the colliding protoplanets into the terrestrial planet region, which may form debris disks with observable infrared excesses. Indeed, tens of warm debris disks around young solar-type stars have been observed. Here, we quantitatively estimate the total mass of ejected materials during the giant impact stages. We found that $\sim$0.4 times the Earth's mass is ejected in total throughout the giant impact stage. Ejected materials are ground down by collisional cascade until micron-sized grains are blown out by radiation pressure. The depletion timescale of these ejected materials is determined primarily by the mass of the largest body among them. We conducted high-resolution simulations of giant impacts to accurately obtain the mass of the largest ejected body. We then calculated the evolution of the debris disks produced by a series of giant impacts and depleted by collisional cascades to obtain the infrared excess evolution of the debris disks. We found that the infrared excess is almost always higher than the stellar infrared flux throughout the giant impact stage ($\sim$100 Myr) and is sometimes $\sim$10 times higher immediately after a giant impact. Therefore, giant impact stages would explain the infrared excess from most observed warm debris disks. The observed fraction of stars with warm debris disks indicates that the formation probability of our solar system-like terrestrial planets is approximately 10%.
Experiment of Frequency Range Dependent TE10 to TE20 Mode Converter  [PDF]
Yoshihiro Kokubo, Tadashi Kawai
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2016.89017
Abstract: Typical metallic waveguide mode converters convert electromagnetic waves from one mode to another mode for some frequency ranges. However, most electromagnetic waves outside of the specified frequency range are reflected. We report a design for a mode converter which passes the TE10 mode at a low frequency range and efficiently converts the TE10 mode to the TE20 mode at a high frequency range. To gradually shift the mode profile from TE10 to TE20, dielectric rods are placed in a sequence along the waveguide starting near the sidewall and moving to the center of the waveguide with decreasing radius of the rods. This design reduces reflection of electromagnetic waves. Experimental tests demonstrate the efficacy of the design.
Constraints on the temperature inhomogeneity in quasar accretion discs from the ultraviolet-optical spectral variability
Mitsuru Kokubo
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv241
Abstract: The physical mechanisms of the quasar ultraviolet (UV)-optical variability are not well understood despite the long history of observations. Recently, Dexter & Agol presented a model of quasar UV-optical variability, which assumes large local temperature fluctuations in the quasar accretion discs. This inhomogeneous accretion disc model is claimed to describe not only the single-band variability amplitude, but also microlensing size constraints and the quasar composite spectral shape. In this work, we examine the validity of the inhomogeneous accretion disc model in the light of quasar UV-optical spectral variability by using five-band multi-epoch light curves for nearly 9 000 quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 region. By comparing the values of the intrinsic scatter $\sigma_{\text{int}}$ of the two-band magnitude-magnitude plots for the SDSS quasar light curves and for the simulated light curves, we show that Dexter & Agol's inhomogeneous accretion disc model cannot explain the tight inter-band correlation often observed in the SDSS quasar light curves. This result leads us to conclude that the local temperature fluctuations in the accretion discs are not the main driver of the several years' UV-optical variability of quasars, and consequently, that the assumption that the quasar accretion discs have large localized temperature fluctuations is not preferred from the viewpoint of the UV-optical spectral variability.
The dynamics of long-lived spiral arms
Fujii M.S.,Baba J.,Saitoh T.R.,Kokubo E.
EPJ Web of Conferences , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjconf/20121907009
Abstract: It has been believed that spiral arms in pure stellar disks decay in several galactic rotations due to the heating by the spiral arms. However, it might be caused by a numerical heating. We performed a three-dimensional N-body simulations with a sufficiently large number of particles and found that stellar disks can maintain spiral arms for more than 10 Gyr without the help of cooling. Spiral arms are transient and recurrent and they heat disk with a heating rate, dQ/dt, correlated to the spiral amplitude |Am|. On the other hand, |Am| is suppressed by Toomre’s Q. Therefore, the dynamical heating becomes less effective in the later phase of the evolution. This mechanism maintain the spiral arms for more than 10 Gyr.
The dynamics of spiral arms in pure stellar disks
M. S. Fujii,J. Baba,T. R. Saitoh,J. Makino,E. Kokubo,K. Wada
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/109
Abstract: It has been believed that spirals in pure stellar disks, especially the ones spontaneously formed, decay in several galactic rotations due to the increase of stellar velocity dispersions. Therefore, some cooling mechanism, for example dissipational effects of the interstellar medium, was assumed to be necessary to keep the spiral arms. Here we show that stellar disks can maintain spiral features for several tens of rotations without the help of cooling, using a series of high-resolution three-dimensional $N$-body simulations of pure stellar disks. We found that if the number of particles is sufficiently large, e.g., $3\times 10^6$, multi-arm spirals developed in an isolated disk can survive for more than 10 Gyrs. We confirmed that there is a self-regulating mechanism that maintains the amplitude of the spiral arms. Spiral arms increase Toomre's $Q$ of the disk, and the heating rate correlates with the squared amplitude of the spirals. Since the amplitude itself is limited by the value of $Q$, this makes the dynamical heating less effective in the later phase of evolution. A simple analytical argument suggests that the heating is caused by gravitational scattering of stars by spiral arms, and that the self-regulating mechanism in pure-stellar disks can effectively maintain spiral arms on a cosmological timescale. In the case of a smaller number of particles, e.g., $3\times 10^5$, spiral arms grow faster in the beginning of the simulation (while $Q$ is small) and they cause a rapid increase of $Q$. As a result, the spiral arms become faint in several Gyrs.
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