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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167602 matches for " E. Klaghofer "
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森林植被影响径流形成机制研究进展
张志强, 王礼先, 余新晓, E.Klaghofer
自然资源学报 , 2001, DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.013
Abstract: ?径流形成机制研究在水文学领域中具有十分重要的意义,且受到越来越广泛的重视。水文环境以及水文通量的空间异质性和时间变化性导致了水文过程的尺度依赖性和非线性特征,没有对水文过程较为清晰的认识,就不能将某一地区某一流域森林植被变化水文生态效应的研究结果简单地外推到其他地区和其他流域。开发基于物理过程分布式参数水文模型可以为认识森林植被变化的生态学后效和客观评价森林植被水文生态效益提供可行的工具。但是要实现这一目标,研究森林植被影响径流形成机制是问题的核心所在。另一方面,认识森林影响径流形成机制有助于研究水文学中的尺度问题。研究森林植被影响径流形成机制的主要方法包括水文测验、同位素示踪和动力水文学计算等,研究的空间尺度则为坡面与流域相接合。从已有的研究成果来看,森林植被影响径流形成机制可以概括为:①森林流域径流形成为变动源区产流机制;②森林流域径流形成主要受饱和地表径流、亚表层径流和地下径流的控制;③森林流域径流形成机制是相互作用和相互转化的;④优先流在森林流域径流形成中起到了至关重要的作用。
土壤水分运动特征参数空间异质性:理论分析、取样与影响因素
王盛萍,张志强,武军,e.klaghofer
中国水土保持科学 , 2003,
Abstract: ?通过对土壤水分运动特征参数异质性研究的理论分析和方法回顾与总结,概述土壤水分运动特征参数异质性研究的取样方法,并对土壤水分运动特征参数异质性的影响因素做简要分析。
Tree-scale transpiration dynamics of Hedysarum scoparium in response to growth stage, groundwater table depth, and climate in a semi-arid environment in northwestern China
甘肃民勤地区不同地下水埋深花棒蒸腾耗水研究

ZHANG Zhiqiang,WANG Shengping,JIA Baoquan,ZHAO Ming,E Klaghofer,
张志强
,王盛萍,贾宝全,赵明,E. Klaghofer

生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: Natural precipitation is often limited and groundwater can be a very important water source for vegetation reestablishment and growth in the dryland regions. Therefore, quantifying water use by plant transpiration under different ground water tables helps to understand responsive mechanism of plant growth to various ground water regimes. One year-old seedlings of Hedysarum scoparium were planted in 1995 and single tree transpiration dynamics under constant water tables of 1.6 m, 2.6 m, and 3.6 m were measur...
甘肃民勤地区不同地下水埋深花棒蒸腾耗水研究
张志强?,王盛萍?,贾宝全?,赵明?,E. Klaghofer
生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: 采用非称重式地下水恒位补偿蒸渗仪稳定供水系统、气候观测、土壤含水量测定等方法,研究了1995年分别定植于地下水埋深为1.6m、2.6m和3.6m蒸渗仪栽培池中的1年生花棒(hedysarumscoparium)从1995年至2000年单株的蒸腾耗水规律。结果表明:(1)花棒不同生长阶段(年龄)蒸腾耗水对地下水埋深具有不同的响应特点。1年生花棒2.6m和3.6m地下水埋深条件下蒸腾量分别比1.6m高出188.35mm和113.7mm;4年生花棒蒸腾耗水量比1年生有显著增长,1.6m、2.6m和3.6m地下水埋深的花棒蒸腾量分别为440.96mm、397.78mm和471.88mm,较1年生增长了3.5倍、0.39倍和1.2倍;6年生各地下水埋深蒸腾量有不同程度的下降或稳定趋势,2.6m和3.6m埋深分别比4年生下降了16.3%和36.7%,而1.6m埋深几乎不变;(2)生长季花棒蒸腾耗水占全年蒸腾量的绝大部分,但由于受气候、不同生长阶段植物生理生态以及土壤含水量分布等的影响,各水位1年生和6年生花棒生长季蒸腾耗水主要集中在径生长期(7~8月份),而4年生花棒各水位条件下生长季不同阶段蒸腾耗水相差不大,同一生长季内各水位间的蒸腾耗相差较小;(3)生长季花棒蒸腾耗水量与环境因子单因素关系分析表明,不同地下水埋深条件下花棒蒸腾耗水主要相关因子不尽相同,但其机理仍需进一步研究。
Impacts of forest vegetation on runoff generation mechanisms: a review
森林植被影响径流形成机制研究进展

ZHANG Zhi-qiang,WANG Li-xian,YU Xin-xiao,EKlaghofer,
张志强
,王礼先,余新晓,E.Klaghofer

自然资源学报 , 2001,
Abstract: Runoff generation mechanism is one of the key research focuses in the hydrological study on which more and more attention is concentrated.The complexity of hydrological processes such as scale dependence and nonlinear behavior resulted from the widespread spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of hydrological environment and fluxes makes it very difficult,given that without detailed understanding of the physical processes,to extrapolate the information from one area to another or from one scale to another.Current generation of physically based,distributed parameter models could accommodate the assessment of hydrological impacts of forest vegetation changes to certain degree in comparison with traditional approaches.However,the confidence of such models and the scale issues highlights current and future research needs in the forest vegetation influences on the runoff generation and delivery mechanisms.Three major research methods being adopted are hydrometry,tracer/isotope tracing,and dynamic calculation at the spatial scale from hillslopes to watershed.The current understanding of forest vegetation influences on the runoff generation could be summarized as (a)runoff is controlled by variable source area mechanisms for forested watershed,(b)major runoff components for forested watershed are saturated surface runoff,subsurface runoff,and groundwater runoff,(c)co existing and shifting of different runoff generation mechanisms,and (d)preferential flow is a key factor in controlling runoff generation for forested watershed.
Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine
Barbara Buddeberg-Fischer, Claudia Dietz, Richard Klaghofer, Claus Buddeberg
BMC Health Services Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-98
Abstract: As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine.The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress, poorly structured continuing education, increasing bureaucracy, work-life imbalance, low income, and decreasing social prestige. The statements revealed few differences depending on gender, medical field, and attitude towards choosing the medical profession again; one out of five young doctors would not do so.Reside
Swiss residents' speciality choices – impact of gender, personality traits, career motivation and life goals
Barbara Buddeberg-Fischer, Richard Klaghofer, Thomas Abel, Claus Buddeberg
BMC Health Services Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-137
Abstract: As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 522 fourth-year residents were asked in what speciality they wanted to qualify. They also assessed their career motivation and life goal aspirations. Data concerning personality traits such as sense of coherence, self-esteem, and gender role orientation were collected at the first assessment, four years earlier, in their final year of medical school. Data analyses were conducted by univariate and multivariate analyses of variance and covariance.In their fourth year of residency 439 (84.1%) participants had made their speciality choice. Of these, 45 (8.6%) subjects aspired to primary care, 126 (24.1%) to internal medicine, 68 (13.0%) to surgical specialities, 31 (5.9%) to gynaecology & obstetrics (G&O), 40 (7.7%) to anaesthesiology/intensive care, 44 (8.4%) to paediatrics, 25 (4.8%) to psychiatry and 60 (11.5%) to other specialities. Female residents tended to choose G&O, paediatrics, and anaesthesiology, males more often surgical specialities; the other specialities did not show gender-relevant differences of frequency distribution. Gender had the strongest significant influence on speciality choice, followed by career motivation, personality traits, and life goals. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated that career motivation and life goals mediated the influence of personality on career choice. Personality traits were no longer significant after controlling for career motivation and life goals as covariates. The effect of gender remained significant after controlling for personality traits, career motivation and life goals.Gender had the greatest impact on speciality and career choice, but there were also two other relevant influencing factors, namely career motivation and life goals. Senior physicians mentoring junior physicians should pay special attention to these aspects. Motivational guidance throughout medical training should not only focus on the profession
Career-Success Scale – A new instrument to assess young physicians' academic career steps
Barbara Buddeberg-Fischer, Martina Stamm, Claus Buddeberg, Richard Klaghofer
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-120
Abstract: 406 residents were assessed in terms of career aspired to, and their career progress. The Career-Success Scale, consisting of 7 items, was developed and validated, addressing objective criteria of academic career advancement. The influence of gender and career aspiration was investigated by a two-factorial analysis of variance, the relationships between personality factors, personal situation, career related factors and the Career-Success Scale by a multivariate linear regression analysis.The unidimensional Career-Success Scale has an internal consistency of 0.76. It is significantly correlated at the bivariate level with gender, instrumentality, and all career related factors, particularly with academic career and received mentoring. In multiple regression, only gender, academic career, surgery as chosen specialty, and received mentoring are significant predictors. The highest values were observed in participants aspiring to an academic career, followed by those pursuing a hospital career and those wanting to run a private practice. Independent of the career aspired to, female residents have lower scores than their male colleagues.The Career-Success Scale proved to be a short, reliable and valid instrument to measure career achievements. As mentoring is an independent predictor of career success, mentoring programs could be an important instrument to specifically enhance careers of female physicians in academia.Depending on the career aspired to, medical school graduates plan their postgraduate training differently. In Switzerland, as in other German-speaking countries, nearly half of all young physicians aspire to work as a medical specialist in a private practice [1]. Another forty per cent pursue a hospital career, but only about ten percent aspire to an academic career. As found in our study and reported by other authors [2-4] women physicians were generally less interested in academic pursuits than men. At the beginning of the specialty training a greater numb
Personality, illness perceptions, and lung function (FEV1) in 50 patients after lung transplantation
Goetzmann, Lutz,Scheuer, Eberhard,Naef, Rahel,Klaghofer, Richard
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: Objective: After lung transplantation little attention has been devoted to patient's personality and illness perceptions, although the importance of illness perceptions (e.g. to the psychosocial status of health) as well as the relationship between personality and illness perceptions is well-known from other areas of medicine.Methods: Fifty patients more than one year after lung transplantation were surveyed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) as well as the "control" and "consequences" scales of the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ). Medical data included the diagnoses of the underlying lung diseases and the pulmonary graft function as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1).Results: In our patients, mean values of the personality factors "extraversion" (p=.003), "openness to experiences" (p<.001), "agreeableness" (p=.035), and "conscientiousness" (p<.001) were significantly higher compared to the normal population. "Openness to experiences" correlated positively and "neuroticism" negatively with the illness perception "control". There was no correlation between illness perceptions and lung function.Conclusion: In lung transplant recipients, personality traits are more relevant to illness perceptions ("control") than current graft function.
What do patients think after a lung transplantation about their self, lung and social network? A quantitative analysis of categorical interview data
Goetzmann, Lutz,Moser, Karin S.,Vetsch, Esther,Klaghofer, Richard
GMS Psycho-Social-Medicine , 2006,
Abstract: Objective: Psychosocial aspects have been investigated in transplant medicine mainly by the means of various structured questionnaires. To date only few interview data are available on patients thoughts about their self, the transplanted lung or the medication, and the relationship between these thoughts and compliance or gender.Methods: Twenty patients were interviewed after transplantation about their perceptions on self, body, transplanted lung, medication and social network. Their compliance was rated by the attending physicians. The overall interrater-reliability for the category groups was Kappa=.8. The article presents quantitative results of the content analysis.Results: Statements were made most frequently about the patients' social network and their self, and significantly less frequently about their body, lung and medication. "Closeness", "distance" and "depression" where main issues that these patients were dealing with. "Closeness" and "distance" played major roles in interpersonal relationships as well as in the relationship to the new lung. Depression mainly had to do with health burdens and the psychosocial consequences of the transplantation (e.g. financial worries). Women made significantly more statements about their social network than men; furthermore they formulate more accented emotional evaluations. Patients with low compliance were more frequently preoccupied with their self, their body as well as the experience of "dependence" and "achievement" than patients with high compliance; also low compliant patients made more critical statements.Conclusions: For lung transplant recipients social relationships are the prime topic of their daily experience. With respect to compliance behaviour, special attention should be paid to the patients' self and body perception as well as to their experience of dependence. These results should be confirmed in studies with larger sample sizes.
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