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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167691 matches for " E. Davoust "
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The role of references in the astronomical discourse
R. Girard,E. Davoust
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We have counted the number of references in 1179 papers published in Astronomy and Astrophysics over twenty years. The number of references has increased by 60% between 1975 and 1995, reflecting the increase (by the same amount) of the literature which must be cited, and of the number of pages per paper. There are 1.5 times more references in predominantly observational fields than in others. References are used 1.65 times in the text, and there is no trend with time or field. They appear mostly in the introduction (30%) and in the main body of the paper (60%), but papers in predominantly observational fields tend to use less references in the introduction and more in the main body than papers in the other fields. Most references (62%) serve to support a result, and tend to be of theoretical nature. Astronomers are a very conformist bunch, as there are no trends with nationality, and references to conflicting evidence are kept at about 8%. The analysis of a series of papers by de Vaucouleurs on the Hubble constant shows how a controversial subject affects the use of references.
The morphological segregation of galaxies in clusters. III. The distant cluster Cl0939+4713 (Abell 851)
S. Andreon,E. Davoust,T. Heim
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We have performed an isophotal analysis of galaxies in the distant (z=0.4) cluster Cl0939+4713 (Abell 851), using post-refurbished Hubble Space Telescope images. Morphological type estimates for the galaxies are given. A rigorous comparison of the properties of the types shows that early-type galaxies in Cl0939+4713 are, within the present statistical or systematic errors, indistinguishable from their counterparts in Coma in all their studied properties, namely ellipticity profile, slope of the color-magnitude relation from the near-ultraviolet to the near-infrared colors, mean surface brightness and luminosity function in the restframe photographic J band, homogeneity in color (around the color-magnitude relation). Furthermore ellipticals and lenticulars are separately homogeneous in their mean surface brightness, and have similar relative mean surface brightnesses in both clusters. Spirals are overabundant in Cl0939+4713 with respect to Coma, but twice less than previously estimated, and are more similar to field spirals than to cluster spirals. We suggest that the differences in the photometric properties of the spirals in the two clusters arise from differences in cluster gas density distribution which ultimately bring star formation in the spirals to a stop in Coma, but not in Cl0939+4713. The morphological types are segregated along a privileged direction that coincides with the position angle of the major axis of the outer X-ray isophotes in the cluster, just like in Coma and Perseus.
Morphological classification and structural parameter of galaxies in the Coma and Perseus clusters
S. Andreon,E. Davoust,P. Poulain
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1051/aas:1997249
Abstract: We present the results of an isophotal shape analysis of galaxies in the Coma and Perseus clusters. These data, together with those of two previous papers, provide two complete samples of galaxies with reliable Hubble types in rich clusters: 1) all galaxies brighter than m_b = 16.5 falling within one degree (=2.3 Mpc) from the center of the Coma cluster (187 galaxies), 2) all galaxies brighter than m_{Zwicky}=15.7 in a region of 5 deg 3' times 5 deg 27' around the center of the Perseus cluster (139 galaxies). These two complete samples cover 5 orders of magnitude in galaxy density and span areas of 91 and 17 Mpc^2, clustercentric radii up to 2.3 and 6.4 Mpc, for Perseus and Coma respectively. They will be used in subsequent papers to study the dependence of galaxy types on cluster environment and as reference samples in comparisons with distant clusters.
One blind and three targeted searches for (sub)millisecond pulsars
E. Davoust,G. Petit,T. Fayard
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117384
Abstract: We conducted one blind and three targeted searches for millisecond and submillisecond pulsars. The blind search was conducted within 3deg of the Galactic plane and at longitudes between 20 and 110deg. It takes 22073 pointings to cover this region, and 5487 different positions in the sky. The first targeted search was aimed at Galactic globular clusters, the second one at 24 bright polarized and pointlike radiosources with steep spectra, and the third at 65 faint polarized and pointlike radiosources. The observations were conducted at the large radiotelescope of Nancay Observatory, at a frequency near 1400 MHz. Two successive backends were used, first a VLBI S2 system, second a digital acquisition board and a PC with large storage capacity sampling the signal at 50 Mb/s on one bit, over a 24-MHz band and in one polarization. The bandwidth of acquisition of the second backend was later increased to 48 MHz and the sampling rate to 100 Mb/s. The survey used the three successive setups, with respective sensitivities of 3.5, 2.2, and 1.7 mJy. The targeted-search data were obtained with the third setup and reduced with a method based on the Hough transform, yielding a sensitivity of 0.9 mJy. The processing of the data was done in slightly differed time by soft-correlation in all cases. No new short-period millisecond pulsars were discovered in the different searches. To better understand the null result of the blind survey, we estimate the probability of detecting one or more short-period pulsars among a given Galactic population of synthetic pulsars with our setup: 25% for the actual incomplete survey and 79% if we had completed the whole survey with a uniform nominal sensitivity of 1.7 mJy. The alternative of surveying a smaller, presumably more densely populated, region with a higher sensitivity would have a low return and would be impractical at a transit instrument. (abridged)
Starbursts in Barred Spiral Galaxies. III. Definition of a homogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies
T. Contini,S. Considere,E. Davoust
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998412
Abstract: This paper presents optical long-slit spectroscopic observations of 105 barred Markarian IRAS galaxies. These observations are used to determine the spectral type of emission-line regions in the nucleus and along the bar of the galaxies, in order to define a homogeneous sample of Starburst Nucleus Galaxies (SBNGs). Our selection criteria have been very efficient for selecting star-forming galaxies, since our sample of 221 emission-line regions includes 82% nuclear or extranuclear starbursts. The contamination by Seyferts is low (9%). The remaining galaxies (9%) are objects with ambiguous classification (HII or LINER). The dust content and Halpha luminosity increase towards the nuclei of the galaxies. No significant variation of the electron density is found between nuclear and bar HII regions. However, the mean Halpha luminosity and electron density in the bar are higher than in typical disk HII regions. We investigate different mechanisms for explaining the excess of nitrogen emission observed in our starburst nuclei. There is no evidence for the presence of a weak hidden active galactic nucleus in our starburst galaxies. The cause of this excess is probably a selective enrichment of nitrogen in the nuclei of the galaxies, following a succession of short and intense bursts of star formation. Our sample of SBNGs, located at a mean redshift of 0.015, has moderate Halpha (10^41 erg/s) and far infrared (10^10 Lsun) luminosities. The types are distributed equally among early- and late-type giant spirals with a slight preference for Sbc/Sc types because of their barred morphology. The majority (62%) of SBNGs are isolated with no sign of gravitational interaction. In terms of distance, luminosity and level of interaction, SBNGs are intermediate between HII galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies.
Starbursts in barred spiral galaxies. V. Morphological analysis of bars
S. Chapelon,T. Contini,E. Davoust
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We have measured the bar lengths and widths of 125 barred galaxies observed with CCDs. The dependence of bar strength (identified with bar axis ratio) on morphological type, nuclear activity, central and mid-bar surface brightness is investigated. The properties of the bars are best explained if the sample is divided into early- (< SBbc) and late-type galaxies, and into active (starburst, Seyfert or LINER) and normal galaxies. We find that galaxies with very long bars are mostly active and that normal late-type galaxies have a distinct behavior from the three other groups of galaxies. We confirm earlier findings that active late-type galaxies tend to have both stronger and longer bars than normal ones. An important result of this paper is that early-type galaxies do not share this behavior : they all tend to have strong bars, whether they are active or not. We also find correlations between bar strength and relative surface brightness in the middle and at the edge of the bar, which are not followed by normal late-type galaxies. These results are interpreted in the light of recent numerical simulations and paradigms about galaxy evolution. They suggest that normal late-type galaxies represent the first stage of galaxy evolution, and that bars in early- and late-type galaxies do not have the same properties because they have a different origin.
Stellar populations in $ω$ Centauri: a multivariate analysis
Didier Fraix-Burnet,E. Davoust
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv791
Abstract: We have performed multivariate statistical analyses of photometric and chemical abundance parameters of three large samples of stars in the globular cluster $\omega$ Centauri. The statistical analysis of a sample of 735 stars based on seven chemical abundances with the method of Maximum Parsimony (cladistics) yields the most promising results: seven groups are found, distributed along three branches with distinct chemical, spatial and kinematical properties. A progressive chemical evolution can be traced from one group to the next, but also within groups, suggestive of an inhomogeneous chemical enrichment of the initial interstellar matter. The adjustment of stellar evolution models shows that the groups with metallicities [Fe/H]\textgreater{}-1.5 are Helium-enriched, thus presumably of second generation. The spatial concentration of the groups increases with chemical evolution, except for two groups, which stand out in their other properties as well. The amplitude of rotation decreases with chemical evolution, except for two of the three metal-rich groups, which rotate fastest, as predicted by recent hydrodynamical simulations. The properties of the groups are interpreted in terms of star formation in gas clouds of different origins. In conclusion, our multivariate analysis has shown that metallicity alone cannot segregate the different populations of $\omega$ Centauri.
Modeling and Analysis of a Spectrum of the Globular Cluster NGC 2419
M. E. Sharina,V. V. Shimansky,E. Davoust
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1134/S1063772913060061
Abstract: NGC 2419 is the most distant massive globular cluster in the outer Galactic halo. It is unusual also due to the chemical peculiarities found in its red giant stars in recent years. We study the stellar population of this unusual object using spectra obtained at the 1.93-m telescope of the Haute-Provence Observatory. At variance with commonly used methods of high-resolution spectroscopy applicable only to bright stars, we employ spectroscopic information on the integrated light of the cluster. We carry out population synthesis modeling of medium-resolution spectra using synthetic stellar atmosphere models based on a theoretical isochrone corresponding accurately to the observed color-magnitude diagram. We study the influence of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium for some chemical elements on our results. The derived age (12.6 Gyr), [Fe/H]=-2.25 dex, helium content Y=0.25, and abundances of 12 other chemical elements are in a good qualitative agreement with published high-resolution spectroscopy estimates for red giant members in the cluster. On the other hand, the derived element abundance, [alpha/Fe]=0.13 dex (the mean of [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe] and [Ca/Fe]), differs from the published one ([alpha/Fe] =0.4 dex) for selected red giants in the cluster and may be explained by a large dispersion in the alpha-element abundances recently discovered in NGC2419. We suggest that studies of the {\it integrated} light in the cluster using high-resolution spectrographs in different wavelength regions will help to understand the nature of these chemical anomalies.
Starbursts in Barred Spiral Galaxies. II. Molecular and Optical Study of Three Wolf-Rayet Galaxies
T. Contini,H. Wozniak,S. Considere,E. Davoust
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We have searched for dense molecular gas in three barred spiral galaxies with young starbursts, NGC 3049, 5430 and 6764, which are known Wolf-Rayet galaxies. We detected HCN in the latter two, and CS was marginally detected in NGC 6764. The dense molecular gas contents of the three galaxies are compared to those of other galaxies and to other indicators of star formation. The HCN luminosities (relative to the CO and far infrared ones) in these galaxies with very young starbursts are consistent with those observed in galaxies with older starbursts and in normal galaxies, and so are our upper limits to the CS intensities (relative to CO). The starburst ages evaluated from our spectrophotometric observations are in the range 3.4 to 6.0 Myr. A circum-nuclear ring is apparent on our images of NGC 5430, the galaxy with the oldest central starburst; this galaxy also has the widest molecular lines. The central star formation rates derived from the Halpha luminosity are consistent with those expected from the global FIR luminosities, and are correlated with the HCN luminosities. Finally, an independent estimate of the H_2 column density is obtained by optical spectrophotometry; it leads to a H_2 column density to CO intensity ratio which is about 2 to 3 times lower than the standard value, because the CO intensities of the three galaxies are higher than average, relative to their far infrared fluxes.
A Correlation Between CO Linewidth and Starburst Age in Barred Spiral Galaxies
T. Contini,H. Wozniak,S. Considere,E. Davoust
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: New CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) profiles complemented by data from the literature are used to obtain CO linewidths for 29 barred spiral galaxies with young nuclear starbursts. The ages of the starbursts were estimated from optical spectroscopy and recent evolutionary synthesis models. The CO linewidths and the starburst ages are correlated : galaxies with young (4-6 Myr) starbursts display narrow (< 100 km/s) CO line while those with older starbursts show broader CO lines. We discuss several scenarios of the gas dynamics during the nuclear starbursts' evolution to interpret the correlation.
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